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瑞士小镇的山脉行销传奇

更新时间:2017-10-25 20:49:08 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The town that sold mountains to the world
瑞士小镇的山脉行销传奇

There’s a story that makes it abundantly clear how a small band of English holidaymakers changed Switzerland forever. It involves a bet between hotelier Johannes Badrutt and an aristocratic group of merchants and landowners that took place on a damp September evening in St Moritz in 1864. As the vacationers sat around the fire at the Engadiner Kulm Hotel, dreading the prospect of returning to the foggy London winter, the Swiss manager saw a golden opportunity.

传说有个故事非常清楚地述说了一小群英国度假游客是如何彻底改变了瑞士的旅游业。1864年,九月的圣莫里茨(St Moritz),夜晚气候湿润。一群商人和地主组成的贵族旅游团前往圣莫里茨旅游,与酒店老板约翰内斯·巴德鲁特(Johannes Badrutt)立下了赌局。游客们围坐在恩加丁库尔姆酒店(Engadiner Kulm Hotel)的炉火旁,一想到马上要返回浓雾弥漫的伦敦过冬就闷闷不乐。但瑞士的酒店老板却从中发现了绝好的商机。

“You holiday here in summer,” he challenged them over a bottle of Veltliner red wine. “Why not enjoy the mountains year-round? Winter is so pleasant that on fine days you can even walk without a jacket.” Lured by the promise of blemish-free skies against a backdrop of lofty peaks, the Englishmen were pleased to accept the wager; up until then, St Moritz had been a modest hiking destination in July and August. But if Badrutt’s promise proved false, the hotelier would pay for their journey and winter-long stay. How could they lose?

"夏季你们来这里避暑,"老板一边问着一边喝了一口特丽娜红酒。"为什么不在这里待上一整年,享受山脉风光呢?这里的冬季舒适宜人,天气好的话,不穿外套就可以外出散步。"山峰高耸,碧空如洗……英国游客被老板的描述深深地打动了,兴高采烈地同意与老板打赌。当时,七、八月的圣莫里茨只是一个不错的远足胜地。如果圣莫里茨的冬季并非所描述的那般美好,那巴德鲁特就打赌失败了,按照赌约需支付这些游客在冬季的旅行成本包括住宿费。英国游客怎么可能输呢?

Come mid-December, the group of men returned to Switzerland. Towards the end of their week-long journey, sat on a horse-pulled sledge and wrapped head-to-toe in furs, they negotiated the 2,284m Julier Pass, a two-day Alpine crossing that first linked Chur in the Rhine valley with the Engadine valley in southeastern Switzerland. But by the time of their arrival in St Moritz, the skies had cleared, they were sweating profusely, and a beaming Badrutt, jacket-less and with his shirt sleeves rolled up, was there to greet them.

于是,这些游客在十二月中的时候如约返回瑞士。一周的旅行快要结束时,他们坐在马拉的雪橇上,从头到脚被皮毛包裹地严严实实,商量着穿越海拔2284米的尤利尔山口(Julier Pass),以莱茵河谷的库尔(Chur)为出发点,穿越深邃的阿尔卑斯山谷,经过瑞士东南部的恩加丁山谷到达圣莫里茨,全程为期两天。到达圣莫里茨之后,天空已放晴,游客热得大汗淋漓,只见巴德鲁特身穿T恤,卷着袖子,没有穿外套,正笑容满面地站在那儿迎接他们。

The genius of the wager, of course, was that when Badrutt won the bet (the Englishmen stayed on as paying guests until March) word quickly spread throughout their homeland about St Moritz’s distinctive ‘Champagne climate’ – dry and sunny with a high degree of snow certainty. Year-round tourism had arrived in the Alps, and the village of St Moritz seemed newborn.

当然,这个赌局的高明之处就在于巴德鲁特打赌获胜(英国游客在他的酒店一直待到第二年三月)。很快,圣莫里茨特有的"香槟气候"便传遍英国,干燥的空气,闪耀的阳光,冰川融成云雾……阿尔卑斯成为全年出游的最佳目的地,圣莫里茨小镇的发展如获新生。

“Some people think it’s a legend, but it’s all true,” said Richard Leuenberger, general manager of the five-star Badrutt’s Palace, during my visit this past July. Opened by Johannes Badrutt’s son Caspar in 1896 to further reap the benefits of his father’s gamble, the hotel has become a byword for the resort town’s lavish excess. “Before the Badrutts there was little reason to come to St Moritz, or holiday in the Swiss mountains, in winter at all. There had long been the demand in summer, but winter? It was lunacy.”

"有人说这只是传说,但这个故事千真万确,"去年7月,我去圣莫里茨旅行时,五星级巴德鲁特皇宫酒店(Badrutt's Palace)的总经理理查德·洛伊恩贝格尔(Richard Leuenberger)这么对我说。1896年,约翰内斯·巴德鲁特的儿子卡斯帕(Caspar)为进一步利用父亲赌局引发的效应,创立了巴德鲁特皇宫酒店,成为圣莫里茨度假胜地的视觉焦点。"在巴德鲁特打赌之前,几乎没有什么可以吸引游客冬季前往圣莫里茨或瑞士山区度假。夏季旅游需求旺盛,但是冬季?简直是天方夜谭。"

That the Badrutts almost single-handedly marketed this untapped winter wonderland is a little spurious. The first tourist office in Switzerland had been established in the same year as the bet, and there are tales of an Anglican priest, one Reverend Alfred Strettell, who came to preach the gospel in St Moritz in 1861 before returning to England to advocate the resort’s potential as a winter destination in open letters to British newspapers. By this time, other resorts in the Swiss regional cantons of Graubünden and Bern were also flush with business, with clinics in Davos, Arosa, Leysin and Grindelwald developed as winter sanctuaries to cure patients with tuberculosis and respiratory diseases.

如果说巴德鲁特一人打开了圣莫里茨冬季旅游的市场,这个说法不太准确。在巴德鲁特打赌的同一年,瑞士成立了第一家旅游局。据说,著名的英国传教士阿尔弗雷德·斯特雷特尔(Alfred Strettell)于1861年在圣莫里茨传教,在返回英国之前,他就公开给英国报社写信,宣传圣莫里茨作为冬季旅游首选之地的潜力。那时,瑞士的格劳宾登州(Graubünden)和伯尔尼(Bern)已经有一些商业发展,达沃斯、阿罗萨、莱辛与格林德瓦的诊所为肺结核与呼吸系统疾病的患者提供了冬季疗养圣地。

But what Badrutt did was make the Swiss mountains accessible in a way that no one else had done before. In order to pay off the high cost of his ongoing investment at the Engadiner Kulm, he needed to keep the hotel open year-round, paving the way for a winter ice rink and regular curling tournaments played with stones first brought by early Scottish visitors. And by the 1880s, the number of English-speaking arrivals had increased to such an extent that a local newspaper – the Engadine Express & Alpine Post – was published entirely in English. Still, Badrutt’s role as pioneer cannot be downplayed.

无论如何,没有巴德鲁特,瑞士的山脉风光不可能如此轻易吸引到众多游客。恩加丁库尔姆酒店的投资持续增加,巴德鲁特必须保证酒店全年开放才能维持高昂的运营成本,为冬季滑雪锦标赛和常规冰壶锦标赛创造了条件。冰壶比赛即冰上溜石,最早起源于苏格兰游客。十九世纪八十年代,英语游客的数量大增,地方报纸《恩加丁快报与阿尔卑斯邮报》的发行语言全部为英语。作为开拓先锋,巴德鲁特的作用任何时候都不容小觑。

“Before him there was only 75 beds in the village,” said Leuenberger, showing me around the Palace’s Great Hall, otherwise known as the ‘living room’ of St Moritz. “But because of Badrutt that number exploded to more than 2,000 over the next four decades.”

"在巴德鲁特开店之前,圣莫里茨只有75张床位,"洛伊恩贝格尔边说边带我参观皇宫酒店的大厅,又被誉为圣莫里茨的"客厅"。"多亏了巴德鲁特的影响,游客数量在后来40年中激增到两千多人。"

To truly understand the town’s role in marketing mountains to the world, I set off to explore in the company of John Webster, a historian and guide who, having studied St Moritz for 27 years, knows the resort’s backstory best.

为了深入了解小镇在向世界推广山脉旅游业中发挥的重要作用,我特意前往约翰·韦伯斯特(John Webster)的公司拜访。韦伯斯特是一位著名的历史学家及导游,对圣莫里茨的研究长达27年,对这一旅游胜地背后的故事最为了解。

“The concept of the winter holiday was born here – and I’ve never come across any claims to counter the argument,” he said, while looking out to the pyramid-like peaks of the Muottas Muragl. “From the late 19th Century on, St Moritz’s evolution and sphere of influence was relentless. There is a list of firsts in St Moritz that no one else has.”

"寒假的概念从这里诞生——这一说法从没有遭受过任何质疑,"他边说边目视着穆奥塔斯穆拉格(Muottas Muragl)金字塔形状的山顶。"自十九世纪后期以来,圣莫里茨的影响力越来越大,影响范围越来越广。此外,圣莫里茨还拥有多项第一。"

Among those novelties was Switzerland’s first electric light and streetlight, both installed at the Engadiner Kulm in 1879. That same year, Badrutt brought flushing toilets into the Alps and built the first hydro-electric plant in the country.

圣莫里茨是瑞士第一个安装电灯和路灯的城市,于1879年在恩加丁库尔姆酒店安装。同年,巴德鲁特将冲水马桶引进阿尔卑斯地区,并在该地建立了第一个水电站。

In tandem, winter sports found their place. Europe’s first curling tournament was held on frozen-over Lake St Moritz (now also the pitch and paddock for annual horse races, as well as ice polo and ice cricket tournaments). By 1882, the first European Ice-Skating Championships took place, then the first bobsleigh run and race were held in 1890. And all this was decades before downhill and slalom skiing became fashionable among the jet set.

随后,冬季运动在这里发展。欧洲第一届冰壶锦标赛在圣莫里茨湖的冰面上举行(如今还为年度赛马、冰上马球和板球锦标赛提供比赛场地和围场)。第一届欧洲滑冰锦标赛于1882年举办,第一届有舵雪橇比赛于1890年举办。几十年之后,速降滑雪与障碍滑雪开始在上流社会盛行。

The story of St Moritz is, in some ways, also a tale of social transformation.

从另一方面来看,圣莫里茨的发展正是一部社会转型史。

“The newly wealthy were able to mingle with the aristocracy for the first time,” said Webster, singling out the fairytale rooftops of eight five-star hotels (nine if you include Grace St Moritz, opening in summer 2018). “And in this period, these palace hotels served as great stages.”

"新富阶层第一次有能力同贵族结交,"韦伯斯特说道,特意提到八家五星级酒店的童话式屋顶(包括格雷斯圣莫里茨酒店应为九家酒店,酒店将于2018年夏季正式营业)。"这一时期,这些皇宫酒店提供了重要交际场所。"

Evocations of the past include grainy photos of Hollywood stars like Gregory Peck tackling the notorious Cresta Run bobsleigh (fanatical rider Errol Flynn’s claim to fame was that he never once finished the course). Audrey Heburn would sit and have tea at Confiserie Hanselmann, a storied chocolate shop still doing a fine trade on Via Maistra.

好莱坞明星的老照片斑驳不清,总是让人联想到过去,比如格利高里·派克(Gregory Peck)身陷有舵雪橇克雷斯特朗滑雪丑闻(狂热的雪橇乘员埃罗尔·弗林(Errol Flynn)之所以出名是因为他连一次滑道滑雪都没能完成)。想象一下,奥黛丽·赫本(Audrey Heburn)在麦斯特拉街一家有名的巧克力商店恩曼果子屋悠然的品着下午茶。

But while the resort once reveled in Xanadu-like fantasy – outlandish stories of elephants and sea lions flown in for legendary parties at Badrutt’s Palace are all true – it remains equally bombastic in the face of fierce seasonal competition today. In particular, two recent game-changers include the Swiss resort town of Andermatt, plucked from obscurity by billionaire Egyptian property tycoon Samih Sawiris in 2013, and the Bürgenstock, a mega hotel and spa project nine years in the making that opened above Lake Lucerne this July.

圣莫里茨曾经沉浸于世外桃源的幻想之中——有关大象和海狮出现在巴德鲁特皇宫酒店的怪诞故事,这些都是事实——但现在面临激烈的季节性竞争。尤其是遇到两大强劲的竞争对手,瑞士度假小镇安德马特(Andermatt)和布尔根施托克(Bürgenstock)。安德马特在2013年因为埃及地产大亨及亿万富翁萨米·萨维雷斯(Samih Sawiris )投资的豪华酒店一举成名,布尔根施托克则历时九年打造了一个大型酒店和水疗中心,于今年7月在琉森湖(Lake Lucerne)上开放。

But there is still something that neither resort – nor St Moritz’s traditional rivals Gstaad and Zermatt – has. The Engadine Valley’s so-called ‘Champagne climate’. After all, St Moritz’s proud slogan, ‘300 days of sunshine a year’, is not only a cold, hard truth, but an undoubted wink to the past. Johannes Badrutt may be gone, but his impact will not be forgotten.

尽管如此,这些度假胜地及圣莫里茨的传统竞争对手格斯塔德(Gstaad)和采尔马特(Zermatt)依然存在不足。那就是恩加丁山谷所特有的"香槟气候"。圣莫里茨"全年300天的晴空"着实让人引以为傲,这个铁一般的事实也是对过去的真实回应。约翰内斯·巴德鲁特虽已离去,但他的影响将永世长存。

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