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那些被恐怖分子用作人体炸弹的女孩

更新时间:2017-10-26 18:41:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Boko Haram Strapped Suicide Bombs to Them. Somehow These Teenage Girls Survived.
那些被恐怖分子用作人体炸弹的女孩

MAIDUGURI, Nigeria — The girls didn’t want to kill anyone. They walked in silence for a while, the weight of the explosives around their waists pulling down on them as they fingered the detonators and tried to think of a way out.

尼日利亚迈杜古里——那两个女孩并不想杀人。她们默默地走了一会儿,腰上沉重的炸药开始往下坠,她们用手指拨弄导火索,试图想出脱身之法。

“I don’t know how to get this thing off me,” Hadiza, 16, recalled saying as she headed out on her mission.

“我不知道该怎么把这东西从我身上弄掉,”16岁的哈迪扎(Hadiza)在回忆自己出发去执行任务时的情形时说。

“What are you going to do with yours?” she asked the 12-year-old girl next to her, who was also wearing a bomb.

“你有什么办法么?”她问身旁的12岁女孩,后者也绑着一个炸弹。

“I’m going to go off by myself and blow myself up,” the girl responded hopelessly.

“我会自己引爆,把自己炸了,”那个女孩绝望地回答说。

It was all happening so fast. After being kidnapped by Boko Haram this year, Hadiza was confronted by a fighter in the camp where she was being held hostage. He wanted to “marry” her. She rejected him.

一切发生得太快了。今年被博科哈拉姆(Boko Haram)绑架后,哈迪扎在扣押自己的营地里遇到了一名武装分子。他想“娶”她。她拒绝了他。

“You’ll regret this,” the fighter told her.

“你会后悔的,”此人告诉她。

A few days later, she was brought before a Boko Haram leader. He told her she would be going to the happiest place she could imagine. Hadiza thought she was going home. He was talking about heaven.

几天后,她被带到了博科哈拉姆的一名头目面前。他对她说,她要去她能想到的最快乐的地方了。哈迪扎以为自己要回家了。他说的其实是天堂。

They came for her at night, she said, grabbing a suicide belt and attaching it to her waist. The fighters then sent her and the 12-year-old girl out on foot, alone, telling them to detonate the bombs at a camp for Nigerian civilians who have fled the violence Boko Haram has inflicted on the region.

她说,他们晚上来找她,拿起一条自杀腰带,绑到了她的腰上。随后,武装分子让她和那名12岁女孩独自徒步出发,去一个尼日利亚平民难民营引爆炸弹,那些人是为了逃离博科哈拉姆对该地区的暴力袭击而沦为难民的。

“I knew I would die and kill other people, too,” Hadiza recalled. “I didn’t want that.”

“我知道我会死去,还会害死别人,”哈迪扎回忆说,“我不想那样。”

Northeastern Nigeria, now in its eighth year of war with Boko Haram, has become a place afraid of its own girls.

与博科哈拉姆的战斗已进入第八个年头,尼日利亚东北部已变成一个连自己家的姑娘都害怕的地方。

So far this year, militants have carried out more than twice as many suicide bombings than they did in all of 2016, and the attacks keep coming.

今年到目前为止,武装分子实施的自杀式爆炸袭击是2016年全年的两倍多,而且还在不断发生。

According to UNICEF, more than 110 children have been used as suicide bombers since the start of the year — at least 76 of them girls. Most were under 15 years old. One girl blew herself up along with a baby strapped to her back.

据联合国儿童基金会(UNICEF)称,自今年年初以来,已有逾110名儿童被用于自杀式炸弹袭击,其中至少有76名女孩。这些孩子大多不到15岁。一个女孩爆炸时,背上还绑着一个婴儿。

Bombers here at the center of the battle against Boko Haram have struck mosques, marketplaces, checkpoints, camps for displaced civilians and anywhere else people gather, including a single polo field attacked multiple times. Trenches have been dug around the University of Maiduguri, a frequent bombing target, in hopes of slowing down attackers.

在与博科哈拉姆战斗的中心,炸弹引爆者袭击了清真寺、集市、检查站、流亡平民的营地,以及其他任何人群聚集的地方,有一个马球场多次遭到袭击。经常遭到袭击的迈杜古里大学(University of Maiduguri)在校园周围挖起了壕沟,以期减少袭击。

The deployment of children has become so frighteningly common that officials in the areas where Boko Haram operates are warning citizens to be on the lookout for girl bombers. A huge billboard here in Maiduguri — the Nigerian city where Boko Haram was born — proclaims “Stop Terrorism” with the image of a scowling, wild-eyed girl with explosives on her chest, clutching a detonator.

把儿童用作人体炸弹的情况非常普遍,所以在博科哈拉姆活动的地区,官员们警告平民要留意被用作人体炸弹的女孩。博科哈拉姆就是在尼日利亚城市迈杜古里诞生的,这里的一个大型广告牌呼吁“停止恐怖主义”,配图是一个满面怒容、目光凶狠的女孩,她的胸上绑着炸药,手里抓着导火索。

Officials are publicly urging parents not to hand over their children to Boko Haram for use as bombers, while the military is circulating a video telling bombers they can surrender. It features an 11-year-old girl.

官员们公开敦促家长不要把孩子交给博科哈拉姆用作人体炸弹;军方在传播一段视频,告知炸弹袭击者他们可以投降。视频的主角是一个11岁的女孩。

“Do not allow them to tie explosives on you,” says the girl in the video. “It is dangerous.”

“不要让他们把炸药绑在你身上,”视频中的女孩说。“那很危险。”

The public service ad paints bombers and their families as Boko Haram collaborators who either support the militants’ campaign of terror, or were brainwashed or drugged into doing so.

公益广告将炸弹袭击者和他们的家人描绘成博科哈拉姆的同伙,他们要么支持武装分子的恐怖活动,要么是被洗脑或下了迷药。

But The New York Times tracked down and interviewed 18 girls in Nigeria who were sent on suicide missions by Boko Haram. Their accounts shatter the narrative often perpetuated by officials.

不过,《纽约时报》追踪采访了尼日利亚的18名被博科哈拉姆派去执行自杀任务的女孩。她们的陈述粉碎了官员们的常见说法。

Far from having been willing participants, the girls described being kidnapped and held hostage, with family members killed during their capture.

这些女孩说自己不是自愿参与的,而是被绑架了,变成了人质,在被绑架的过程中还有一些家人遇害。

All of the girls recounted how armed militants forcibly tied suicide belts to their waists, or thrust bombs into their hands, before pushing them toward crowds of people. Most were told that their religion compelled them to carry out the orders. And all of them resisted, preventing the attacks by begging ordinary citizens or the authorities to help them.

这些女孩都讲述了武装分子如何强行把自杀腰带绑在她们腰上,或者把炸弹塞到她们手里,然后把她们推向人群。她们中的大部分人被告知,她们的宗教信仰要求她们执行那些命令。她们所有人都很抗拒,通过乞求普通平民或当局帮助她们来阻止袭击。

For these girls and others, even approaching the authorities to ask for help was exceedingly dangerous. Soldiers and civilians at checkpoints are on high alert for anyone suspicious — and usually that means any woman or girl, most of whom wear long headscarves and garments that could cover an explosive belt. In just the last three months of 2016, the United Nations says, 13 children from 11 to 17 years old were killed after they were wrongly thought to be suicide bombers.

对于这些女孩以及其他被用作人体炸弹的女孩来说,甚至连向当局求助都很危险。检查站的士兵和平民对任何可疑人士都高度戒备——这通常是指任何女人或女孩,她们中的大多数人戴着长长的头巾,穿着可以覆盖爆炸腰带的宽松长袍。据联合国称,在2016年的最后三个月里,有13名11到17岁的儿童因被误以为是自杀式炸弹袭击者而被杀。

Most of the girls interviewed said, like Hadiza, that they had been deployed as bombers after refusing to be married off to a fighter. For years Boko Haram fighters have forced girls into “marriage,” a euphemism for rape, sometimes impregnating them.

大多数接受采访的女孩都说,和哈迪扎一样,她们在拒绝嫁给一名武装分子后,被安排充当人体炸弹。多年来,博科哈拉姆武装分子强迫女孩子跟他们“结婚”——这是强奸的委婉说法——有时导致她们怀孕。

Many of the girls echoed Hadiza’s account, saying the militants had promised them paradise in exchange for pushing a red detonator button. The girls, nearly all involved in planned attacks within the past year, were dropped off along empty roads as gun-toting fighters stayed back at a distance to watch them walk toward their targets.

很多女孩的说法跟哈迪扎的一致,称武装分子向她们保证,只要按下红色引爆按钮,就能上天堂。这些女孩在过去的一年里几乎都参与了预先计划好的袭击,她们被丢在空旷的路上,持枪的武装分子在远处盯着她们走向袭击目标。

Maimuma, 14, whom militants told to bomb a group of soldiers, said she didn’t want to become like the dozens of other girls who have blown themselves up, taking bystanders with them. She knows that many people suspect she is a Boko Haram collaborator. But she argues that she and other girls like her should be praised for defying the militants.

14岁的迈穆玛(Maimuma)被武装分子要求去炸死一群士兵,她说她不想像其他那几十个女孩那样被炸死。她知道很多人怀疑她是博科哈拉姆的同伙。但她认为,她和其他像她一样的女孩应该因反抗武装分子而受到赞扬。

“Some people see me as part of Boko Haram,” she said. “Some people see me as a hero.”

“有些人认为我是博科哈拉姆的一分子,”她说。“也有些人认为我是英雄。”

The girls who were sent on suicide missions now try to blend into teenage life in Maiduguri. Nearly all had their schooling interrupted by the war. They are eager to return. They dream of becoming teachers, doctors or lawyers.

那些被派去执行自杀式袭击任务的女孩现在试图融入迈杜古里的青少年生活。她们几乎都因战争而中断了学业。她们渴望返回校园。她们梦想成为教师、医生或律师。

They value their religion and say they were unconvinced by Boko Haram’s insistence that Islam supports suicide bombings. Some worry that God would have punished them had they accidentally set off the bombs attached to them.

她们珍视自己的宗教信仰,并表示,她们不相信博科哈拉姆认为伊斯兰教支持自杀式爆炸的执念。她们中的一些人担心,如果她们当时不小心引爆了绑在身上的炸弹,真主会惩罚她们。

In most cases, the girls told no one about their missions, other than the security forces who helped them. Some girls did not even tell their parents, frightened of being rejected. Those who did were told not to repeat their stories, for fear they would be labeled Boko Haram sympathizers.

在大多数情况下,除了帮助她们的安全部队外,女孩们没有跟任何人说起她们的任务。有些女孩甚至没有告诉父母,因为害怕遭到排斥。那些告诉父母的女孩被告知不要跟别人讲她们的故事,因为担心她们被认为是博科哈拉姆的同情者。

When Hadiza and the 12-year-old girl approached a checkpoint, she was scared of what the soldiers might do. Hadiza told the younger girl to wait by a tree in the distance while she explained their predicament to the soldiers. She knew the girl would raise suspicion because she was too young to be walking in the bush without a parent.

哈迪扎和那个12岁的女孩走近一个检查站时,她为士兵们可能会做的事感到恐惧。哈迪扎让那个小女孩在远处的一棵树旁等着,她去跟士兵们解释她们的困境。她知道那个女孩会引起怀疑,因为她年纪太小,不大可能在没有父母陪同的情况下独自在树丛中行走。

“She was such a small girl,” Hadiza said.

“她还那么小,”哈迪扎说。

The soldiers believed her and helped the girls take off their explosives belts before splitting them up for questioning. Hadiza was eventually taken to a camp for displaced people. She still doesn’t know where her mother is, or if she is even alive. But her father showed up at the camp a few weeks after she did. When she told him what happened, he cried, both horrified and relieved.

士兵们相信了她的话,帮助两个女孩取下炸药腰带,然后把她们分开审问。哈迪扎最终被送往一个难民营。她依然不知道母亲在哪里,也不知道她是否还活着。不过数周后,她的父亲出现在了那个营地。她跟他讲了发生的事情,他大哭了起来,既是因为恐惧,也是因为松了一口气。

“He would never reject me,” she said. “He was so happy I survived.”

“他永远不会不要我,”她说。“他很高兴我活了下来。”

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