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“波黑屠夫”姆拉迪奇被判终身监禁

更新时间:2017-11-23 18:42:30 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Ratko Mladic Is Convicted in 1990s Slaughter of Bosnian Muslims
“波黑屠夫”姆拉迪奇被判终身监禁

THE HAGUE, Netherlands — It was perhaps the closing of Europe’s most shameful chapter of atrocity and bloodletting since World War II.

荷兰海牙——或许是欧洲自“二战”以来最无耻的血腥暴行终于结案了。

With applause inside and outside the courtroom at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Gen. Ratko Mladic, the former Bosnian Serb commander, was sentenced to life imprisonment on Wednesday for genocide and a catalog of other crimes.

周三,前南斯拉夫国际刑事法庭(International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia)内外响起了热烈的掌声,波斯尼亚塞族前总司令拉特科·姆拉迪奇(Ratko Mladic)因种族灭绝和一系列其他罪行被判处终身监禁。

It was the last major item of business for the tribunal in The Hague before it wound down, a full quarter-century after many of the crimes on its docket were committed.

在此案中的许多罪行发生了整整四分之一个世纪之后,位于海牙的这个法庭在关门前将它作为最后一项重大事务进行了裁决。

From 1992 to 1995, the tribunal found, Mladic, 75, was the chief military organizer of the campaign to drive Muslims, Croats and other non-Serbs off their lands to cleave a new homogeneous statelet for Bosnian Serbs.

法庭裁定,从1992到1995年,现年75岁的姆拉迪奇是将穆斯林、克罗地亚人和其他非塞族人从他们的土地上驱逐,开辟一个波斯尼亚塞族单一民族独立国家行动的军事总指挥。

The deadliest year of the campaign was 1992, when 45,000 people died, often in their homes, on the streets or in a string of concentration camps. Others perished in the siege of Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital, where snipers and shelling terrorized residents for more than three years, and in the mass executions of 8,000 Muslim men and boys after Mladic’s forces overran the U.N.-protected enclave of Srebrenica.

这场军事运动死亡人数最多的一年是1992年,有4.5万人遇害,一般是死在家里,街头或多个集中营里。其他人则是在波斯尼亚首都萨拉热窝的围城中遇难,在那里,狙击手和炮击使居民在恐慌中煎熬了三年多,在姆拉迪奇的部队袭击了受联合国保护的斯雷布雷尼察飞地之后,8000名穆斯林男子和男孩被大规模处决。

Sitting impassively at first in the court in a blue suit and tie, Mladic seemed much smaller than the burly commander in fatigues who had appeared before the media occasionally during the war to defend himself and his forces.

一开始穿着蓝色西服和领带、冷漠地坐在法庭上的姆拉迪奇,看起来比在战争期间偶尔出现在媒体面前,为自己和他的军队辩护的那名身穿迷彩服的魁梧指挥官要瘦小得多。

At one point, Mladic disappeared from the court, apparently to receive treatment for a dangerous surge in his blood-pressure levels. Upon returning, he began shouting at the court in a dispute over his blood pressure.

姆拉迪奇一度从法庭上消失,据说是因为他的血压升高到危险程度需要去接受治疗。回来以后,他就法庭对他的血压争论开始大喊大叫。

“You are lying, you are lying, you are lying,” he yelled at the bench. The judges then ordered him to be removed.

“你撒谎,你撒谎,你在撒谎,”他朝着法官席大吼。法官之后下令将他带走。

In pronouncing the life sentence, the presiding judge, Alphons Orie, said that Mladic’s crimes “rank among the most heinous known to humankind.” Mladic’s lawyers said they would appeal.

宣布判处终生监禁时,主审法官阿方斯·奥里(Alphons Orie)表示,姆拉迪奇的罪行“是人类所知的最令人发指的罪行之一”,姆拉迪奇的律师表示他们将提出上诉。

But if Mladic’s punishment drew a line of sorts — juridically at least — it was a halting and ambivalent marker between Europe’s epochs of uncertainty.

然而,如果说对姆拉迪奇的惩罚算是划了一道分界线——至少在法律上是如此,它也是欧洲从一个不确定时代走向另一个不确定时代的标志。

Far from the quieted theaters of Balkan conflict, nationalist passions, the clamor for redrawn frontiers and collisions of faith are rising anew, not to the crump of mortar fire and the stutter of machine guns, but in the recharting of the political landscape.

巴尔干冲突并未平静下来,民族主义情绪、重新划定边界的呼声和信仰的冲突正在重新抬头,不是枪炮大作,而是体现在要重新规划政治格局上。

In Serbia, calls are intensifying for a return to the nationalist politics of the 1990s. Once-discredited senior officials from the barbarous government of Slobodan Milosevic in Belgrade — and not a few convicted war criminals — are reclaiming positions of prominence.

在塞尔维亚,要求回归90年代民族主义政治的呼声步步高涨。曾在贝尔格莱德为斯洛博丹·米洛舍维奇(Slobodan Milosevic)毫无人性的政府效力的一些曾经名誉扫地的高级官员——以及不少已被定罪的战犯——正在重新获得重要地位。

There is a sense, too, of unfinished business and resentments that the war did not heal. Indeed, the trials of Mladic and others, including his political boss Radovan Karadzic, who was jailed for 40 years on almost identical charges last year, may simply have intensified Serbia’s rancorous perceptions of being treated unfairly and Muslims’ sense of loss.

人们也有一种清算尚未完成的感觉,以及对战争的创伤未曾愈合的愤恨。的确,对姆拉迪奇和其他人的审判——包括姆拉迪奇的政治领袖拉多万·卡拉季奇(Radovan Karadzic),他去年因为几乎相同的罪行被判刑40年——也许只会加深塞尔维亚认为自己遭受不公正对待的怨忿,以及穆斯林的失落感。

“Regardless of the verdict that we all feel as part of the campaign against Serbs, Ratko Mladic remains a legend of the Serb nation,” said Milorad Dodik, president of the Serb autonomous region in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was carved out and cleansed of non-Serbs by Mladic’s wartime forces.

“我们都感觉这是对针对塞尔维亚人打压行动的一部分,不管这个裁决怎么说,拉特科·姆拉迪奇都是塞尔维亚民族的传奇,”波黑(Bosnia and Herzegovina)塞族自治区主席米洛拉德·多迪克(Milorad Dodik)说道;正是姆拉迪奇的战时部队开辟了这个区域,并清除了这里的非塞族人。

Sead Numanovic, a Bosnian journalist in Sarajevo who fought against Mladic’s forces, said, “This verdict, like all the others, will not bring back sons to their mothers, dead brothers to their sisters and husbands to their wives.”

一名曾在萨拉热窝抗击姆拉迪奇队部的波斯尼亚记者塞亚德 ·努曼诺维奇(Sead Numanovic)说,“这个裁决,和其他所有裁决一样,不会为母亲带回她们死去的儿子、为姐妹带回她们的兄弟、为妻子带回她们的丈夫。”

The sense of victimhood among Serbs seemed to have been trumped on Wednesday by the sentencing of Mladic, which all but confirmed Bosnian Muslim resentments that the Serbs had succeeded in advancing their territorial ambitions by genocide.

塞尔维亚人的受害感似乎在周三被姆拉迪奇的判决打败,它简直是证实了波斯尼亚穆斯林的愤恨,他们认为塞族人通过种族灭绝成功地推进了其领土野心。

“This should all have been behind us by now,” said Hasan Nuhanovic, a Bosnian survivor of the Srebrenica massacre. “The only thing that is behind us is that war.”

“所有这些早就应该过去了,”斯雷布雷尼察大屠杀的幸存者哈桑·努哈诺维奇(Hasan Nuhanovic)说。“现在唯一已经翻篇的是那场战争。”

Commenting on the outcome of the trial in The Hague, Natasa Kandic, a leading Serbian human rights activist, said that with the atrocities in the Bosnian war, “we stopped being part of the civilized world.”

塞尔维亚重要的人权活动人士娜塔莎·坎迪奇(Natasa Kandic)在谈到海牙的审判结果时说,因为波黑战争的暴行,“我们不再是文明世界的一部分”。

“Now we can see who stopped our progress and why we became a society without solidarity or compassion,” Kandic said.

坎迪奇说,“现在我们知道,是谁阻碍了我们的进步,以及为什么我们成了一个如同一盘散沙并且缺乏同情心的社会。”

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