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性侵受害者说出“我也是”之后,会发生什么?

更新时间:2017-10-22 12:18:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

McKayla Maroney Says, ‘Me Too.’ What Happens Next?
性侵受害者说出“我也是”之后,会发生什么?

On Wednesday, 2012 Olympic gold medalist McKayla Maroney became the latest and most decorated American gymnast to speak out about being sexually abused by Larry Nassar, who served as the USA Gymnastics women’s team doctor for two decades. “It started when I was 13 years old, at one of my first National Team training camps, in Texas, and it didn’t end until I left the sport,” Maroney, now 21, wrote of Nassar on Twitter.

周三,2012年奥运会金牌得主麦凯拉·马罗尼(McKayla Maroney)公开坦诚自己曾被担任美国女子体操队队医20年的拉里·纳萨尔(Larry Nassar)性侵,成为最新一位公开谈论此事的美国体操运动员,也是获奖最多的一位。“是从我13岁时开始的,是在我国家队早期德克萨斯州的一个训练营里,一直持续到我退役,”现年21岁的马罗尼在Twitter上写道。

“Is it possible for survivors to speak out, without putting careers, and dreams in jeopardy?” Maroney asked. There is increasingly good reason to think that the answer is yes.

“幸存者是否可能公开说出实情,而不会将自己的事业和梦想置于危险境地?”马罗尼问道。我们越来越有理由认为,这个问题的答案是肯定的。

Nassar is facing 33 charges of criminal sexual conduct in Michigan and pleaded guilty to federal pornography charges in July; he is expected to spend decades in prison. Last August, the floodgates opened after Rachael Denhollander, who says she was abused by the doctor as a 15-year-old gymnast in Michigan, filed a criminal complaint for sexual assault against Nassar, who was also a faculty member at Michigan State University and team physician at a local club. Now some 140 individuals have accused him of sexual abuse.

纳萨尔在密歇根州面临33项性侵刑事指控,7月,他对联邦法院的色情指控供认不讳,预计他将被判入狱几十年。去年8月,蕾切尔·丹霍兰德(Rachael Denhollander)声称自己15岁时从事体操运动期间被纳萨尔性侵,对他提起了刑事诉讼,从此打开了闸门。纳萨尔也是密歇根州立大学(Michigan State University)的一名教员,以及当地一家俱乐部的队医。目前,共有约140个人指控他性侵。

After revelations of Nassar’s widespread abuse over several decades, Aly Raisman, a 2012 and 2016 Olympian, criticized USA Gymnastics this summer for its handling of Nassar and for not doing enough to help his victims. She called out the fact that Steve Penny, the former USA Gymnastics president who resigned in March amid criticism that the organization did not act quickly enough, reportedly received a $1 million severance package. Raisman, who has not claimed that she herself suffered abuse, wants to compete in the Tokyo Olympics in 2020. Publicly criticizing your sport’s own governing body when you hope to again compete at the highest level is a gutsy move — and a sign of a significant cultural shift in the sport.

纳萨尔在几十年时间里进行广泛性侵的劣迹曝光后,曾于2012年和2016年参加奥运会的体操运动员艾莉·雷斯曼(Aly Raisman)于今年夏天批评美国体操协会(USA Gymnastics)对纳萨尔的处置力度不够,且没有对受害者提供足够的帮助。3月,时任美国体操协会主席的史蒂夫·潘尼(Steve Penny)因外界批评该组织未能迅速采取行动而辞职,据说他获得了100万美元的遣散费,雷斯曼对此提出了批评。雷斯曼没有声称曾自己遭受性侵,她想参与2020年东京奥运会。在你希望再次参加最高级别的赛事之前,公开批评该项运动的管理机构,这是一个大胆的举动,也是这项运动发生重大文化转变的标志。

Less than a decade ago, an Olympic gold medal gymnast who blew the whistle was iced out of the sport. In 2008, Dominique Moceanu — a wunderkind who won the gold at 14 years old at the 1996 Atlanta Games — claimed that her coaches, Martha and Bela Karolyi, had physically and emotionally abused her. “I never, ever objected to hard work,” she told The Los Angeles Times. “What I objected to was Martha grabbing me by the neck, shoving my face into the phone and telling me to call my parents when I hurt my neck in practice.”

不到十年前,一名曾获奥运金牌的体操运动员还曾在揭发后遭到冷藏。2008年,14岁时在1996年亚特兰大奥运会上获得金牌的天才少女多米妮克·莫恰努(Dominique Moceanu)声称,她的教练马莎和贝拉·卡罗伊(Martha and Bela Karolyi)在身体上和情感上虐待她。“我从来没有反对过艰苦训练,”她在接受《洛杉矶时报》(The Los Angeles Times)采访时说。“我反对的是,我在训练中伤到脖子后,玛莎抓住我的脖子,把我的脸按到电话上,让我给父母打电话。”

Moceanu had already retired in 2008. But criticizing arguably the most famous coaches on the planet — the Karolyis had led Nadia Comaneci and Mary Lou Retton to Olympic gold — had a high price. “In a lot of ways I was a sacrificial lamb and was blacklisted,” Moceanu told me on Wednesday. “I lost friendships. I got a lot of private support, but no one was willing to come forward publicly because they didn’t want to be blacklisted.” She says she lost many of the perks available to other former Olympians, such as being invited for appearances to promote the sport and paid opportunities to sign autographs.

莫恰努已于2008年退役。但是,批评世界上最著名的教练也让她付出了沉重的代价——卡罗伊曾指导纳迪亚·科马内奇(Nadia Comaneci)和玛丽·卢·雷顿(Mary Lou Retton)在奥运会上获得金牌。“在很多方面,我是一只被牺牲的羔羊,被列入了黑名单,”莫恰努周三接受采访时说。“我失去了友谊。我在私下里得到了很多支持,但没人愿意公开站出来,因为他们不想被列入黑名单。”她说,她失去了其他很多前奥运选手的福利,比如受邀参加推广体操运动的活动,或参加有偿签名的机会。

But Moceanu says that things have changed. “The path has been paved,” she said. “Now they will never take it out on Aly.”

不过,莫恰努说情况已经变了。“路已经铺好了,”她说。“现在他们绝不会拿艾莉撒气。”

There is still much more that can be done to protect the athletes. In March, after appearing on “60 Minutes” to discuss abuse by Nassar, former national team members Jamie Dantzscher and Jessica Howard testified before Congress about their experiences along with Moceanu, and Senator Dianne Feinstein of California introduced legislation to crack down on abuse by, among other things, requiring mandatory reporting of sex abuse allegations by athletes to law enforcement or a child-welfare agency. Among the factors Feinstein considered was that it took USA Gymnastics five weeks to report Nassar to the F.B.I. — and did so only after conducting its own investigation. The House passed a companion bill in May; Feinstein’s bill awaits action by the full Senate.

为了保护运动员,还有很多事情可做。3月,前国家队成员杰米·丹切(Jamie Dantzscher)和杰西卡·霍华德(Jessica Howard)在《60分钟》(60 Minutes)节目上谈论纳萨尔性侵事件后,和莫恰努一起在国会就自己的经历作证,加州参议员黛安娜·范斯坦(Dianne Feinstein)提出打击性侵法案,其中特别要求必须将运动员的性侵指控向执法机构或儿童福利机构报告。范斯坦的一个考虑因素是,美国体操协会五周后才向联邦调查局(FBI)报告纳萨尔一案——而且是在自己进行调查之后才这样做的。5月,众议院通过了一项配套法案;范斯坦的法案正在等待参议院全体议员表决通过。

In June, USA Gymnastics adopted all of the recommendations put forward in a report it commissioned from a former prosecutor, which includes reporting abuse immediately to legal authorities. But Jessica Howard doesn’t think that goes far enough. She believes that the USA Gymnastics board should be forced to resign, particularly the executive committee. “Although to some extent members were kept in the dark by USAG officials,” she says, “the board has allowed a system to exist that victimizes athletes.” Howard says the new board should dismantle the culture of abuse and remove any penalty for gymnasts who speak up — a fear she felt when competing. “As an athlete, speaking out about abuse could be at best ignored, and at worst could cost you your dreams,” she said in an email to me on Thursday.

6月,美国体操协会采取了它委托一名前检察官写的报告中提出的所有建议,包括立即向法律当局报告性侵指控。不过,杰西卡·霍华德认为这还远远不够。她认为美国体操协会的董事会应该被迫辞职,尤其是执行委员会。“虽然在某种程度上,董事会成员被协会的官员们蒙在鼓里,”她说,“但董事会纵容了一个伤害运动员的系统存在。”霍华德称,新董事会应该瓦解虐待文化,禁止对那些揭露真相的体操运动员进行任何惩罚——这是她在比赛时担忧的事情。“作为一名运动员,揭发性侵或虐待情况在最好的情况下只是被忽视,在最坏的情况下可能会让你无法追逐自己的梦想,”她在周四接受邮件采访时称。

In her post on Wednesday, Maroney made her own recommendations, including accountability for the people, institutions and organizations in positions of power. For her part, Raisman has suggested a better use for the $1 million awarded to Steve Penny: offering to pay for therapy for all the gymnasts who have come forward.

马罗尼在周三的帖子中提出了自己的建议,包括向当权的人、机构和组织问责。对于支付给史蒂夫·潘尼的100万美元遣散费,雷斯曼提出了一个更好的使用方案:为所有站出来揭发的体操运动员支付心理治疗费用。

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