您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 风尚 >> 正文

咖啡爱好者一定要知道的一种病

更新时间:2017-11-20 11:09:00 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The disease that could change how we drink coffee
咖啡爱好者一定要知道的一种病

If you landed in Bogota in the 1960s, one of the first things you would have probably seen outside the airport was a giant billboard. In a slightly menacing tone, it said: “Coffee rust is the enemy. Don’t bring plant materials from abroad”.

如果你在20世纪60年代坐飞机降落到波哥大(Bogota),从机场出来首先映入眼帘的可能是一块巨大的标牌,上面用严厉的口吻写道:"咖啡叶锈病是敌人。请不要从国外携带植物入境。"

It was one of the first warnings about a foe that has been threatening Colombia’s coffee trade ever since.

这是哥伦比亚咖啡贸易诞生以来首次对叶锈病提出警告。

Coffee rust is a disease with the power to cripple, or even wipe out, the country’s national product, the base of one of its biggest industries, and one of its most important sources of foreign currency. Last year alone, its coffee exports were worth $2.4bn (£1.8bn), and were 7.7% of all goods the country sold overseas. That makes Colombia the third largest producer of coffee in the world. In other words, if rust takes hold there and global supply dwindles, it will affect the price of the coffee we drink everywhere.

咖啡是哥伦比亚的重要产品,是该国最大产业之一,也是最重要的外汇来源之一。而叶锈病有可能对其造成沉重打击,甚至摧毁整个咖啡业。仅去年一年,哥伦比亚的咖啡出口值就高达24亿美元,占全部出口商品总额的7.7%。这也使哥伦比亚成为世界第三大咖啡生产国。换句话说,如果叶锈病在哥伦比亚落地生根,全球咖啡供应将出现下滑,这就会影响到世界各地咖啡的价格。

That’s why for the past few decades, Colombia’s scientists have been engaged in a little-known battle with the disease, staged from a small laboratory deep inside the mountains of Colombia’s coffee axis.

正是因为这个原因,在过去的数十年,哥伦比亚的科学家一直在与这种疾病进行一场鲜为人知的战斗。他们的战场是在哥伦比亚咖啡种植地山野深处的一个小实验室。

The question is, can Colombian coffee’s distinct flavours survive intact?

问题是,哥伦比亚咖啡独特的风味能否完好无损的保留下来?

Coffee rust has plagued farmers for more than a century. When a tree gets infected by it, its leaves produce a brown, thin powder when scratched, pretty much like iron rust. The disease, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, also de-colours the bush’s leaves from a bright green to a brownish yellow. In the end, the tree loses all its leaves, as well as its ability to produce beans.

一个多世纪以来,叶锈病一直困扰着咖啡农户。当一棵树感染了这种病,树叶就会产生一种棕色的细粉,像铁锈一样可以擦下来。这种疾病是驼孢锈菌(Hemileia vastatrix)感染所致,会导致咖啡树的叶片褪色,从明亮的绿色变成棕黄色。最后,咖啡树的所有叶片都会脱落,无法长出咖啡豆。

If left unattended, the disease can have dramatic consequences. In the late 19th Century, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and other countries in Southeast Asia were the major exporters of coffee in the world. In a matter of decades, the disease meant they practically stopped growing it.

如果置之不理,这种疾病会造成严重的后果。在19世纪末,斯里兰卡、菲律宾和东南亚的一些国家曾经是世界最重要的咖啡出口国。仅在数十年的时间里,这种疾病就导致咖啡种植业在这些国家几乎绝迹。

Historians suggest that this is part of the reason why Britons prefer tea nowadays. “Sri Lanka moved over to tea production” since coffee was no longer profitable, explains Aaron Davis, head of coffee research at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Luckily for Asian producers, Britain was eager to switch its taste when their coffee supply vanished.

历史学家认为,这也是现在英国人偏爱喝茶的部分原因。"斯里兰卡就转而生产茶叶,"因为种植咖啡已经无利可图,英国皇家植物园邱园(Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew)的咖啡研究主任亚伦·戴维斯(Aaron Davis)解释道。对亚洲的生产商来说,值得庆幸的是当咖啡供应消失的时候,英国人就转而喜欢上了喝茶。

Beauty vs beast

美女与野兽

What makes coffee rust a particular worry for Colombia is that it attacks the type of coffee that the country relies on – and that coffee lovers have got used to drinking.

叶锈病之所以让哥伦比亚忧心忡忡是因为受其攻击的恰好是该国倚重的——同时也是咖啡爱好者习惯饮用的咖啡树种。

Coffee comes in two varieties. We could call them ‘the beauty’ and ‘the beast’.

咖啡树分为两种。我们称之为"美女"与"野兽"。

‘The beauty’ is Coffea arabica. Its seed gives a delicious and delicate brew that sells at good prices in international markets. This is the variety that made Colombian coffee so famous.

"美女"就是阿拉比卡咖啡(Coffea arabica)。它的种子能够带来美味、精致的咖啡,在国际市场上的价格很高。正是这种咖啡让哥伦比亚咖啡闻名世界。

‘The beast’ is Coffea canephora, also known as robusta. It is a tougher tree, with more resistant leaves, that is cheaper to grow and crop. It has a more rough and bitter taste; not very appealing for coffee connoisseurs and not as appreciated by the market as its gentler brother. As a result, it accounts only for a 37% of the world coffee production, according to the International Coffee Organisation.

"野兽"是中果咖啡(Coffea canephora),也被称为罗布斯塔(robusta)。这种咖啡生命力顽强,叶片的抗病能力较强,种植和收获的成本较低。它的口感较为粗糙,苦味较重,对咖啡品鉴师的吸引力不是很大,市场评价也不如柔和的阿拉比卡咖啡。因此,根据国际咖啡组织(International Coffee Organisation)的统计,它仅占全球咖啡总产量的37%。

Unfortunately, coffee rust attacks the ‘beauty’, but not the ‘beast’. Colombia only exports ‘beauties’, so switching has never been an option.

不幸的是,叶锈病攻击的是"美女",而非"野兽"。哥伦比亚仅出口"美女"咖啡,所以变更咖啡种类并不是解决方案。

In the 1960s, a team of scientists at a research laboratory called Cenicafe set out to find a solution that drew on the best features of the two varieties – but it wouldn’t be straightforward.

20世纪60年代,名为Cenicafe实验室的科学家团队开始试图利用两个品种的咖啡树的最优特征,寻找该问题的解决方案,但是问题并不那么简单。

The laboratory

实验室

To get to Cenicafe, you have to drive all the way to the top of a mountain; the twisting roads can make you sick if you are not used to them. The lab is nested there to keep its 89-year-worth body of research away from the force of nature: the prior building flooded after a volcano eruption in 1985.

要前往Cenicafe实验室,就需要一路开车到山顶,如果你不习惯盘山公路,可能会晕车。实验室之所以选址在这里是为了让有89年价值的研究免受自然力量的破坏:1985年火山喷发时,之前实验室的建筑物被熔岩淹没了。

It was set up by the Colombia’s National Federation of Coffee Growers (also known as Fedecafe), the coffee industry association in the country, and is considered a global flagship centre for the science of coffee.

实验室是由哥伦比亚咖啡种植者全国联合会(National Federation of Coffee Growers)建立的。这个咖啡行业协会被认为是世界咖啡科学的旗舰中心。

“Cenicafe is what has allowed us to remain competitive and lower our risk”, explains Hernando Duque, technical director of Fedecafe. Its research helped domesticate and make viable many of the high-quality varieties that the country grows and the world enjoys.

"是Cenicafe实验室让我们能够保持竞争力并降低风险,"哥伦比亚咖啡种植者全国联合会的技术主任埃尔南多公爵(Hernando Duque)解释道。该实验室的研究促进了哥伦比亚很多享誉世界的优质咖啡树种的驯化和存活。

Today, the laboratory’s work is regarded as the gold standard in the fight against “the most acute threat against coffee in the Americas”, says Michael Sheridan, director of sourcing and shared value at Intelligentsia Coffee Roasters, a specialty coffee importer in the US.

如今,实验室的工作被奉为对抗"美洲地区咖啡面临的最严峻威胁"的黄金准则,美国精品咖啡进口商知识分子咖啡烘焙商(Intelligentsia Coffee Roasters)的采购主管迈克尔·谢里登(Michael Sheridan)表示。

To save Colombia’s coffee, Cenicafe scientists in the 1960s realised that they needed to breed new varieties that could inherit both the distinctive taste and aroma of Colombian ‘beauty’, and the resistance genes of the ‘beast’.

为了拯救哥伦比亚咖啡,Cenicafe的科学家在20世纪60年代就意识到他们需要培育新的咖啡品种,一方面要继承哥伦比亚"美女"咖啡的独特口味和香气,另一方面也要保留"野兽"强大抗病能力的基因。

To do so, they had to get those genes somewhere: ‘the beauty’ and ‘the beast’ don’t usually interbreed.

为此,他们必须从某处获取这些基因:因为"美女"与"野兽"通常不会杂交。

The solution, they found, would come from the other side of the world.

他们在世界的另一端找到了解决方案。

From Timor with love

来自东帝汶的爱

At some point in recent history, something weird happened in Timor. Somewhere in this small island on the Indian Ocean, halfway between Indonesia and Australia, the ‘beauty’ and the ‘beast’ had an affair of sorts. As a result, the Timor hybrid was born.

在近代历史上,东帝汶曾发生过奇怪的事。东帝汶是印度洋上的一个小岛国,位于印度尼西亚和澳大利亚之间。在这里"美女"与"野兽"发生了某种意思上的杂交,于是就有了东帝汶杂交咖啡。

This naturally occurring hybrid of arabica and robusta was found in 1927, and started to be harvested in 1940. It is not really a great tasting berry, but it had a crucial feature: unlike normal robusta, it can be bred again with arabica varieties, which means that it can transmit its rust resistance to them.

这一自然发生的阿拉比卡和罗布斯塔种的杂交品种于1927年被人发现,并于1940年开始采收。这种咖啡果实的味道并不是特别好,但是它有一个关键特征:与普通的罗布斯塔咖啡不同,它可以和阿拉比卡咖啡杂交,这就意味着它可以遗传对叶锈病的抗病能力。

Coffee research centres around the world started to do just that, but there was a problem. The result did not taste very good, which meant that it was going to fail. If cultivators were not going to be paid at least as much money for the new varieties, they simply were not going to change their bushes.

全球的咖啡研究机构开始采用这种方式,但是还有一个问题。杂交品种的味道并不是非常好,这意味着这项工作将面临失败。如果咖啡种植者栽种新品种的收入低于旧品种,那么他们根本就不会改种新的咖啡。

Cenicafe begun its efforts to combat rust begun in 1968, knowing that rust from overseas would arrive in Colombia soon. It started a project to created cultivars of the bush that resist it. It was not just a matter of putting two varieties in a genetic blender. The real work was to interbreed five generations of trees, and select those that provided a better taste and more delicate aroma, as well as a shorter tree, good productivity for growers and resistant to different races of the Hemileia fungus.

Cenicafe在1968年开始研究对抗叶锈病的方法,因为他们知道叶锈病很快就会从海外传入哥伦比亚。该实验室启动了一个项目,栽培能够抵抗叶锈病的品种。这不只是把两个品种的基因混合起来这么简单。实际工作是在五代树种之间进行杂交,然后选出味道好、香气细腻、矮小、产量高且能够抵抗多种驼孢锈菌的品种。

In 1980, the centre released its first hybrid of Caturra – the dominant variety grown in the country – and the Timor hybrid. It was called Colombia, and it was good enough for it to be well accepted by growers and buyers, to the point that it still is around in many of the country’s coffee farms.

1980年,该中心发布了第一种杂交咖啡树种,即哥伦比亚主流咖啡树种卡杜拉(Caturra)和东帝汶杂交种的杂交品种。它被称为哥伦比亚种,其品质足以征服种植者和买家。现在哥伦比亚仍有很多咖啡庄园在种植哥伦比亚种咖啡。

It was just in time. Three years later, coffee rust was first identified in Colombia.

时间节点刚刚好。三年后,哥伦比亚就发现了首例叶锈病。

A moving target

移动的目标

Achieving the Colombia variety was not going to be the end of the war against rust. Hemileia vastatrix has since evolved, and found a way to infest some of the formerly immune coffee bushes. While it maintains partial resistance, the fungus will inevitably break it.

哥伦比亚种的成功研制并没有结束与叶锈病的战争。驼孢锈菌后来又开始进化,找到了寄生于对其免疫的咖啡树的方法。虽然哥伦比亚种维持了部分的抗病能力,但是驼孢锈菌总能找到方法打破其免疫力。

There’s also the menace of climate change. Temperatures in the coldest part of the year are rising, which some scientists believe reduces the time the rust fungus takes to attack the leaves once it gets to the tree. As a result, future epidemics might be longer and more destructive.

还有气候变化带来的威胁。一年中最冷时期的气温正在上升,一些科学家认为这会缩短驼孢锈菌接触咖啡树后开始攻击所需的时间。于是,未来的传染病可能会持续更久,毁灭性也会更强。

With that in mind, Cenicafe has developed other varieties. In 2005, they released a new seed, called Castillo after Jaime Castillo Zapata, the lead scientist behind the development of Colombia. And in 2016, a third variety, named Cenicafe 1, also increased its resistance to other diseases.

考虑到这一点,Cenicafe也培育了其他一些品种。2005年,他们发布了一种新的咖啡种子,名为卡斯提优(Castillo),取自领导这项研究的科学家詹姆·卡斯提优·萨帕塔(Jaime Castillo Zapata)的名字。2016年,第三个咖啡品种Cenicafe 1又增强了对其他疾病的抵抗力。

The main idea is to make it more difficult for the fungus to fully break the tree’s resistance. This is achieved by including many different genes that offer invulnerability against the pathogen. If one of them is defeated by a new mutation of Hemielia, there are many others left.

主要思路就是增加真菌击败咖啡树免疫机制的难度。为此要使用很多不同的基因,以对抗病原体。如果有的基因被驼孢锈菌的变异打败,那还有很多其他的基因可以发挥作用。

By increasing the gene pool, coffee scientists also aim at protecting the crops from other risks. “If you reduced genetic diversity, you have less resistance to climate, pests and diseases,” explains Davis.

咖啡科学家通过扩大基因库试图保护咖啡树免受其他风险。"如果你减少基因的多样性,那么咖啡树对气候、杀虫剂和疾病的抵抗力也会下降,"戴维斯解释道。

Lack of diversity has proven disastrous to other commercial crops. Almost all bananas you can buy today in most parts of the world are clones from a single parent plant called Cavendish, initially bred in Britain in the 19th Century.

其它经济作物已经证明缺乏基因多样性会带来灾难性后果。如今,你在世界大部分地区能买到的绝大部分香蕉都是克隆自一个亲本植株——19世纪英国最早培育出来的香芽蕉(Cavendish)。

It was not the tastiest fruit, but it was resistant to the fungus that wiped out the world’s most popular variety in the mid-20th Century, the Gros Michel. The fungus mutated and now it can kill Cavendish, which means that the extinction of the banana as most of the world knows it is on the cards.

虽然香芽蕉不是最美味的,但是它抵抗住了20世纪中叶导致最流行的品种——大米七香蕉(Gros Michel)——灭绝的真菌。现在真菌又变异了,这就意味着有朝一日香蕉也可能会灭绝。

Coffee scientists have heard the cautionary tale. In the distant future when rust finally defeats Castillo and Colombia, hopefully other varieties will keep up the fight.

咖啡科学家已经知道这个警世故事。在遥远的未来,当叶锈病最终打败卡斯提优种和哥伦比亚种时,我们只能希望有其他变种能够抵抗叶锈病。

Beyond the seeds

种子以外

If rust takes hold, there will also be human costs. Colombia’s coffee industry employs around 730,000 people, most of them on the deprived rural areas of the country.

如果叶锈病站稳了脚跟,那就会造成经济和人员损失。哥伦比亚咖啡业的从业人员大约是73万人,大多数都在贫穷的农村地区。

Intelligentsia’s Sheridan spent many years deep inside Colombia as a development worker. He saw how small coffee farmers gamble everything to get a good yield. They take very high risks, and if something goes wrong, their families pay a hefty toll.

美国咖啡商知识分子咖啡的谢里登曾在哥伦比亚从事扶贫开发工作多年。他看到很多小型咖啡庄园赌上一切,希望获得好的收成。他们冒的风险很高,如果什么地方出了问题,他们的家人就会付出沉重的代价。

That is why he believes varieties like Castillo made coffee viable for many small farmers, who now have a reasonably priced and less risky option. “It is not a matter of luxury. It is a matter of necessity,” he says.

正是因为这个原因,他相信卡斯提优这样的变种可以让很多小型咖啡庄园生存下去,因为他们现在有了价格合理、风险较低的选项。"这并不是有无选择的问题,而是必须的问题。"他说。

The seed is only part of this story though. Getting growers to change to resistant varieties can be difficult. A single coffee bush can bear fruit at peak productivity for up to eight years, which means that most new seeds are not immediately adopted by cultivators once they are released.

种子只是问题的一部分。让咖啡种植者改种有抗病能力的品种会存在难度。一棵咖啡树的巅峰结果期最长可达八年,这就意味着新种子发布以后,大多数都不会被种植者立即接受。

Also, many growers have an emotional attachment to the varieties they already grow. They know the quirks of their trees, their ebbs and flows, and the precise ways they behave in the particular environments of their farms. Even when Castillo is grown in very similar way to Caturra, for some farmers planting a new seed can feel like hosting a stranger in your house.

另外,很多种植者对他们已经种下的品种有感情。他们了解树的脾气和生长过程,以及咖啡树在他们农场特别的环境下的生存方式。即便卡斯提优和卡杜拉的生长方式非常类似,然而对一些咖啡庄园主来说,种下新种子就像是在家里招待陌生人。

The change also has a monetary cost. As a team of Latin American coffee researchers wrote in a recent paper about the rust epidemic, variety replacement requires a large initial investment, and returns “no or very low yields for at least the first two years, and thus a greatly reduced income”.

这一变化还会带来经济损失。拉丁美洲咖啡研究者团队在最近的一篇关于叶锈病的论文中写道,品种替换需要大笔初始投资,"并且至少最初两年几乎不会有产出,因而会造成收入大幅减少。"

Colombia has put forward a strategy for overcoming these hurdles. Fedecafe offers subsidies and loans to farmers for helping them buy resistant seeds, and technical advice on growing.

哥伦比亚提出了克服这些困难的战略。咖啡种植者全国联合会向咖啡庄园主提供补贴和贷款,帮助他们购买有抗病能力的种子,并提供种植方面的技术指导。

Still, the disease can wreak havoc on the industry. A 2008 outbreak still managed to wipe out up a quarter of the year’s crop in Colombia. Since then, the country has accelerated its efforts to make farmers grow Castillo.

然而,叶锈病仍有可能对咖啡行业造成巨大的破坏。2008年的一次爆发导致哥伦比亚咖啡减产四分之一。自那时起,哥伦比亚就开始加快帮助咖啡农种植卡斯提优的工作步伐。

Today, per Fedecafe’s figures, 76% of all coffee trees in Colombia are at least partially resistant to coffee rust, an increase achieved mostly by pushing Castillo among growers. And while other countries have seen their crops halved in recent outbreaks, Colombia maintains a single-digit prevalence of the disease.

目前,按照咖啡种植者全国联合会的数字,哥伦比亚至少76%的咖啡树对叶锈病有一定程度的抵抗力,这主要归功于哥伦比亚推广种植卡斯提优的努力。最近几次叶锈病爆发时,其他国家的咖啡产量减半,但是哥伦比亚将传染率的百分比控制在了个位数。

This is why most people in the coffee world, from growers to scientists to buyers, regard Colombian efforts as the best in the world in the fight against rust. But not all of them – the taste of the new varieties has not been universally embraced.

因此,从咖啡种植者到科学家,再到买家,咖啡业界的大多数人都认为哥伦比亚在对抗叶锈病方面的表现是全世界最好的。但是并不是什么都是好的,新品种的味道并没有获得普遍的赞誉。

Key numbers

主要数字

Once a year, in front of a panel of cuppers (the expert tasters of this industry), coffee farmers put all their hard work on the line. Their goal is to reach a magic number: 80.

一年一度,咖啡庄园主把他们辛勤劳动的成果排成一行,放在杯测师(该行业的专业品鉴师)小组的面前。他们的目标就是达到一个神奇的分数:80分。

Tasters rate a coffee’s flavour with a score out of 100 – assessing fragrance, body, sweetness and more. A rating of 80 is the minimum to be considered “specialty”, and therefore sold at higher prices than the market average. Some buyers are even pickier: they demand an 83, or even an 87. Of course, they pay due premiums for the extra quality.

杯测师对咖啡的风味进行评分,满分是100分——要评估香气、稠度、甜度等等。要成为"精品咖啡",至少要达到80分,这样它的售价就可以高于市场平均。一些买家甚至更加挑剔:他们要求83分,甚至87分以上。当然,他们会为高品质付出相应的价格。

Beyond that, it’s the confirmation of the growers’ mastery in their craft, the score that puts them among the elite of coffee producers.

除此之外,这也是对咖啡种植者技艺的肯定。得分会让他们跻身咖啡种植业界的精英阶层。

“It is very difficult to get there,” says Mauricio Castaneda, the eldest son of a family of coffee farmers. “You have to take care of a lot of small details.” In 2016, only 17% of the coffee exported by Colombia reached that mark.

"很难达到那个水平,"一个咖啡种植家族的长子毛里西奥·卡斯塔尼达(Mauricio Castaneda)说,"你必须照顾好很多小细节。"2016年,哥伦比亚出口的咖啡豆只有17%达到了这个水准。

Some people in the coffee market think that Castillo just doesn’t get that high. For years, some coffee cuppers have complained about the slightly lower quality and cup profile of Castillo over Caturra – a claim that could sink the viability of the resistant variety.

咖啡市场上的一些人认为卡斯提优达不到这个水准。多年来,一些咖啡杯测师抱怨卡斯提优的品质和杯测结果低于卡杜拉——这一说法有可能会导致这一具有抗病能力的品种无法存活下去。

It has been a contentious issue inside the coffee community. For instance, for Alejandro Cadena, CEO of Caravela, a coffee trade company, “Castillo is not the most suitable variety for specialised, high quality markets.” He says that sometimes it can have some rubber notes in it, particularly when something was not done right in its process.

这在咖啡业从业者群体中是一个颇具争议的问题。比如,咖啡贸易公司Caravela的首席执行官亚历杭德罗·卡德纳(Alejandro Cadena)说:"卡斯提优并不是非常适合专业的高品质市场。"他说,有时候它会带有一点橡胶味,特别是当处理过程不正确时。

This keeps it away from the more high-priced, high-quality market, Cadena contends. “But for more commercial, high-volume, Castillo is an outstanding variety.”

这就导致它无缘价格较高的高品质市场。但是卡德纳认为,"在较为商业化、大批量的市场,卡斯提优的表现很突出。"

Some others, like Sheridan, say that this is not really the case. He backs up his claims on a study he performed in the 2014 crop in Nariño, one of Colombia’s coffee growing states, where expert cuppers blind tested both varieties and did not find any significant difference.

而谢里登等人则持不同看法。谢里登基于他2014年在哥伦比亚咖啡产区之一纳里尼奥省(Nariño)的研究,声称一些专业的杯测师盲评了两种咖啡豆,但是并未发现任何显著的差别。

While he is cautious to assert that this research cannot be extrapolated to other regions of Colombia and to other years’ crops, he claims that the market is giving many signs of appreciation for Castillo. Top baristas choose it in competitions, and it has a lot of prestige among international buyers. “It’s increasingly difficult in Colombia, when sourcing small holders’ coffee, to find batches that do not have some Castillo in them,” he says.

他谨慎的表示,该研究不能用来推测哥伦比亚其他产区的情况,也不能推测其他年份的咖啡豆。他声称,市场上的诸多迹象表明,卡斯提优的价值正在提升。顶尖的咖啡师在参加比赛时选用它。卡斯提优在国际买家中的声誉也非常好。"当要购买小农场的咖啡豆时,要找到不含任何卡斯提优的批次越来越难,"他说。

Castillo is also near Eduardo Florez’s heart. He is a Colombian entrepreneur who has a stall in the Borough Market in London, where he sells the coffee he roasts in his garage in Brighton. He sources small batches for his business, and has found some very special Castillos. “Once I saw one that had peach notes”, he points out, excited. “Imagine how delicate is that!”

卡斯提优也深得爱德华多·弗洛雷斯(Eduardo Florez)的心。他是一位哥伦比亚企业家,在伦敦的博罗市场(Borough Market)开了一个咖啡摊点,他出售的是他在布莱顿(Brighton)的车库烘焙的咖啡。他会购买小批次的咖啡豆,并且找到一些非常特别的卡斯提优。"有一次,我还找到了一款带有桃子味的。"他兴奋的指给我看,"你想象一下味道该有多细腻!"

At Florez’s garage, I decided to do my own (non-expert and non-representative) blind cupping. I tasted four samples at Florez’s garage without knowing the variety of each one.

在弗洛雷斯的车库,我决定亲自做一场杯测(我不是专家,也没有代表性)。我在不知道咖啡品种的情况下,品尝了四个样品。

One of them was complex and worth sipping many times: its fruit-like acidity and sweetness were in a dance of sorts, where each flavour did not cancel but complement and enhance each other. Another one, well, tasted like the office ‘joe’: the sort of brew you drink just to keep going. The other two were somewhere between the good one and the plain one.

其中之一的风味复杂,值得多次啜饮:它的水果般的酸甜度好像在跳舞,每种风味都没有互相抵消,而是互相补充和增强。另一个样品尝起来像是办公室咖啡,是喝了以后非常提神的那种。另外两种则介于这个好的和普通的样品之间。

But the one I liked the most? The one with the fruity flavours and sweetness? It was a Castillo.

我最喜欢的有水果风味和甜度的样品是什么?正是卡斯提优。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表