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部分肯尼迪遇刺文件公开,重重疑团未解

更新时间:2017-10-28 10:46:39 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

J.F.K. Files, Though Incomplete, Are a Treasure Trove for Answer Seekers
部分肯尼迪遇刺文件公开,重重疑团未解

WASHINGTON — President Trump ordered the long-awaited release on Thursday of 2,800 documents related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, but bowed to protests by the C.I.A. and F.B.I. by withholding thousands of additional papers pending six more months of review.

华盛顿——特朗普总统下令在星期四公开人们期待已久的2800份与肯尼迪总统遇刺有关的文件,但是他向CIA和FBI的抗议作出了让步,扣下了另外数千份文件,进行六个月的额外审查。

The papers were posted online by the National Archives and Records Administration around 7:30 p.m. Thursday in compliance with a 1992 law, and represent a treasure trove for investigators, historians and conspiracy theorists who have spent more than half a century searching for clues to what really happened in Dallas on that fateful day in 1963.

这些文件是根据1992年的一项法律,由国家档案和记录管理局(National Archives and Records Administration)在周四晚上7:30左右在线发布的,它代表了一座宝藏,在半个多世纪的时间里,调查人员、历史学家和阴谋论者一直在寻找线索,想知道1963年命运攸关的那一天在达拉斯究竟发生了什么。

But following a chaotic last-minute campaign by intelligence agencies lobbying for selected redactions, Mr. Trump agreed to postpone the disclosure of other documents while officials screen them again for sensitive information.

但是,情报机构要求对文件一些地方进行涂黑处理,他们的游说努力进行到了最后一刻,在一阵混乱之后,特朗普同意推迟披露其他文件,官员们再次对敏感信息进行筛选。

In a memo to government agencies involved in the process, the president ordered officials to report back by March 12 with any requests to further withhold information in those documents, and set a deadline for releasing all files by April 26 except those for which a compelling case has been made for continued secrecy.

参与其中的政府机构收到了一份备忘录,总统命令官员们在明年3月12日之前回报是否要求继续保留这些文件中的信息,并在4月26日之前确定一个发布所有文件的截止日期,除非有令人信服的继续保密的理由。

“I am ordering today that the veil finally be lifted,” Mr. Trump said in the memo. But given the concerns raised by the intelligence officials, he said, “I have no choice — today — but to accept those redactions rather than allow potentially irreversible harm to our nation’s security.”

“今天我下令最终除去面纱,”特朗普在备忘录中说。但鉴于情报人员的担心,他说:“今天我别无选择,只能接受这些涂黑,而不是对我们国家的安全造成潜在的、不可逆转的伤害。”

In his memo on Thursday, Mr. Trump sternly instructed the agencies that they “should be extremely circumspect” in requesting redactions, noting that “the need for continued protection can only have grown weaker with the passage of time.”

在星期四的备忘录中,特朗普严厉要求各机构在作出文件涂黑要求时应“非常谨慎”,指出“随着时间的流逝,继续保护这些信息的必要性会变得越来越弱”。

His deferral to the C.I.A. and F.B.I. invariably will lead to suspicions that the government is still protecting sensational secrets about the case. Administration officials said there was no cover-up, just an effort to avoid compromising national security, law enforcement or intelligence gathering methods.

他此番对CIA和FBI的要求作出让步,必定将令人怀疑政府仍然在保护这宗案件中的惊天秘密。行政官员说不存在掩盖,这么做只是为了避免危害国家安全、执法或情报搜集方法。

For conspiracy theorists, the Kennedy assassination has been the holy grail, one that has produced an endless string of books, reports, lectures, articles, websites, documentaries and big-screen Hollywood movies. It was the first murder of an American president in the television age, touching off a wave of global grief for a charismatic young leader while also spawning a cottage industry of skeptical questioning of the official version of events.

在阴谋论者看来,肯尼迪暗杀事件一直都是“圣杯”(指最大的秘密——译注),它催生了一连串的书籍、报告、讲座、文章、网站、纪录片和大银幕好莱坞电影。这是电视时代到来后的第一次美国总统谋杀事件,一位魅力十足的年轻领导人之死在全球引发了悲伤,同时也创造了一个对官方在这件事上的说法持怀疑态度的“民间产业”。

Every government authority that has examined the investigation of his death, from the Warren Commission to congressional investigators, concluded that Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald, who fired three shots with a mail-order rifle from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository when the presidential motorcade passed by on Nov. 22, 1963. But that has never satisfied the doubters, and polls have consistently shown that most Americans still believe that someone other than Oswald must have been involved.

从沃伦委员会(Warren Commission)到国会调查人员,每一个对肯尼迪死亡事件的调查活动作出审查的政府机构都认定:肯尼迪是被李·哈维·奥斯瓦尔德(Lee Harvey Oswald)所杀,那是1963年11月22日,他在德克萨斯州教材仓库大楼的六楼,用一支邮购的步枪向经过的总统车队开了三枪,但是这个说法从来没有让怀疑者感到满意,民意测验反复显示,大多数美国人仍然认为,除了奥斯瓦尔德以外一定还有其他人参与其中。

Did Oswald secretly work for the C.I.A. or F.B.I.? The Cubans or the Soviets? Or maybe the Mafia? Was there more than one gunman? Was the president actually shot from a grassy knoll in front of the motorcade? Did someone order Jack Ruby to kill Oswald? Did the C.I.A., F.B.I. or Secret Service miss opportunities to prevent the assassination? Was Lyndon B. Johnson somehow behind it, as Roger J. Stone Jr., an adviser, to Mr. Trump has asserted? Was the father of Senator Ted Cruz involved, as Mr. Trump alleged last year?

奥斯瓦尔德暗中为CIA或FBI工作?为古巴人或苏联人工作?或者是黑社会?枪手不止一个吗?向总统开枪的地点实际上是在车队前方的一个草丘吗?是不是有人命令杰克·鲁比(Jack Ruby)杀死奥斯瓦尔德的?CIA、FBI或特勤局错过了防止暗杀的机会?特朗普的顾问小罗杰·史密斯(Roger J. Stone Jr.)认为,林登·R·约翰逊(Lyndon B. Johnson)是幕后元凶,真的是这样吗?特朗普去年说参议员特德·克鲁兹(Ted Cruz)的父亲参与了这事,这是真的吗?

While the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted alone, the House Select Committee on Assassinations said in a 1979 report that Kennedy “was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy” but did not identify who those conspirators might have been. It specifically ruled out the Soviet Union, Fidel Castro’s Cuba, Cubans opposed to Mr. Castro, the Mafia, the F.B.I., C.I.A. and the Secret Service, although it said it could not preclude that individuals affiliated with some of those groups might have been involved.

虽然沃伦委员会认为,暗杀行动是奥斯瓦尔德独自一人所为,但众议院的这个遇刺案特别委员会在1979年的一份报告中表示,肯尼迪“可能是由于阴谋而被暗杀的”,但没有说阴谋者有可能是谁。它明确将苏联、菲德尔·卡斯特罗统治的古巴、反对卡斯特罗的古巴人、黑社会、FBI、CIA和特勤处排除在外,虽然它也表示不能排除与其中一些群体有联系的个人可能参与其中。

In theory, the release of documents on Thursday marks the beginning of the end of the disclosure of the assassination archives. But historians warned that even the final batch of documents may not definitively satisfy the skeptics. And it may take weeks, months or even longer to fully examine the documents released on Thursday.

从理论上讲,星期四发布的文件标志着暗杀档案发布进入尾声。但历史学家警告说,即使是最后一批文件也不能令怀疑者满意。星期四公布的文件可能需要数周、数月甚至更长的时间才能彻底看完。

The release of the documents owes as much to the moviemaker Oliver Stone as anyone else. His 1991 blockbuster movie, “J.F.K.,” starred Kevin Costner as Jim Garrison, the New Orleans district attorney who pursued conspiracy theories about the assassination. While the movie was panned by many scholars, Mr. Stone included a title card at the end noting that records from the House committee investigation were closed until 2029, fueling suspicions.

这批文件的发布,对电影制作人奥利弗·斯通(Oliver Stone)也是一个交代。在他1991年的大片《刺杀肯尼迪》(JFK)中,凯文·科斯特纳(Kevin Costner)主演的新奥尔良地方检察官吉米·加里森(Jim Garrison)追查了暗杀阴谋的说法。虽然这部电影遭到了很多学者的诟病,但是斯通在电影最后加上了一个字幕卡片,说众议院委员会的调查记录将在2029年公开,令人更增怀疑。

Congress stepped in and passed the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act, which was signed into law by President George Bush on Oct. 26, 1992. The act mandated that all records concerning the assassination should be released no later than 25 years from that date, which was Thursday, unless the sitting president at the time authorized further withholding for national security reasons.

国会采取行动,在1992年10月26日通过了《约翰·F·肯尼迪总统遇刺档案收集法案》(President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act),经过乔治·布什(George Bush)总统签署之后成为法律。它规定所有关于暗杀的记录应在不迟于从当天算起的25年后公布,除非届时的总统由于国家安全原因选择进一步保密。

The database that was created as a result of the law contains information on more than 319,000 documents, according to the archives. In the years since the law was passed, the archives has released 88 percent of those documents in full and an additional 11 percent with portions redacted. Until Thursday, just 1 percent had been withheld in full. Most remained secret because they were declared “not assassination related” or “not believed relevant.”

档案显示,根据该法律创建的数据库共有逾31.9万份文件。自从该法律通过以来,档案中88%的文件全面公开,另外11%做了部分涂黑。直到星期四,只有1%处在全文保密的状态,其中大多是因为它们被指“与暗杀无关”或“被认为不重要”。

Officials said many of those were documents created as late as the 1990s to explain to members of the document review board how intelligence collection worked and were not specific to the Kennedy case, but could reveal methods that should remain protected.

官员表示,这些文件中有许多是1990年代创建的,旨在向文件审查委员会成员解释情报如何搜集,而不是特定于肯尼迪一案,它们可能会泄露本应保护的方法。

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