您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

在缅甸人的口中,没有种族清洗和罗辛亚人大屠杀

更新时间:2017-10-26 12:15:03 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Across Myanmar, Denial of Ethnic Cleansing and Loathing of Rohingya
在缅甸人的口中,没有种族清洗和罗辛亚人大屠杀

SITTWE, Myanmar — The Buddhist abbot tucked his legs under his robes and began to explain.

缅甸实兑——这位佛教住持把双腿盘在长袍下,开始解释。

Rohingya Muslims do not belong in Myanmar, and they never have, he said. Their fertility allowed them to overwhelm the local Buddhist population. But now, somehow, many Rohingya seemed to be gone.

他说,罗辛亚穆斯林不属于缅甸,从来都不是。他们旺盛的生育能力导致他们的人数超过了当地的佛教徒。但是现在,不知为何,很多罗辛亚人似乎消失了。

“We thank the Lord Buddha for this,” said Thu Min Gala, the 57-year-old abbot of the Damarama Monastery in Sittwe, the capital of Rakhine state in western Myanmar. “They stole our land, our food and our water. We will never accept them back.”

“这要感谢佛祖,”57岁的杜敏加拉(Thu Min Gala)说。他是缅甸西部若开邦首府实兑的达玛拉玛寺(Damarama Monastery)的住持。“他们窃取了我们的土地、食物和水。我们永远不欢迎他们回来。”

An overwhelming body of published accounts has detailed the Myanmar army’s campaign of killing, rape and arson in Rakhine, which has driven more than 600,000 Rohingya out of the country since late August, in what the United Nations says is the fastest displacement of a people since the Rwanda genocide.

大量公布的报道详细描述了缅甸政府军在若开邦的杀戮、强奸和纵火活动,自8月下旬以来,已有60多万罗辛亚人被迫离开该国,联合国称这是自卢旺达大屠杀以来最快速的人口迁移。

But in Myanmar, and even in Rakhine itself, there is stark denial that any ethnic cleansing is taking place.

但在缅甸,甚至在若开邦,人们坚决否认正在进行任何种族清洗。

The divergence between how Myanmar and much of the outside world see the Rohingya is not limited to one segment of local society. Nor can hatred in Myanmar of the largely stateless Muslim group be dismissed as a fringe attitude.

缅甸和外界对罗辛亚人看法的分歧并不局限于当地社会的某一部分。缅甸对这个总体上没有国籍的穆斯林群体的仇恨,也不能被视为一种边缘态度。

Government officials, opposition politicians, religious leaders and even local human-rights activists have become unified behind this narrative: The Rohingya are not rightful citizens of Buddhist-majority Myanmar, and now, through the power of a globally resurgent Islam, the minority is falsely trying to hijack the world’s sympathy.

政府官员、反对派政治人士、宗教领袖,甚至连当地的人权活动人士,都对此事保持一致的陈述:罗辛亚人不是以佛教徒为主的缅甸的合法公民,现在,这个少数民族正利用在全球复兴的伊斯兰教的力量,错误地试图绑架全世界的同情。

Social media postings have amplified the message, claiming that international aid workers are openly siding with the Rohingya. Accordingly, the Myanmar government has blocked aid agencies’ access to Rohingya still trapped in Myanmar — about 120,000 confined to camps in central Rakhine and tens of thousands more in desperate conditions in the north.

社交媒体上的帖子夸大了该信息,声称国际救援人员公开站到了罗辛亚人那边。因此,缅甸政府阻止援助机构救助仍被困在缅甸境内的罗辛亚人——约12万人被困在若开邦中部的难民营里,还有数万人在北部极端艰苦的条件下生活。

The official answer to U.N. accounts of the military’s mass burning of villages and targeting of civilians has been to insist that the Rohingya have been doing it to themselves.

针对联合国关于军队大规模焚烧村庄和攻击平民的报告,缅甸官方回应称那是罗辛亚人对自己干的事。

“There is no case of the military killing Muslim civilians,” said Dr. Win Myat Aye, the country’s social welfare minister and the governing National League for Democracy party’s point person on Rakhine. “Muslim people killed their own Muslim people.”

“没有任何军队杀害穆斯林平民的案例,”缅甸社会福利部长温密埃博士(Win Myat Aye)说。他也是执政党全国民主联盟(National League for Democracy)在若开邦的负责人。“是穆斯林自己在杀穆斯林。”

When asked in an interview about the evidence against the military, the minister noted that the Myanmar government had not sent any investigators to Bangladesh to vet the testimony of fleeing Rohingya, but that he would raise the possibility of doing so in a future meeting.

在采访中被问及针对军方的证据时,这位部长指出,缅甸政府没有派遣任何调查人员前往孟加拉国审查逃亡的罗辛亚人的证词,但他将在未来的会议上提出这样做的可能性。

“Thank you for advising us on this idea,” he said.

“谢谢你给我们提供了这个想法,”他说。

The Rohingya, who speak a Bengali dialect and tend to look distinct from most of Myanmar’s other ethnic groups, have had roots in Rakhine for generations. Communal tensions between the Rohingya and ethnic Rakhine Buddhists exploded in World War II, when the Rakhine aligned themselves with the Japanese, while the Rohingya chose the British.

世代生活在若开邦的罗辛亚人讲孟加拉语方言,外貌与缅甸其他民族截然不同。二战期间,罗辛亚族和若开族佛教徒之间的紧张关系爆发了,前者选择了英国,后者与日本结盟。

Although many Rohingya were considered citizens when Myanmar, also known as Burma, became independent in 1948, the military junta that wrested power in 1962 began stripping them of their rights. After a restrictive citizenship law was introduced in 1982, most Rohingya became stateless.

尽管1948年缅甸独立时,很多罗辛亚人被认为是缅甸公民,但1962年夺取政权的军政府开始剥夺他们的权利。在1982年颁布了一项限制性的国籍法后,大部分罗辛亚人失去了国籍。

Even the name Rohingya, which the ethnic group has identified with more vocally in recent years, has been taken from them. The Myanmar government usually refers to the Rohingya as Bengalis, implying they belong in Bangladesh. The public tends to call them an epithet used for all Muslims in Myanmar: kalar.

甚至连该民族近年越来越坚持的“罗辛亚人”这个名称也被夺去了。缅甸政府通常将罗辛亚人称为孟加拉人,暗示他们属于孟加拉国。普通民众往往用缅甸语中指代所有穆斯林的称号卡拉(kalar)来称呼他们。

The nomenclature is so sensitive that in a speech this month, Aung San Suu Kyi, the Nobel Prize laureate and de facto leader of the government, referred only to “those who have crossed over to Bangladesh.”

称呼是个敏感问题,所以在本月的一次演讲中,诺贝尔奖得主、缅甸政府的实际领导人昂山素季(Aung San Suu Kyi)只提到“那些越过边境前往孟加拉国的人”。

Some ethnic Rakhine politicians are hailing the Rohingya exodus as a good thing.

一些若开族政客称罗辛亚人的大批离去是好事。

“All the Bengalis learn in their religious schools is to brutally kill and attack,” said Khin Saw Wai, a Rakhine member of Parliament from Rathedaung Township. “It is impossible to live together in the future.”

“那些孟加拉人在自己的宗教学校里学的都是残忍地杀害和攻击,”拉代当镇议会的若开族议员钦苏韦(Khin Saw Wai)说。“将来我们不可能在一起生活。”

Buddhist monks, moral arbiters in a pious land, have been at the forefront of a campaign to dehumanize the Rohingya. In popular videos, extremist monks refer to the Rohingya as “snakes” or “worse than dogs.”

在这片虔诚的土地上,佛教僧侣是道德权威,在将罗辛亚人非人化的运动中,他们一直身先士卒。在广泛传播的视频中,极端主义僧侣将罗辛亚人称为“蛇”或“比狗还坏的东西”。

Outside Thu Min Gala’s monastery in Sittwe, a pair of signs reflected an alternate sense of reality. One said that the monastery, which is sheltering ethnic Rakhine who fled the conflict zone, would not accept any donations from international agencies. The other warned that multifaith groups were not welcome.

在实兑杜敏加拉的寺庙外,两个标语反映出另一种现实。一个称,这座在向逃离冲突地区的若开族人提供庇护的寺庙不会接受国际机构的任何捐赠。另一个标语警告称不欢迎多元信仰。

The abbot claimed that authorities in Rakhine had stopped a car owned by the International Committee of the Red Cross that was filled with weaponry destined for Rohingya militants who carried out attacks against the security forces in August. Thu Min Gala claimed that sticks of dynamite had been wrapped in paper with the Red Cross logo. The Red Cross denied these accusations.

寺庙住持声称,8月,若开邦当局拦截了红十字国际委员会(International Committee of the Red Cross)的一辆汽车,上面装满了供罗辛亚武装分子攻击安全部队的武器。杜敏加拉称,炸药棒被裹在印有红十字标志的纸里。红十字会否认了这些指控。

“We don’t trust the international society,” the abbot said. “They are only on the side of the terrorists.”

“我们不信任国际社会,”该住持说。“他们只站在恐怖分子那边。”

At another monastery in Sittwe, an elderly abbot, Baddanta Thaw Ma, halted my conversation with a young monk by slapping the air in front of my face. “Go! Go! Go!” he yelled in English, before switching to the local Rakhine dialect. “Go away, you foreigner! Go away, you kalar lover.”

在实兑的另一个寺庙里,年迈的住持巴当塔陶玛(Baddanta Thaw Ma)挥舞着双手,制止了我跟一名年轻僧侣的谈话。“走!走!走!”他用英语喊道。然后,他用若开语方言说:“走开,你这个外国佬!走开,你这个喜欢卡拉的人。”

Public sentiment against Muslims — who are about 4 percent of Myanmar’s population, encompassing several ethnic groups, including the Rohingya — has spread beyond Rakhine. In 2015 elections, no major political party fielded a Muslim candidate. Today no Muslims serve in the Parliament, the first time since the country’s independence.

民众对穆斯林的敌对情绪已经从若开邦蔓延开来。穆斯林约占缅甸人口的4%,包括罗辛亚人等几个少数民族。在2015年的选举中,没有一个主要政党派出穆斯林候选人。目前没有穆斯林在议会任职,这是该国自独立以来第一次出现这种情况。

Social media messaging has driven much of the rage in Myanmar. Though widespread access to cellphones only started a few years ago, mobile penetration is now about 90 percent. For many people, Facebook is their only source of news, and they have little experience in sifting fake news from credible reporting.

缅甸的怒火在很大程度上是社交媒体上的消息挑起的。虽然仅在几年前,手机才开始大面积普及,但现在它的使用率已达90%。对很多人来说,Facebook是他们唯一的新闻来源,而且他们几乎没有分辨假新闻和可信报道的经验。

One widely shared message on Facebook, from a spokesman for Suu Kyi’s office, emphasized that biscuits from the World Food Program, a U.N. agency, had been found at a Rohingya militant training camp. The United Nations called the post “irresponsible.”

昂山素季办公室的一位发言人在Facebook上发布了一条广为流传的信息,声称在罗辛亚武装分子的训练营中发现了联合国机构世界粮食计划署(World Food Program)的饼干。联合国称这说法是“不负责任的”。

Even among officials who might otherwise champion human rights, frustration has been directed at foreign critics. Quietly, some defend Suu Kyi’s failure to call out the military and protect the Rohingya by saying it would be political suicide in a country where hatred of the Rohingya is so widespread. They see the recent international pressure, at best, as ignorant of domestic complexities and, at worst, as intent on hindering Myanmar’s development.

就连那些可能在其他方面支持人权的官员,也将矛头转向了外国批评者。有些人私下里为昂山素季没有调动军队保护罗辛亚人辩护,声称在一个普遍憎恨罗辛亚人的国家,那样做相当于政治自杀。他们认为,最近的国际压力至少是无视缅甸国内的复杂情况,甚至是阻碍缅甸的发展。

“We ask the international community to acknowledge that these Muslims are illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and that this crisis is an infringement of our sovereignty,” said Nyan Win, a spokesman for the National League for Democracy, which shares power with Myanmar’s military. “This is the most important thing with the Rakhine issue.”

“我们请求国际社会承认,这些穆斯林是来自孟加拉国的非法移民,这场危机是对我们主权的侵犯,”全国民主联盟的发言人奈温(Nyan Win)说。该党与缅甸军方共享政权。“这是在若开邦问题上最重要的事情。”

Ko Ko Gyi, a democracy advocate who was jailed for 17 years by the military when it ruled Myanmar, also evoked national interest.

在军政府统治缅甸时期入狱17年的民主倡导者科科凯(Ko Ko Gyi)也提到了国家利益。

“We have been human-rights defenders for many years and suffered for a long time, but we are standing together on this issue because we need to support our national security,” he said.

“多年来,我们一直是人权捍卫者,遭受了漫长的苦难,但我们在这个问题上站在了一起,因为我们需要支持我们的国家安全,”他说。

“We are a small country that lies between India and China, and the DNA of our ancestors is to try to struggle for our survival,” Ko Ko Gyi said. “If you in the West criticize us too much, then you will push us into the arms of China and Russia.”

“我们是位于印度和中国之间的一个小国,在夹缝中求生存是自古就在我们的DNA里的东西,”科科凯说,“如果你们西方人对我们有太多的批评,那么你们将把我们推入中国和俄罗斯的怀抱。”

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表