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“私房菜”:拒绝外传的撒丁岛意大利面

更新时间:2017-11-20 11:25:25 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The perfect pasta dish Sardinians refuse to share
“私房菜”:拒绝外传的撒丁岛意大利面

Malloreddus is not a malady. It just sounds like one. This I learned when I was perusing the menu of Arco Café, located on Manhattan’s Upper West Side. Soon enough, the affable Daniel Fiori, co-owner of the Sardinian restaurant, was sitting at my table explaining to me just what malloreddus is.

"Malloreddus"并不是一种疾病的名称,尽管它听起来像。我在翻阅曼哈顿上西区阿尔科咖啡厅(Arco Café)的菜单时才得知这一点。撒丁岛餐厅和蔼可亲老板之一——丹尼尔·费奥里(Daniel Fiori)当时正坐在我的餐桌旁,他很快地向我解释了什么是"Malloreddus"(撒丁岛意面)。

“It’s our national dish,” he said, if by ‘national’ he means Sardinia, and if that Italian island were an autonomous nation.

"这是我们的'国菜',"他说。他所说的"国"指的是撒丁岛,如果这个意大利岛屿是个自治国的话。

This dumpling-like pasta is ubiquitous in Sardinia, Fiori told me. “We make it with a breadbasket.” I cocked my head like a confused dog and Fiori went back in the kitchen, returning with a small wicker breadbasket and a fistful of dough. Rolling a small piece of dough to a string-like shape, he then flattened it out and curled the two sides together to create a dumpling. Then he rolled it down the back of the basket and showed it to me in the palm of his hand: the once-smooth dumpling now had grooves in it.

费奥里告诉我,类似的意大利面在撒丁岛随处可见。"我们用面包篮子来做意面。"我困惑地歪着头,费奥里走去厨房,拿来一个小小的柳条面包篮和一个面团。他把一小块面团揉成串状,然后把它压平,两侧卷起来,做成一个面团。然后,他把面团顺着篮子背面滚下去,再将它放在手掌上给我看:刚才光滑的面团现在就有了凹痕。

“The grooves capture the pasta sauce,” he said.

"这些凹痕会嵌入意大利面的酱汁,"他说。

A few minutes later, I had a bowl of the malloreddus in front of me, slathered in a ragu of tomatoes, sausage and saffron. This is Sardinia’s most traditional dish: malloreddus alla Campidanese, a pasta dish named for Campidano, the fertile plain in the island’s south-west. “There are different types of pasta all over Italy, but this dish is unique. It’s 100% Sardinian.”

几分钟后,一碗撒丁岛意面就摆在我的面前,配着番茄肉酱、香肠和藏红花。撒丁岛意面是撒丁岛最传统的美食,它得名于坎皮达诺(Campidano),后者是位于撒丁岛西南部肥沃的平原。"意大利各地有不同种类的面食,但这种意面却是独一无二的。100%原汁原味的撒丁岛风味。"

And he’s right: how many Italian dishes are laced with saffron? The spice, some food historians believe, was brought to Sardinia by the Phoenicians who arrived on the island from the Middle East a couple of millennia ago, revealing just how unique Sardinia and its cuisine is.

他说得对:能有多少意大利美食用藏红花点缀呢?一些食物历史学家认为,这种香料是由几千年前从中东来到撒丁岛的腓尼基人(Phoenician)带来的,这也揭示了撒丁岛和它的美食是多么的独特。

Mention Sardinia to any mainland-dwelling Italian, and they’ll swoon the second the name leaves your lips. To say that Sardinia has captured the imagination of Italians from the tip to the top of the boot would almost be an understatement. And just from a few bites of malloreddus alla Campidanese – the unctuous sausage, the chewy pasta, the tangy tomatoes and the hint of saffron poking through on my palate – it’s easy to see why. By the time I walked out of Arco Café, I decided I had to try the dish in its native land.

在向意大利大陆居民提到撒丁岛时,在这个名字脱口而出时,他们就会心驰神往。就算说撒丁岛集中了全意大利人的想象力也是不为过。吃上几口撒丁岛意面——它有滑爽的香肠、耐嚼的面条、香味浓郁的西红柿,还有沁人心脾的藏红花,您很容易就会明白个中缘由了。离开阿尔科咖啡厅时,我决定要在它的故乡品尝这道美食。

After a little research, I discovered that all is not well in Sardinia in terms of its malloreddus production. Specifically, the state of Sardinia’s wheat. Italy has always relied on Sardinia for its high-quality durum wheat (from which malloreddus is made). In fact, the island – particularly Campideno – is utterly fertile, its wheat fields considered to be golden by generations of Sardinians and the empires that have swept through the island. The fields are so prized, in fact, that they’re one of the reasons the island has been occupied by foreign invaders through the centuries. The Carthaginians, for example, had a rule that ensured the wheat fields stayed in full sunlight by threatening to kill anyone who planted a single tree. A few centuries later, the Romans exploited the land and imported its goods throughout the empire: the island wasn’t called ‘Rome's granary’ for nothing. From the 3rd to the 1st Century BC, the Campidano's seven people per square kilometre produced half of all the grain that was used to feed the Roman army.

小小研究一番后,我发现,在撒丁岛,撒丁岛意面的制作并不尽如人意。撒丁岛的小麦尤为如此。意大利一直依赖撒丁岛高质量的硬质小麦(撒丁岛意面的食材)。事实上,撒丁岛(尤其是坎皮达诺)土壤肥沃,几代撒丁岛人和统治过这里的帝国都认为它有着金色的麦田。这些土地格外珍贵,事实上,这也正是几个世纪以来撒丁岛屡屡遭到外国侵略者占领的一个原因。例如,迦太基人(Carthaginian)曾规定,他们威胁要杀死任何种树的人,目的是确保麦田能享受到充足的日照。几个世纪后,罗马人充分利用这片土地,并将其出产带到整个帝国:撒丁岛被称为"罗马的粮仓"事出有因。从公元前3世纪到公元前1世纪,坎皮达诺每平方公里七个人生产的谷物中,就有一半用来供养罗马军队。

So, herein lies the problem: durum wheat production is dwindling. In the early 2000s, Sardinians cultivated 90,000 hectares of it. Now there’s less than 35,000. Farmers on the island still feel like they're being exploited by Rome, as the government subsidies they receive are scant compared to farmers on the mainland. In November, a union of grain farmers in the Campidano and neighbouring region launched La Banca Etica dei Cereali, an organisation that demands no ‘foreign’ (read: mainland Italian) grain be used in the production of anything being labelled as Sardinian.

因此,这里就存在这样一个问题:硬质小麦产量正在减少。21世纪初,撒丁人种植的硬质小麦还有9万公顷。而到了现在,种植面积只剩下不到3.5万公顷。岛上的农民仍然觉得他们受到罗马的剥削,因为与意大利大陆的农民相比,他们得到的政府补贴少之又少。去年11月,坎皮达诺和邻近地区的粮农联盟成立组织"La Banca Etica banali"。该组织要求,不得将任何"外国"(这里指的是"意大利大陆人")的粮食用于生产任何被冠以撒丁岛之名的东西。

Is Sardinia’s most traditional dish under threat? I had to find out.

难道是撒丁岛最传统的美食受到威胁了吗?我必须找到问题的答案。

A few weeks later, I was standing in front of Michele Bacciu, executive chef at Cala di Volpe, inside a hotel of the same name, on Sardinia’s Costa Smerelda. He had agreed to show me how the dish is made. He rolled the balled-up pieces of dough down a ciurili, a rectangular board vertically beset with ridges and grooves (thus creating the shallow lines in the pasta), and explained the importance of malloreddus alla Campidanese to Sardinia. “It’s all Sardinia,” he said. “The tomatoes and wheat are grown here. The sausage is made here. And the saffron comes from here, too.”

几周后,我在卡拉迪沃尔普(Cala di Volpe)餐厅见到行政总厨米歇尔·巴丘(Michele Bacciu)。这家餐厅位于撒丁岛翡翠海岸(Costa Smerelda)的同名酒店里。巴丘事先已经同意向我展示怎么做这道美食。他把卷成团的面团沿着一个纵向带有凸痕和凹槽的矩形板向下滚动(由此形成意面上的浅痕)。他还解释了撒丁岛意面对于撒丁岛的重要意义。"食材全都取自撒丁岛,"他说,"西红柿和小麦都是本地种的。香肠是本地产的。藏红花也是如此。"

He held out his hand, much like Fiori did back in New York, to show me the just-rolled malloreddus, looking not unlike a butterworm. Then he placed the small mound of malloreddus in a pot filled with bubbling, saffron-spiked tomato ragu. “The problem,” Bacciu continued, “is that the wheat we produce – not to mention the pecorino cheese we make here, too – big corporations from the mainland want to come and pay our farmers a low price for it, and ours is the highest quality.” He stopped and looked off into the distance. “We should keep our great products for us, for Sardinia!”

他伸出手,向我展示刚刚滚出来的撒丁岛意面,它与纽约的费奥里做得撒丁岛意面很像,看起来与黄油虫子没什么区别。然后,他把少量撒丁岛意面放进一个冒着泡的盆里,其中有番茄肉酱,还点缀着藏红花。巴丘继续说:"问题是,来自意大利大陆的大公司想用低价收购我们农民生产的小麦,而我们的质量却是最高的,更不用说还有我们在这里生产的佩科里诺干酪了。"他停下来,朝远处看了看。"我们应该为了我们自己,为了撒丁岛,保住我们的伟大产品!"

Depending on who you ask, the name ‘malloreddus’ either comes from the local word malloru, which means ‘bull’ because the finished pasta looks like a small bovine, or from the Latin word mallolus, meaning 'morsel'. It’s unclear when malloreddus all Campidanese first appeared, but in many ways it makes sense that the island’s most popular dish is a hearty pasta made of beef (or lamb) and not seafood: because constant fear of invasion, Sardinia’s population retreated inland, turning its back on the sea, leaving the coasts largely unspoiled. Instead, farmers and shepherds cultivated their wheat fields and herds of lambs and cows far inland, thus developing a cuisine that largely relied on meat and not fish. Hence, a meaty ragu and a unique pasta shape became the most traditional dish of Sardinia. There are other Sardinian dishes that incorporate this pasta shape: for example, in the northwest of the island, populated by descendants of Catalonia, malloreddus ends up in a paella-like dish. But the ragu-topped version is the most popular.

关于撒丁岛意面"malloreddus"这个词的由来有着不同的说法。一种说法是,它来自当地词汇"malloru",意思是"公牛",因为这种意面成品看起来就像小牛;还有一种说法是,它来自拉丁词"mallolus",意思是"少量"。目前尚不清楚撒丁岛意面最早出现的时间,但是,因为总是害怕入侵,撒丁岛人撤退到内陆,远离了大海,因而海岸基本上并未受到损坏,所以岛上最受欢迎的美食是一顿丰盛的牛肉或羊肉做的意大利面而不是海鲜却在情理之中。而在内陆地区,农民耕种麦田,牧民们放牧牛羊,因此发展出这样一种主要靠肉类而非鱼类的美食。因此,一种肉酱和一种独特的意大利面食就成了撒丁岛最传统的美食。还有其他撒丁岛人美食也融入了撒丁岛意面的做法:例如,在岛的西北部,居住着加泰罗尼亚人的后裔,撒丁岛意面最后就演变成了一种肉菜饭。但是,最受欢迎的依然是上面浇肉酱的版本。

A few days later, I met up with my friend and fellow BBC contributor Eliot Stein. Having lived on Sardinia for two years and written a couple of guidebooks on the island (plus countless travel articles), he’s nearly an honorary local. “Not only is it smart for the local farmers to want their ingredients for themselves, but it reflects a recent trend of Sardinians proudly embracing their Sarditá – their Sardinian identity,” Stein said as we dug into bowls of malloreddus at Il Pescatore restaurant in the small town of Cervo. “You have to understand that the island has been invaded and mistreated by most everyone who has ever sailed through the Mediterranean. And even today, many Sardinians feel like they're not receiving adequate subsidies from their latest landlords: Italians.”

几天后,我遇到了我的朋友、BBC撰稿人艾略特·斯坦(Eliot Stein)。他在撒丁岛生活了两年,写了几本撒丁岛旅游指南(还有无数游记),他几乎够得上荣誉岛民了。当我们在切尔沃(Cervo)小镇的佩斯卡托雷餐厅(Il Pescatore)对撒丁岛意面大快朵颐时,斯坦说,"用自己的食材制作这道美食不仅是聪明的当地农民的希望,也反映了最近的趋势,这就是撒丁岛人为自己的撒丁岛人身份深感自豪。你必须了解的是,航行通过地中海的大多数人都入侵和肆虐过这座岛屿。"即使在今天,很多当地人仍然觉得他们没有得到自己的最新房东——意大利人的足够补贴。"

Stein, who was on the island for an assignment, said of Malloreddus: “It just tastes like Sardinia to me. It's a hearty, rugged dish whose beauty lies in its simplicity. Every ingredient tells a story of the island's history. It's as Sardinian as nuraghi, mamuthones and canto a tenore. It's the one thing people from all corners of this amazing island will agree on.”

谈到撒丁岛意面时,被派驻撒丁岛的斯坦这样表示:"我觉得它就像撒丁岛本身,丰盛又粗犷,它的美在于它的简单。每一种食材都在讲述着撒丁岛的历史。它与撒丁岛的努拉格建筑、面具舞蹈秀和撒丁岛田园牧歌一样,散发着浓浓的本地风情。来自这个神奇岛屿的各个角落的人们对此都会赞同。"

And with that, we sat in silence for a few minutes, savouring the last few bites of our malloreddus alla Campidanese, the tomatoes, lamb sausage and saffron lurking in the grooves of the pasta, conspiring to create a taste explosion with each bite. I took a sip of wine hoping that next time I’m back in Sardinia there will still be plenty of malloreddus to eat.

我们沉默地坐了几分钟,吞下最后几口撒丁岛意面。西红柿、羊肉香肠和藏红花嵌在意面凹痕中,每一口都齿颊留香。我抿了一口酒,希望自己下次再来撒丁岛时,还能对萨丁岛意面大饱口福。

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