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揭秘魅力背后的艺术与技术

更新时间:2017-11-23 20:07:15 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The art and science of being charismatic
揭秘魅力背后的艺术与技术

What do Bill Clinton, Steve Jobs and Tony Blair have in common? Love ‘em or loathe ‘em, they all oozed charisma. Charismatic leaders can inspire followers to be more loyal and work harder. But are there different ways in which leaders can be charismatic?

比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)、史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)和托尼·布莱尔(Tony Blair)有什么共同之处?无论你喜欢还是讨厌他们,都不得不承认他们拥有超凡魅力。有魅力的领导者可以鼓舞下属,使之更加忠诚,更加努力。但领导者实现魅力的方法有何不同之处?

While BBC Capital has previously examined how being charming can help influence people in the workplace, charisma involves a rather different set of skills. Researchers have shown that charisma involves communicating (whether verbally or in written text) using powerful metaphors and anecdotes, using expressions and body language that successfully convey emotions that back up your message while displaying confidence, among other traits.

BBC Capital之前曾经调查如何利用吸引力来影响职场中的其他人,但魅力所涉及的技巧却有所不同。研究人员已经证明,魅力的特征包括用有说服力的隐喻和趣闻进行沟通(包括口头沟通和书面沟通),用面部和肢体语言成功传达能够支撑自己信息的情绪,同时展示充分的自信。
 
Charm involves making eye contact with individuals and flashing them a smile, getting people to talk about themselves, asking personal questions and making empathic statements, whereas charismatic leaders don’t necessarily have to interact directly with the people they influence at all – they can do it from afar. So, while charmers are popular, charismatic people don’t have to be.

吸引力需要与别人进行眼神交流,并向其投以微笑,还要让人们谈论自己,询问个人问题,表达同理心,而有魅力的领导者未必要与他们所影响的人展开直接互动——他们可以远远地实现这种效果。所以,有亲和力的人很受欢迎,但有魅力的人却未必。

“You can be charismatic without being likeable,” says Olivia Fox Cabane, an executive coach and author of The Charisma Myth.  She uses Steve Jobs as an example, someone who was deeply disliked by some of his employees but still considered to be incredibly charismatic.

"你不必有亲和力,照样可以魅力十足。"高管教练奥利维亚·福克斯·卡巴尼(Olivia Fox Cabane)说,她著有《魅力学》(The Charisma Myth)一书。她举了史蒂夫·乔布斯的例子——乔布斯手下的很多员工都很讨厌他,但仍然认为他很有魅力。

Fox Cabane demarcates several types of charisma: difficult-to-acquire ‘star power’ charisma, exemplified by Marilyn Monroe, who loved performing for the camera; ‘focus’ charisma, which involves listening attentively; and ‘kindness’ charisma, displayed by the Dalai Lama, which can be learned.

福克斯·卡巴尼把魅力划分成几种类型:难以企及的"明星"魅力,玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)就属于这种,她喜欢在镜头前表演;"专注"魅力,这种人喜欢聚精会神地倾听;还有"友善"魅力,也就是达赖·喇嘛展现出来的那种气质,这是可以通过学习获得的。

The charisma effect

魅力效应

It turns out, there are a lot of quantifiable benefits to using charismatic behaviour.

使用有魅力的行为蕴含着很多可以量化的好处。

For instance, when the values a leader stands for overlap with those of the people he or she is trying to influence, a ‘charismatic effect’ can occur. “People will identify with you more, they will want to be more like you, they will be more willing to follow you,” says John Antonakis, professor of organisational behaviour at the University of Lausanne.

例如,当领导者的价值观与其试图影响的人重叠时,"魅力效应"就会出现。"人们会更加认同你,他们想要进一步效仿你,他们会更愿意追随你。"洛桑大学组织行为学教授约翰·安东纳基斯(John Antonakis)说。

In one 2015 study, Antonakis and his colleague found that temporary workers at a fundraising campaign increased their output by 17% after watching a charismatic pre-recorded motivational speech versus a standard speech.

在2015年的一项研究中,安东纳基斯和他的同事发现,在观看了有魅力的动员演讲后,临时工在筹款活动中的产出比观看标准演讲的情况下增加了17%。

“Independent of how attractive you are, if you’re more charismatic in a short clip competing for venture capital funding, you’re more likely to get backed,” Antonakis says. “For people who give TED Talks, you’ll get more views and your talks will be considered more inspiring if you deliver the talk in a more charismatic manner.”

"除了吸引力之外,如果你能在争夺风险投资时展现出更多魅力,就更有可能获得支持。"安东纳基斯说,"对于发表TED演讲的人来说,如果你演讲时能展现出更多魅力,观看量就会增加,人们也会更受鼓舞。"

Charisma can even increase people’s willingness to cooperate. Antonakis did an experiment where participants were shown a video of an actor trying to persuade them in a charismatic way to cooperate in a game that mimics financial decisions. Players were more likely to contribute to the collective benefit rather than enjoy a ‘free ride’. “Charisma can help people by not only affecting their preferences but their beliefs about what they think other people will do,” Antonakis says.

魅力甚至能增强人们的合作意愿。安东纳基斯做了一个实验,他让志愿者看了一段视频,里面有一个演员试图用有魅力的方式说服他们在一个模拟财务决策的游戏中展开合作。结果显示,玩家更有可能为集体利益做出贡献,而不是"搭便车"。"魅力之所以能为人们提供帮助,不仅是因为它能影响人们的偏好,还因为它能影响人们对他人行为的看法。"安东纳基斯说。

Why do these effects occur? Research suggests it comes down to trust. A study from 2016 found charismatic leaders were more likely to be trusted by their employees, who in turn were more willing to help colleagues, show concern about the future of the team or display commitment to the company beyond their contractual obligations in other ways.

为什么会出现这种现象?研究表明这都源自信任。2016年的一项研究发现,有魅力的领导者更有可能获得员工的信任,他们也更愿意帮助同事,对团队的未来表达关心,或者通过其他方式在合同责任之外对公司展现出承诺。

Bjorn Michaelis, a professor of management and organisation at Kühne Logistics University in Germany and one of the authors of the study, says charismatic leaders show employees they have high ability by generating new ideas and integrity by taking personal risks for the good of the organisation. Think of CEOs like Mark Zuckerberg, who famously makes a salary of $1 and Elon Musk, who has never accepted a salary from Tesla.

德国屈内物流大学(Kühne Logistics University)管理和组织学教授兼该研究的作者之一比约恩·米凯利斯(Bjorn Michaelis)表示,有魅力的领导者通过新的想法向员工展示他们的高超能力,通过亲自承担对组织有利的风险来展示他们的正直。想想马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)和伊隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)这样的首席执行官吧,前者的年薪只有1美元,后者干脆没有从特斯拉领工资。

Can you train yourself to be more charismatic?

你能够通过训练来提升自己的魅力吗?

For those wanting to be more charismatic, there is evidence that it is not such a magical, or imperceptible quality as it might first seem.

对于那些想要提升魅力的人,有证据表明这并不像表面看来那么深不可测。

Most of it stems from the way we use words and how points are conveyed. For example, in one set of studies, Antonakis trained middle managers at a German company and MBA students to be perceived as more charismatic by using what he calls charismatic leadership tactics.

多数魅力都来自人们的用词方法和表达方式。例如,安东纳基斯进行了一系列研究,在其中的一项研究中,他对一家德国公司的中层管理人员以及一些MBA学生进行了培训,希望通过他所谓的魅力领导技巧使之更具魅力。

These are made up of nine core verbal tactics including metaphors, stories and anecdotes, contrasts, lists and rhetorical questions. Speakers should demonstrate moral conviction, share the sentiments of the audience they are targeting, set high expectations for themselves, and communicate confidence. Managers trained to use these tactics were rated as more competent, more trusted and able to influence others. MBA students who analysed recordings of themselves giving speeches, with these tactics in mind, ultimately gave new speeches that were rated as more charismatic.

这些技巧由九种核心语言技能组成,包括比喻、故事、趣闻、对比、列举、反问。演讲者应该展示道德信念,还要理解目标受众的情感,为其设定较高预期,并传达信心。那些通过培训学会如何使用这些技巧的管理者被人认为更有能力,更值得信任,更能影响下属。MBA学生则结合这些技巧对自己的演讲视频展开分析,最终发表了新的演讲,并在魅力方面获得了更高的评分。

“Margaret Thatcher was unbelievably charismatic because of her rhetoric and use of these tactics,” Antonakis says. Analysis of a speech the UK Prime Minister delivered to the Conservative Party Conference in 1980, known as ‘The lady’s not for turning’, highlighted her extensive use of many of these verbal tricks. Her speech was packed with metaphors, rhetorical questions, stories, contrasts, lists, and references to ambitious goals.

"玛格丽特·撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)拥有令人难以置信的魅力,这都源于她的修辞方法,以及对这些技巧的使用。"安东纳基斯说。对这位英国前首相1980年在保守党大会上发表的研究进行的分析,凸显出她对很多语言技巧的广泛应用。她的演讲充满了比喻、反问、故事、对比、列举,还会提到很多野心勃勃的目标。

But it’s not just how you use words that is important. Body language, gestures, facial expressions and tone of voice contribute to emotional signalling too and should match the message you want to convey. “What you need to convey [is] the appropriate emotion to what you’re saying. You need to look credible so people will trust you, ” says Antonakis.

但真正重要的不只是用词方式。肢体语言、手势、面部表情和语调同样也能传达情绪,而且应该与你想要传达的信息匹配。"你应该传达与你的语言相符的情绪。你应该看起来可信,这样才能让人们相信你。"安东纳基斯说。

This is likely one of the factors that makes Hillary Clinton less charismatic than Bill, he adds. “In comparison to Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton came across as a tad cold [during her run for the Presidency]; she did not convey a warm and folksy sort of image like her husband did.” He adds that her gestures, facial expressions and tones didn’t emotionally reinforce her message, making her “sound scripted.”

他补充道,这或许也是希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)的魅力比不上比尔·克林顿的原因之一。"与克林顿相比,希拉里在竞选总统时显得有点冷酷。她并没有表现得像她丈夫那样热情随和。"他补充道,希拉里的手势、面部表情和语调并没有从情绪上强化她所传达的信息,导致她像在"照本宣科"。

Fox Cabane, who trains executives to be charismatic, especially when dealing with the public via speeches or interviews, says the strategy you use to increase the trait depends on what kind of charisma you want to exude.

福克斯·卡巴尼专门为高管提供魅力培训,尤其是在通过演讲或采访跟公众打交道时。她表示,具体使用何种战略来提升这一特征,取决于你想流露出何种魅力。

“Authority charisma is useful when the house is on fire and you need to get everyone out,” says Fox Cabane. “While you don’t care much about how much people like you, you do care about being obeyed.”

"当房子着火,需要所有人都撤离时,权威魅力很有用。"福克斯·卡巴尼说,"虽然你不在乎有多少人喜欢你,但却很看重人们是否听命于你。"

She says the best way to improve authority charisma is to improve your self-confidence. She often sends clients to martial arts classes and emphasises the benefits of taking up physical space, pointing to Amy Cuddy’s research on power poses.

她表示,提升权威魅力的最佳方式是增强自信。她经常让客户参加武术课,而且非常看重占据实体空间所带来的好处,她还特意提到了艾米·库迪(Amy Cuddy)对充满力量的姿势展开的研究。

“Standing as if you are a big gorilla intimating a rival off the territory really does work,” she says.

"像大猩猩那样用站姿告诉敌人离开自己的地盘,这招的确管用。"她说。

Fox Cabane describes Steve Jobs as a quintessential example of someone who learned what she calls “visionary charisma” over the course of his career. She has analysed clips of his speeches over the years.

福克斯·卡巴尼认为,史蒂夫·乔布斯是个典型例子,他在自己的职业生涯中学会了福克斯·卡巴尼所谓的"远见魅力"。她曾经专门分析过乔布斯历年的演讲视频。

“In his first presentation in 1984, you can see he’s a nerd,” she says. “He’s depending on the product to sell itself. He displays no power nor presence, and certainly no warmth. “But what you see gradually through the early 2000s, is Jobs gaining the elements of charisma. He displays presence first – he looks at his audience and focuses on them rather than the product. He learns power second, gradually taking up more of the stage, and projecting his voice.”

"在1984年第一次演讲时,你能看出他是个书呆子。"她说,"他依靠产品本身来销售产品。他没有展现出力量或存在感,显然也没有表现出温暖。但你能在21世纪初逐步看到,乔布斯渐渐获得了各种魅力元素。他首先展示了存在感——他会看着听众,把注意力放在他们身上,而不是一味关注产品。其次,他还学会了力量,逐步占据舞台的更多空间,掌握发声技巧。"

There's another tried and tested way in which well-known figures will ultimately increase their charisma. Research suggests we often romanticise people after their death and perceive them to have been more charismatic. In a study from 2016, participants read a story about the career of an American scientist who created a vaccination for a specific bacterium. When the article emphasised that the scientist had died from a disease originating from the bacterium in question, people rated him as more connected to America, and more charismatic.

名人还有另外一个久经考验的方法来提升自己的魅力。研究表明,我们往往会在人们死后把他们浪漫化,认为他们拥有更强的魅力。在2016年的一项研究中,参与者读了一篇关于一位美国科学家的职业生涯的文章,此人开发了一种细菌疫苗。当那篇文章强调这位科学家死于他所研究的细菌时,人们便认为他与美国的联系更紧密,而且更有魅力。

The study also looked at newspaper references to heads of state who died in office between 2000 and 2013, and found leaders were more likely to be regarded as charismatic post-mortem.

这项研究还查看了报纸上引用的在2000至2013年死于任上的国家元首,结果发现这些人在死后更有可能被人视作有魅力的人。

This last one may be an effective method, but we don’t recommend it.

最后一项或许很有效,但我们并不推荐。

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