您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

肯尼迪遇刺:冷战阴谋、黑帮行动还是联邦政变?

更新时间:2017-10-28 10:44:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The J.F.K. Files: Decades of Doubts and Conspiracy Theories
肯尼迪遇刺:冷战阴谋、黑帮行动还是联邦政变?

The granddaddy of all conspiracy theories has re-emerged in the American psyche with the planned release of the National Archives’s final trove of records about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

随着美国国家档案馆(National Archives)计划公开有关约翰·F·肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)总统遇刺案的最后一批档案,各种阴谋论的始祖再次浮现在美国人心头。

Kennedy’s death on Nov. 22, 1963, and the numerous investigations that followed were simultaneously some of the most secretive and public events in modern history.

肯尼迪1963年11月22日的死亡和随后的大量调查,是现代历史上最神秘同时也是最公开的事件。

Government agencies, Hollywood big shots and amateur sleuths have floated theories of what happened to Kennedy: a plot by Cold War adversaries like Cuba and the Soviet Union; an elaborate mafia-backed hit; a covert federal government coup. And it’s been going on for over 50 years.

对于肯尼迪身上发生的事情,政府机构、好莱坞大亨和业余侦探都提出了自己的理论:它是古巴和苏联等冷战对手的一场阴谋、是一次精心策划并得到了黑帮支持的行动、是一场秘密联邦政府政变。这种众说纷纭的状况已经持续了50多年。

‘A wound in the brain’

“脑部受伤”

Kennedy’s was one of the most public murders in history, a victim shot in front of hundreds of spectators, with a coterie of news reporters in tow. Page One of The Times blared the news of the assassination, reporting that “he died of a wound in the brain caused by a rifle bullet that was fired at him as he was riding through downtown Dallas in a motorcade.”

肯尼迪遇刺是史上最公开的谋杀案之一。受害人在数百名观众面前被开枪击中,紧接着出现了大量新闻报道。刺杀新闻出现在时报头版,称“总统车队经过达拉斯市中心时他被步枪子弹击中,死于脑伤”。

The report chronicled the swift chaos of the day, from Kennedy’s pre-breakfast speech to Lyndon B. Johnson’s swearing-in as president on Air Force One a few hours later.

这篇报道按时序记述了当天迅速上演的混乱局面,从肯尼迪在早餐前的讲话,到几个小时后林登·B·约翰逊(Lyndon B. Johnson)在“空军一号”上宣誓就任总统。

Mr. Johnson, who was uninjured in the shooting, took his oath in the Presidential jet plane as it stood on the runway at Love Field. The body of Mr. Kennedy was aboard. Immediately after the oath-taking, the plane took off for Washington.

未在枪击事件中受伤的约翰逊,在停在拉夫菲尔德(Love Field)机场跑道上的总统专机上宣誓。肯尼迪的遗体也在飞机上。宣誓结束后,飞机立即飞往华盛顿。

Standing beside the new President as Mr. Johnson took the oath of office was Mrs. John F. Kennedy. Her stockings were spattered with her husband’s blood.

约翰逊宣誓就职时,约翰·F·肯尼迪夫人就站在新总统的旁边,袜子上还溅有她丈夫的血。

Lee Harvey Oswald

李·哈维·奥斯瓦尔德(Lee Harvey Oswald)

“Lee H. Oswald, who once defected to the Soviet Union and who has been active in the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, was arrested by the Dallas police,” The Times reported on the same front page. “Tonight he was accused of the killing.”

“李·H·奥斯瓦尔德被达拉斯警方逮捕。他曾经叛逃到苏联,并在公平对待古巴委员会(Fair Play for Cuba Committee)表现活跃,”时报在头版还报道。“今晚,他被控制造了这起谋杀。”

Immediately after the shooting, a witness told reporters that as “shots rang out he saw a rifle extended and then withdrawn from a window on the “fifth or sixth floor” of the Texas School Book Depository.

枪击事件发生后,马上就有一名目击者对记者表示,枪声响起的时候,他看到得克萨斯州教材仓库大楼(Texas School Book Depository)“五楼或六楼”的一扇窗户里伸出来一把步枪,然后又缩了回去。

Oswald, a former Marine, had become “a changed man with a new and bewildering personality when he returned to the United States in 1962,” according to his wife, Marina, whom he married while living in Russia.

据奥斯瓦尔德的妻子玛丽娜(Marina)说,曾是海军陆战队员的他“1962年回到美国时像变了个人似的,新表现出的性格令人不解”。两人是在奥斯瓦尔德在俄罗斯生活期间结婚的。

He was famously shot dead by Jack Ruby while in police custody on Nov. 24, two days after the assassination.

众所周知,刺杀事件发生两天后的11月24日,奥斯瓦尔德在警方羁押下死于杰克·鲁比(Jack Ruby)的枪口。

The Warren Commission: discrediting ‘myths’

沃伦委员会(The Warren Commission):质疑‘虚假言论’

A week after Kennedy’s death, Johnson convened a government body to investigate it, led by Chief Justice Earl Warren.

肯尼迪死后一周,约翰逊成立了一个政府机构调查此事,由首席大法官厄尔·沃伦(Earl Warren)领导。

The nearly yearlong investigation included the private testimony of Jacqueline Kennedy. Many of the findings, like the infamous “magic-bullet theory,” have been contested.

历时近一年的调查包括杰奎琳·肯尼迪(Jacqueline Kennedy)的秘密证词。很多调查结果,包括臭名昭著的“神奇子弹论”,都受到了质疑。

Ultimately, the commission ruled that Oswald had acted alone, rejecting any idea that Russia or Cuba officially backed him, but demanded reforms from the F.B.I. and the Secret Service.

最终,该委员会否定了奥斯瓦尔德得到了俄罗斯或古巴官方支持的观点,判定他是独自行动,但要求联邦调查局(FBI)和特勤局(Secret Service)进行改革。

The commission, saying that the “‘publicizing of unchecked information’ had led to ‘myths’ and ‘distorted’ interpretations,” also tried to discredit the multiplying conspiracy theories behind the assassination. It didn’t work.

该委员会称“‘宣传未经核实的信息’造成了‘虚假言论’和‘歪曲’的解读”,也试图质疑刺杀事件背后成倍增长的阴谋论。但收效甚微。

Investigated again. And again.

反复调查

At least two more official federal government panels convened in the 1960s and ’70s to relitigate the shooting. In 1969, Attorney General Ramsey Clark appointed four medical experts to re-examine scientific evidence, in part as a response to an investigation by the New Orleans district attorney, Jim Garrison. Clark’s panel backed the Warren Commission’s assertion that only two bullets had killed the president.

60和70年代,至少又成立了两个正式的联邦政府小组对这起枪击事件重新提起诉讼。1969年,司法部长拉姆西·克拉克(Ramsey Clark)任命四名医疗专家重新检视科学证据,作为回应新奥尔良地方检察官吉姆·加里森(Jim Garrison)发起的一项调查的部分内容。克拉克的调查小组支持沃伦委员会关于杀害总统只有两颗子弹的论断。

In 1979, the House Select Committee on Assassinations, dogged by internal strife during its two and a half years of existence, released a report saying that untold conspirators had probably participated in the killing, citing newly uncovered evidence and scientific advances.

1979年,众议院遇刺案特别委员会(House Select Committee on Assassinations)发布了一份报告,援引新发现的证据和科技进步称,可能有未被提到的同谋参与这起谋杀案。在其存在的两年半时间里,该委员会内部冲突不断。

According to the committee, Oswald fired three shots from the sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository Building and an unidentified person fired one shot from the grassy knoll in front of the President’s limousine.

据该委员会称,奥斯瓦尔德从得克萨斯州教材仓库大楼六楼的窗户开了三枪,一个身份不明的人从总统专车前方的草丘处开了一枪。

The committee cited witnesses in its findings of a second gunman, including:

该委员会在其调查结果中引用了多名见过另一名枪手的目击者的话,其中包括:

… a police officer who said he heard a shot from the knoll and ran immediately toward it. There he encountered a man who said he was with the Secret Service and displayed a badge, which the policemen did not inspect very closely.

……一名警察说他听到草丘那里传来枪声,马上跑了过去。在那里,他遇到了一个自称来自特勤局并出示了徽章的人,但这名警察检查得不是非常仔细。

A check of the placement of Secret Service agents, however, disclosed that none had been in the area of the knoll.

然而,查看特勤局人员部署情况后发现,并没有人安排在草丘区域。

Over the years, the Warren Commission findings remained in doubt in some circles. In 1988, David W. Belin, a lawyer who had advised the commission, wrote:

多年来,沃伦委员会的调查结果依然受到一些群体的质疑。1988年,曾担任该委员会顾问的律师戴维·W·贝林(David W. Belin)写道:

Yet 25 years after the event, a majority of the American public does not believe the truth. Rather, polls have shown that most Americans believe President Kennedy was assassinated as an outgrowth of a conspiracy.

但事情发生25年后,美国多数民众仍不相信事实。调查显示,大部分美国人认为,肯尼迪总统被刺杀是一场阴谋的结果。

In 1991, the conspiracy reignited in the form of a major Hollywood movie.

1991年,这场阴谋以一部好莱坞大片的形式再度出现。

‘J.F.K.’ and rewriting history

‘《刺杀肯尼迪》’(J.F.K.)与改编历史

In 1969, a jury took only 50 minutes to acquit a man named Clay Shaw of conspiring to assassinate Kennedy.

1969年,一个陪审团仅用50分钟便裁定一个名叫克莱·肖(Clay Shaw)的男子密谋刺杀肯尼迪罪名不成立。

The Oliver Stone movie “J.F.K.” in 1991 reimagined both that 34-day trial, called a “circus” by many, and the extensive investigation by Garrison, the New Orleans district attorney.

1991年,奥利弗·斯通(Oliver Stone)执导的电影《刺杀肯尼迪》再现了这场历时34天、被很多人称作“马戏”的审判,和新奥尔良地方检察官加里森主导的那场大规模调查。

As The Times wrote in Garrison’s 1992 obituary:

正如1992年时报在加里森的讣告中所写的那样:

Announcing that he had “solved the assassination,” Mr. Garrison accused anti-Communist and anti-Castro extremists in the Central Intelligence Agency of plotting the President’s death to thwart an easing of tension with the Soviet Union and Cuba, and to prevent a retreat from Vietnam.

加里森宣布自己“侦破了刺杀案”,指控中央情报局(Central Intelligence Agency)内部的反共和反卡斯特罗极端分子暗中策划了杀害总统一事,以阻挠缓和同苏联和古巴的紧张关系,并阻止从越南撤军。

Garrison, whom The Times described in a lengthy 1967 profile as a headline-seeking crusader with political aspirations long before the Shaw trial, was an adviser for the film, which renewed calls for answers but was criticized by many as a rewriting of history.

加里森是该片的顾问。影片再次引发了要求获得真相的呼声,但也有很多人指责它不忠实历史。早在肖受审之前的1967年,时报就在一个长篇人物特稿中称加里森是一个有政治抱负、希望登上头条的斗士。

Mr. Stone addressed these accusations in a Times Op-Ed:

斯通在时报的一篇评论文章中回应了这些指控:

My critics are outraged that I pose the view that Kennedy’s desire to wind down the cold war and the Vietnam War is a possible motive for the murder. When a leader of any country is assassinated, the media normally ask: “What political forces were opposed to this leader and would benefit from his assassination?”

批评我的人愤怒的是,我提出了肯尼迪希望停止冷战和越战可能是这场谋杀案的动机这个观点。任何一个国家的领导人遇刺时,媒体通常都会问:“什么政治力量反对这位领导人并会从其遇刺中受益?”

The film is partly credited with the passage, the year after it was released, of the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act. The law mandated the release of all the government archives on the assassination within 25 years, by Oct. 26, 2017.

这部影片在一定程度上促成了《约翰·F·肯尼迪总统暗杀记录收集法案》(President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act)在影片上映后的第二年获得通过。该法要求在25年内,也就是2017年10月26日之前公开与该刺杀事件有关的所有政府档案。

Case closed? It’s more complicated than that

结案?比这更复杂

Thousands of records have been declassified since, many shedding more light on American foreign policy than on the assassination. Some files detailed the president’s plans to exit the conflict in Vietnam; others showed how Fidel Castro feared the United States would retaliate against Cuba after the assassination. A large trove uncovered the ideas — ranging from the rote to the James Bond-like — that the Pentagon had floated for dealing with Cuba.

自那时以来,已有数千份记录解密,其中很多都是揭秘美国的外交政策而不是那场刺杀。一些档案详细记述了肯尼迪总统退出越战的计划,其他一些表明刺杀事件后,菲德尔卡·斯特罗(Fidel Castro)非常担心美国会报复古巴。大量文件曝光了五角大楼提出的对付古巴的办法,从生搬硬套的老办法到詹姆斯·邦德(James Bond)式的奇思妙想。

Public interest in the most recent release by the National Archives, in July 2017, nearly crashed its servers, Politico reported.

Politico报道称,公众对国家档案馆上一次,也就是2017年7月公开档案的兴趣,几乎导致档案馆服务器崩溃。

The release of the final papers may only fuel more conspiracy theories, as did the first set of files, made public in 1993:

最后一批文件的公开,可能只会引发更多阴谋论,就像1993年公开第一批档案时那样:

For those who believe that the assassination was the sole work of Oswald, an ex-marine who had failed in nearly every endeavor, including an attempt to defect to Moscow, the newly released documents offer the final proof. And for those who believe that Oswald did not act alone, the documents also offer substantiation.

前海军陆战队员奥斯瓦尔德之前的几乎每一次尝试都失败了,包括试图叛逃到莫斯科。对那些相信刺杀是他一人所为的人来说,新公开的文件给出了最终的证据。而对那些认为奥斯瓦尔德不是独自行动的人来说,这些文件也给出了证据。

“This will feed another generation of assassination buffs, the children of assassination buffs,” said Edward Jay Epstein, who wrote three books and an anthology on the assassination.

“这将催生一代又一代刺杀迷,”撰写了三部和这起刺杀事件有关的著作和一本选集的爱德华·杰伊·爱泼斯坦(Edward Jay Epstein)说。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表