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那些轰然倒台和拒不让位的铁腕领袖

更新时间:2017-11-23 18:52:27 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why It’s Hard to Get Strongmen to Step Down
那些轰然倒台和拒不让位的铁腕领袖

After Robert Mugabe, the autocratic ruler of Zimbabwe who held power for nearly four decades, announced that he was resigning from office this week, questions quickly began swirling about what would become of the war hero turned president.

罗伯特·穆加贝(Robert Mugabe)是津巴布韦的独裁统治者,执政近40年。本周,他宣布即将辞职。关于这位“战斗英雄”出身的总统的前景,很快出现了很多疑问。

If history is anything to go by, life after leadership isn’t straightforward for many strongmen, potentially complicating efforts to get them to step down.

如果历史可以借鉴的话,可以看出,许多铁腕人物离开领导职位后的生活并非一帆风顺,这可能会导致让他们下台的行动变得更加复杂。

Whether it’s to avoid prosecution, maintain wealth gained through corruption or in some cases avoid death at the hands of adversaries, many authoritarian leaders cling to their roles. Here’s a look at some who fell from power and what happened to them after.

无论是为了避免被起诉,还是守住通过腐败获得的财富,或者是在某些情况下避免死在对手手中,很多威权领导人都不肯放弃手中的权力。下面我们回顾一下那些失去权力的铁腕人物后来的境遇。

Charles G. Taylor, Liberia

查尔斯·G·泰勒(Charles G. Taylor),利比里亚

Charles G. Taylor is an example of how hard it can be for an authoritarian leader to retire peacefully. A former warlord who became president of Liberia, Mr. Taylor led the country from 1997 to 2003. He ultimately resigned after international leaders intervened — and promised asylum — during talks between the government and rebel factions to try to end Liberia’s war.

查尔斯·G·泰勒的例子说明,一个威权领导人想要和平退休是多么困难。泰勒曾是一名军阀,后来成了利比里亚总统,于1997年至2003年领导这个国家。在政府和叛军试图结束利比里亚内战的谈判中,有多名国际领导人介入并承诺提供庇护,于是他最终辞职。

“History will be kind to me,” Mr. Taylor said during his resignation, before being escorted out of the country by Ghana’s president. Mr. Taylor left the country for Nigeria, where he had been offered asylum. “I have accepted this role as the sacrificial lamb.”

“历史会善待我的,”泰勒在辞职演讲中说。之后,他在加纳总统的护送下离开了这个国家,最终去了为他提供庇护的尼日利亚。“我已经接受了作为牺牲品的角色。”

But things did not turn out as Mr. Taylor had hoped.

但后来的事情并不像泰勒期望的那样。

For a time, he lived in exile in Nigeria with dozens of relatives, financing his lifestyle with money believed to have been stolen from the Liberian treasury. But pressure grew for him to be arrested, and he ended up standing trial in an international court for war crimes for his role in neighboring Sierra Leone’s decade-long civil war, charged with murder, sexual slavery and using child soldiers.

有一段时间,他和几十名亲戚流亡在尼日利亚,用据信是从利比里亚的财政收入中偷来的钱维持原来的生活方式。但要求逮捕他的呼声越来越大,他最终因战争罪站在了国际法庭上,因为他在邻国塞拉利昂长达10年的内战中所扮演的角色而被指控谋杀、性奴役,以及使用儿童士兵。

Mr. Taylor was sentenced to 50 years in prison. It was the first time since the Nuremberg trials that a former head of state was convicted by an international tribunal.

泰勒被判处50年监禁。这是自纽伦堡审判以来,首次出现前国家元首被国际法庭定罪的情况。

Hosni Mubarak, Egypt

胡斯尼·穆巴拉克(Hosni Mubarak),埃及

Hosni Mubarak is another example of a leader who held power for years, stepped down — and ended up on trial.

胡斯尼·穆巴拉克是另一位掌权多年、下台后最终遭到审判的领导人。

Mr. Mubarak was president of Egypt for 29 years, but faced a popular uprising during the Arab Spring of 2011. After 18 days of wide-scale protest in which thousands rallied daily in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, Mr. Mubarak stepped down in February 2011.

穆巴拉克担任埃及总统长达29年,但在2011年的阿拉伯之春(Arab Spring)运动期间,面临民众起义。经过18天的大规模抗议,数千人每天在开罗的解放广场(Tahrir Square)集会,穆巴拉克于2011年2月下台。

Just two months later, the military government to which he handed power arrested him. The nation demanded he be held accountable for human rights abuses and corruption during his decades of rule.

他把权力移交给了军政府。仅在两个月后,该军政府逮捕了他。这个国家要求他为自己几十年统治期间对人权的践踏和腐败负责。

He was put on trial for a series of charges, at times wheeled into the courtroom on a hospital bed. He spent much of the next six years in a legal limbo that resulted in him being convicted on one corruption charge. After those six years in custody — some in a hospital and some in Egypt’s notorious Tora Prison — he was freed this year and escorted by armed guard to his mansion in the Heliopolis neighborhood of Cairo.

他因一系列指控受审,有时是躺在医院的病床上被推进法庭。在之后六年的大部分时间里,他在法律上处于悬而未决的状态,最终被判犯有腐败罪。在被关押了6年之后——有时是在医院,有时是在埃及臭名昭著的托拉监狱(Tora Prison)里——今年他获得释放,在武装警卫的护送下,回到自己位于开罗赫利奥波利斯社区的宅邸。

His trial is often cited as one reason President Bashar al-Assad of Syria, who faced a popular uprising during the Arab Spring that has devolved into a protracted civil war, has refused to step down.

穆巴拉克的审判经常被认为是叙利亚总统巴沙尔·阿萨德(Bashar al-Assad)拒绝下台的原因之一。阿萨德在阿拉伯之春运动期间面临民众起义,后来起义演变成旷日持久的内战。

Muammar el-Qaddafi, Libya

穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲(Muammar el-Qaddafi),利比亚

Muammar el-Qaddafi offers another lesson: the risks of holding on too long.

穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲提供了另一个教训:坚持掌权太久也有风险。

For 42 years, he ruled Libya. Then came the Arab Spring.

有42年的时间,卡扎菲一直统治着利比亚。然后出现了阿拉伯之春运动。

Under Mr. Qaddafi, Libyan security forces cracked down on anti-government protesters who gathered on the streets of Benghazi, Libya’s second largest city. The popular uprising in his country quickly spread, and when Mr. Qaddafi refused to budge, the protests evolved into a wide-scale civil war that eventually drew international intervention. In early 2011, he vowed to die as a martyr fighting to retain control of Libya.

在卡扎菲的领导下,利比亚安全部队镇压了聚集在利比亚第二大城市班加西街头的反政府抗议者。该国的民众起义迅速蔓延,在卡扎菲拒绝让步之后,抗议演变成了大规模内战,最终引发了国际社会的干预。2011年初,卡扎菲发誓说,为了维持对利比亚的控制,他宁愿以烈士的方式死去。

“I will fight on to the last drop of my blood,” he told the country in a televised address.

“我将奋战到底,至死方休,”他在电视讲话中对全国人民说。

Mr. Qaddafi remained defiant even as it became clear he would not maintain his grip on the country, as rebels overran his fortresslike compound and seized full control of Tripoli in August 2011.

卡扎菲始终不肯屈服,尽管他显然已经无法再控制这个国家了,因为叛军迅速占领了他堡垒般的大院,并于2011年8月完全控制了的黎波里。

Just months later in October 2011, Mr. Qaddafi died at the hands of rebel groups while trying to flee.

几个月后,2011年10月,卡扎菲在试图逃跑的过程中死在叛军的手中。

Joseph Kabila, Democratic Republic of Congo

约瑟夫·卡比拉(Joseph Kabila),刚果民主共和国

Joseph Kabila, the president of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is clutching to power. He was supposed to step down last December at the end of his second term, as constitutionally mandated. But he refused, setting off a protracted political and economic crisis in his country.

刚果民主共和国总统约瑟夫·卡比拉依然紧握权力。按照宪法的规定,他应该在第二个任期结束后,也就是去年12月下台。但他拒绝退位,在国内引发了漫长的政治和经济危机。

This decision to cling to the presidency may have less to do with his desire to lead the country than with his fears for his safety and his wealth. Mr. Kabila first came to office in 2001, after his father, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, was assassinated.

他之所以坚持担任总统,可能并不是因为愿意继续领导国家,更多是出于对自身安全和财富的担忧。卡比拉是2001年在父亲洛朗-德西雷·卡比拉(Laurent-Désiré Kabila)被暗杀后上台的。

In the years since, he has been widely accused of amassing wealth at the expense of the state. Investigators and some government officials say that Mr. Kabila has looted millions of dollars in public assets, and realizes that by leaving his position, he may open himself up to prosecution on corruption and human rights chargaes and the seizure of ill-gotten gains. Elections have been pushed back to December 2018, and it is unclear if they will actually happen.

在之后的那些年里,他被广泛指控以牺牲国家利益为代价积聚财富。调查人员和一些政府官员表示,卡比拉掠夺了数百万美元的公共资产。他知道自己下台后可能面临腐败和人权指控,并被没收非法所得。选举被推迟到了2018年12月,尚不清楚是否会如期进行。

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