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穆加贝宣布辞职,结束37年铁腕统治

更新时间:2017-11-22 18:43:22 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Robert Mugabe Resigns as Zimbabwe’s President, Ending 37-Year Rule
穆加贝宣布辞职,结束37年铁腕统治

HARARE, Zimbabwe — Robert Mugabe — who has ruled Zimbabwe since independence in 1980 and once proclaimed that “only God will remove me!” — resigned as president Tuesday shortly after lawmakers began impeachment proceedings against him.

津巴布韦哈拉雷——自津巴布韦1980年独立后,罗伯特·穆加贝(Robert Mugabe)一直统治着这个国家,他曾经宣称“只有上帝能把我从这个职位上带走”,在议员们开启对他的弹劾程序后不久,他辞去了总统职位。

The speaker of the Parliament, Jacob Mudenda, read out a letter in which Mugabe said he was stepping down “with immediate effect” for “the welfare of the people of Zimbabwe and the need for a peaceful transfer of power.”

众议长雅各布·穆登达(Jacob Mudenda)宣读了穆加贝的信,他在信中说,为了“津巴布韦人民的福祉和和平移交权力的需要”而下台,这个决定“立即生效”。

Lawmakers erupted into cheers, and jubilant residents poured into the streets of Harare, the capital. It seemed to be an abrupt capitulation by Mugabe, 93, the world’s oldest head of state and one of Africa’s longest-serving leaders.

议员爆发出欢呼,欢欣雀跃的居民涌上首都哈拉雷的街头。作为世界上最年长的国家元首、非洲在任时间最长的领导人之一,93岁的穆加贝似乎突然投降了。

“It’s the best thing that’s ever happened to Zimbabwe,” Perseverance Sande, 20, said in central Harare minutes after news of the resignation began spreading, as crowds of people started singing around her. “I’ve been waiting so long for this moment.”

穆加贝辞职的消息传出来几分钟后,20岁的珀西维伦斯·桑德(Perseverance Sande)在哈雷拉市中心说,“这是津巴布韦经历的最美妙的事情,”人群开始在她周围唱起歌来。“我等待这一刻等了好久。”

Mugabe, who controlled the nation by handing out the spoils of power to his allies and crushing dissent, had refused to step down even after being expelled on Sunday from ZANU-PF, the political party he had led for four decades.

穆加贝通过向盟友分权和压制异议人士控制整个国家,在周日被自己领导了40年的政党津巴布韦非洲民族联盟—爱国阵线(ZANU-PF)开除后,他仍然拒绝下台。

Then on Tuesday, party members introduced a motion of impeachment, invoking a constitutional process that had never before been tested.

到了周二,该党的成员提出弹劾动议,诉诸了一个以前从未经过检验的宪法程序。

The party’s political rival, the Movement for Democratic Change, seconded the motion, a striking sign of the consensus in the political class that Mugabe must go — one that formed with astonishing speed after the military took Mugabe into custody last Wednesday.

该党的政治对手——争取民主变革运动(Movement for Democratic Change)附议了这个动议,这是政治阶层一致认为穆加贝必须下台的明确迹象,军方在上周三拘押穆加贝之后,他们以惊人的速度达成了这个共识。

Lawmakers were still discussing the impeachment motion when Mugabe’s justice minister, Happyton Bonyongwe, walked up to the stage. He was booed, because of a rumor that he had been offering bribes to sway votes against impeachment. Then he whispered into the ear of Mudenda, the speaker, and handed him a letter.

当穆加贝的司法部长哈皮顿·博尼翁圭(Happyton Bonyongwe)走上议会主席台时,议员们还在讨论弹劾动议。因为有传言说他为了反对弹劾而行贿,现场嘘声四起。然后他在众议长穆登达的耳边低语,并递给了他一封信。

Calling the lawmakers to order, the speaker announced that he had received an urgent communication from the president. As the crowd grew quiet, Mudenda — with a wide smile across his face — read out the letter.

众议长要求议员们保持肃静,并宣布收到了来自总统的急信。随着人群安静下来,穆登达带着灿烂的笑容朗读了这封信。

Lawmakers immediately screamed and shouted. Once-bitter rivals from ZANU-PF and the Movement for Democratic Change shook hands and hugged.

议员们立即爆发出尖叫和欢呼。津巴布韦非洲民族联盟—爱国阵线和争取民主变革运动这两个对立党派开始相互握手拥抱。

Even Mugabe’s closest allies appeared taken aback. Reached by telephone, George Charamba, the president’s longtime spokesman, declined to comment, saying only, “I’m concerned about the stability of my country.”

就连穆加贝最亲密的盟友也大吃一惊。长期为他服务的发言人乔治·查兰巴(George Charamba)在电话中拒绝了置评请求,只说:“我担心的是国家的稳定。”

In Africa Unity Square, the capital’s main public area, scattered shouts were heard a few minutes after the announcement by the speaker. Then, as word began spreading by mouth and by phone, the shouts, cries and honking of cars rose in a deafening crescendo. Hundreds of people ran to the square, hugging and jumping, as the crowd soon swelled into the thousands.

在众议长做出宣布几分钟后,该国首都主要的公共场所非洲统一广场(Africa Unity Square)上响起零星的呼喊声。接着,当消息通过口头和电话开始传开,尖叫、呼喊、汽车的喇叭声震耳欲聋。数百人奔向广场,相互拥抱和跳跃,人群迅速膨胀到数千人。

The state broadcaster interrupted its programming to report that Mugabe had resigned and that a new leader could be sworn in as early as Wednesday. Emmerson Mnangagwa, the vice president whom Mugabe abruptly fired last week, setting off an internal revolt, is widely expected to lead the country, at least until national elections scheduled for next year.

广播公司中断节目,宣告穆加贝已经辞职,新领导人最早可能会在周三宣誓就职。上星期,穆加贝突然罢免了副总统埃默森·姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa),引发内乱,人们普遍认为姆南加古瓦至少会在明年的全国大选之前领导这个国家。

For nearly four decades, Mugabe ruled through a heavy mix of repression of his opponents and rewards for his allies. He oversaw the massacre of thousands of civilians in the 1980s and outmaneuvered rivals in his party and in the opposition. Even in his 90s and weakened by age, he kept potential successors at bay.

近40年来,穆加贝透过打压对手、嘉奖盟友这两手来施行统治。80年代他曾主导了对数千平民的大屠杀,挫败了自己政党内及在野党中的对手。即使他已有90多岁,年事已高,但仍然压制潜在的继任者。

But he pushed too hard by trying to position his wife, Grace, 52, as his successor. Despite being a newcomer to politics who had no role in the nation’s liberation war, she made clear that she wanted to be president and ridiculed politicians who had been waiting decades to succeed her husband.

但为了使自己52岁的夫人格蕾丝(Grace)成为自己的继任者,他用力过猛。格蕾丝不仅是一个政治新手,在津巴布韦的解放战争中也没有任何贡献,但她还是直言不讳地说自己想当总统,并嘲讽那些等待了数十年、想要成为她丈夫继任者的政治人物。

The chain of events leading to Mugabe’s downfall started Nov. 6, when he fired Mnangagwa, clearing the way for Grace Mugabe to take over the presidency at some point. Robert Mugabe then tried to arrest the nation’s top military commander a few days later.

从11月6日,为了给格蕾丝将来接任总统扫清道路而将姆南加古瓦免职开始,一系列连锁反应导致了穆加贝的下台。之后的几天,穆加贝还试图逮捕津巴布韦最高军事指挥官。

After the military took Mugabe into custody, ZANU-PF expelled him as its leader Sunday. But Mugabe stunned the nation that evening with a televised address in which he refused to step down as president. Pressure from within the country and from abroad had been building on Mugabe to resign, but observers had warned that the country might have to brace itself for lengthy impeachment proceedings.

在军方逮捕穆加贝后,津巴布韦非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线于周日撤销了他的领导人身份。但穆加贝当晚的电视讲话震惊了津巴布韦,他在讲话中表示,拒绝辞去总统职务。国内外压力一直在迫使穆加贝辞职,但观察人士警告,津巴布韦或需做好漫长的弹劾准备。

The motion of impeachment introduced on Tuesday alleged, among other things, that Mugabe had violated the constitution; that he had allowed his wife to usurp power; and that he is too old to fulfill his duties.

周二发起的弹劾动议主要指控穆加贝违宪、允许其妻篡权,以及他年事已高,无法履行职责等等。

Earlier on Tuesday, Mnangagwa, whose firing led to a military takeover of Zimbabwe and efforts to oust Mugabe, broke his silence, urging the embattled leader to step down.

周二早些时候,因被免职而引起军方控制津巴布韦的姆南加古瓦发声,强烈要求这位四面楚歌的领导人下台。

“He should take heed of this clarion call by the people of Zimbabwe to resign so that the country can move forward and preserve his legacy,” Mnangagwa said.

“他应听取津巴布韦人民希望他辞职的呼声,这样这个国家才得以前进,他的遗存得以留下,”姆南加古瓦说。

Mnangagwa’s role as the likely successor to Mugabe has raised many concerns. He was accused of orchestrating the crackdown in the 1980s in which thousands of members of the Ndebele ethnic group were killed. He was also accused of being behind deadly violence in 2008 a bid to rig polls in favor of Mugabe, a claim he denies.

姆南加古瓦作为穆加贝可能的继任者已经引起了很多人的担忧。他被指控曾精心组织了80年代的镇压,导致数千少数民族恩德贝莱人(Ndebele)被杀。他也被指控在2008年大选中为了帮助穆加贝取胜而操纵选举,导致出现死伤的暴力事件,姆南加古瓦对此予以否认。

At least a semblance of legitimacy — especially for a government under Mnangagwa, who is known as the enforcer of some of Mugabe’s most ruthless policies — will be critical in gaining recognition from regional powers, Western governments and international lenders.

至少表面的合法性——尤其是以穆加贝一些极度残忍政策的施行者著称的姆南加古瓦领导的政府,在获得地区强权、西方政府和国际债权人的认可方面,将至关重要。

Zimbabwe, which no longer has its own currency and perennially struggles to pay government workers, became a pariah in the West after the state-backed invasion of white-owned farms in the early 2000s.

不再拥有自己的货币、往复挣扎着给政府工作人员开薪水的津巴布韦,在21世纪初国家支持夺取白人农场运动后,成为了被西方世界遗弃的国家。

On Tuesday, Prime Minister Theresa May of Britain, Zimbabwe’s former colonial ruler, welcomed news of Mugabe’s departure, saying it presented “ an opportunity to forge a new path free of the oppression that characterized his rule.”

周二,津巴布韦前宗主国——英国的首相特蕾莎·梅(Theresa May)欣然回应了穆加贝辞职的新闻,说这意味着“有机会开创一条不再由他统治压迫的、新的道路”。

The U.S. Embassy in Zimbabwe issued a statement welcoming “an historic moment” for the country and urged “unwavering respect for the rule of law and for established democratic practices.” It said that “the path forward” must lead to free, fair and inclusive elections.

美国驻津巴布韦大使馆发布了一则声明,对“一个历史性的时刻”表示欢迎,并呼吁“坚定不移地尊重法治、尊重确立的民主实践”。声明表示,“前路”一定通往自由、公平、广泛的选举。

Even among the celebrants in Unity Square, some wore quiet, almost sad expressions.

即使在统一广场庆祝的人群中,也有些人沉默着,带着近乎悲伤的表情。

David Mushakwe, 35, a car electrician, stood quietly as he watched hundreds of mostly young men jumping on trucks on the edge of Unity Square, in front of Parliament. Lawmakers had met in the building in the morning and then moved to a hotel in another section of the city for a joint session of Parliament in the afternoon.

35岁的汽车电工戴维·穆萨克维(David Mushakwe)静静地看着几百名大多是青年的男子跳上议会门前统一广场的卡车上。议员早上曾在楼内开会,然后下午转移到了城里另一个地方的某宾馆内举行议会联合会议。

“I just want to say to His Excellency: ‘Go and rest now, our father,'” Mushakwe said. “'We still love you. But we’re happy today. We’re hoping now for a better future.'”

“我只想对阁下说:‘去休息吧,我们的父亲,’”穆萨克维说,“我们依然爱你。但我们今天是高兴的,希望能有一个更美好的未来。”

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