您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 风尚 >> 正文


更新时间:2017-10-19 19:14:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How to Survive the Apocalypse

President Trump threatens to “totally destroy North Korea.” Another hurricane lashes out. A second monster earthquake jolts Mexico. Terrorists strike in London. And that’s just this past week or so.


Yes, the world is clearly coming to an end. But is there anything you can do to prepare?


That is not a philosophical question, or a theological one. And if it is a question that seems to beg any explication, you may stop reading now.


But if you are among the swelling class of weekend paranoiacs of affluent means who are starting to mull fantasies of urban escape following the endless headlines about disasters, both natural and manufactured, you may be starting to see a different image in your mind when think “survivalist.” You may no longer see the wild-eyed cave dweller in camouflage fatigues, hoarding canned goods. You may even see one in the mirror.


In a world where the bombproof bunker has replaced the Tesla as the hot status symbol for young Silicon Valley plutocrats, everyone, it seems, is a “prepper,” even if the “prep” in question just means he is stashing a well-stocked “bug-out bag” alongside his Louis Vuitton luggage in a Range Rover pointed toward Litchfield County, Conn. Here is a checklist for the neo-survivalist preparing for the apocalypse.


1. Satchels for Survival

1. 求生包

The power grid has collapsed. Supermarkets are looted. With the city teetering on the brink of collapse, the first thing you want to reach for — after the Xanax — is a well-stocked “bug out” bag.


These suddenly chic survival satchels, also known as go bags, are typically lightweight military-grade backpacks stocked with provisions for at least 72 hours. Ready-made bug-out bags containing staples like water purification tablets, a 20-hour body warmer and a multifunction shovel are available on Amazon for under than $200.


Graywolf Survival recommends a chain-saw blade stashed in an Altoids tin to harvest firewood. Survival Life touts feminine hygiene products, even for men, to soak up blood from wounds.

Graywolf Survival(灰狐求生)建议用装在欧托滋薄荷糖(Altoids)锡盒里的锯链刀片来割柴火。Survival Life(幸存生活)建议用女性卫生用品去吸收从伤口里流出来的血——男性也可以用。

“As long as the gear gets the job done, that’s what matters,” said Andrew Pontius, a marketing consultant and disaster preparedness instructor in Kansas City, Mo., who helps run a site called Bug Out Bag Academy.

“工具只要管用就行,那才是最重要的,”密苏里州堪萨斯城的营销顾问及防灾教练安德鲁·庞修斯(Andrew Pontius)说。庞修斯参与运营着一个名叫Bug Out Bag Academy(避难包学院)的网站。

2. Go for the Silver

2. 准备些银子

Two years ago, Greece was forced to shutter banks and limit A.T.M. withdrawals to 60 euros a day during a debt crisis that threatened to shatter Europe’s currency union. In the United States, prominent authors like James Rickards, a hedge fund veteran, and David Stockman, once the budget director for the Reagan administration, insist that an even bigger crisis will soon tank Wall Street and torpedo the dollar.

两年前,在一场可能令欧元区分崩离析的债务危机肆虐期间,希腊被迫关闭了银行,并设定了每天60欧元的ATM取款限额。在美国,一些知名作者,比如资深对冲基金从业者詹姆斯‧瑞卡茲(James Rickards)和曾在里根政府中当过预算主管的戴维·斯托克曼(David Stockman),坚持认为一场更大的危机很快就会摧毁华尔街,搞垮美元。

No wonder so many preppers, some of them wearing pinstriped suits, consider gold and silver to be a crucial hedge against a crisis.


While Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies make news, many preppers are quietly packing their bug-out bags with rolls of pre-1965 American dimes, quarters or half-dollars, which are 90 percent silver and available from coin dealers and precious-metals websites (silver is currently about $17 an ounce). “My preferred form of precious metal post-financial collapse, that is, besides high-speed lead,” wrote one prepper on SurvivalistBoards.com.


Unlike gold, which is hovering around $1,300 an ounce, these old silver coins come in small enough denominations to barter for a loaf of bread or a socket wrench in an economic “Mad Max” scenario. Even so, some survivalists remain silver skeptics. “For $100, let’s say you get five silver coins,” said an urban preparedness expert who goes by the nom de guerre Selco. “Why not buy 100 cans of soup?”

不同于黄金——其价格徘徊在每盎司1300美元左右——这些老银币面额足够小,一旦经济陷入“疯狂的麦克斯”(Mad Max)式的场面,可以用来换取一块面包,或一把套筒扳手。尽管如此,一些生存主义者还是对银存有疑虑。“假设100美元能换5枚银币吧,”一个自称“de guerre Selco”的城市避难准备专家说。“那你为什么不买100罐汤?”

3. Alt-Currencies for the Apocalypse

3. 为世界末日准备替代货币

Imagine a true economic apocalypse, one that makes the German hyperinflation of the 1920s, with its wheelbarrows of near-worthless paper currency, look like a hiccup. To prepare for the worst worst-case scenario, some doomers prefer daily staples like tampons, vegetable seeds and cigarettes (that timeless prison medium of exchange) to silver or gold as an alt-currency.


Liquor, too — particularly in easy-to-swap airline bottles — would likely prove a hot commodity, since it not only deadens the pain of surviving in a post-apocalyptic wasteland, but, as a blogger named Survival Mom points out, also provides useful off-label functions as a disinfectant or an ingredient in herbal remedy tinctures.

酒——尤其是适合以物易物的小包装酒——最终也有可能成为一种抢手的商品,因为它不仅能缓解生活在后末日时代的荒原上的痛苦,而且就像一个名为Survival Mom(幸存妈咪)的博客作者所指出的,还能派上一些标签上未标明的用场,充当消毒剂或制备草药酊剂的原料。

Visions of a barter economy are not necessarily the stuff of doomer fever dreams, said Xavier Thomas, who runs the British site MoreThanJustSurviving.com with his wife, Elise.

和妻子埃莉斯(Elise)一同运营英国网站MoreThanJustSurviving.com(不仅仅是生存)的泽维尔·托马斯(Xavier Thomas)说,易货经济不一定是末日论者的疯狂梦境中才有的东西。

“If we look at examples of systematic social breakdowns, like Argentina in 2001, or the war in the Balkans, goods that people understood on an intrinsic level clearly carried the most value when trading — cans of food, gas, batteries, cheap Bic lighters,” he said. “A good rule of thumb: If you’d find it useful in an emergency, you’ll be able to find someone who will trade for it in an emergency.”


4. Beyond “Duck and Cover”

4. 不仅仅是“卧倒、隐蔽”

When President Trump issued his threat to North Korea at the United Nations, many preppers had an almost Pavlovian response: to check their nuclear survival kit. Ever since the backyard bomb shelter went the way of tail fins, survival in the face of mushroom clouds has seemed highly relative.


Some preppers place their faith in unproven home remedies, like bedsheets dusted with baby powder, which they hope will block X-rays, or generous helpings of turmeric mixed with black pepper, to inhibit tumor formation. Others turn to basics, like Geiger counters, wallet-size RAD badges, potassium iodide tablets or a Seychelle radiological family water pitcher, which the manufacturer claims will filter out “99.99 percent of the major contaminants that can be found after a nuclear event.”


Or people may just want to stock up on Snuggies, chocolate Easter bunnies, Hummel figurines or vintage Backstreet Boys paraphernalia, which will do about as much good in the event of a direct strike.

或者人们可能只是储备袖毯、复活节巧克力兔子,胡美尔(Hummel)小摆件或者有年头的“后街男孩”(Backstreet Boys)周边产品,它们在遭受直接打击的情况下具有同样效用。

5. The Other Bug-Out Bag

5. 另一种逃生包

In the event of apocalypse, bring condoms. This may sound like a slogan from a fraternity party T-shirt, but survivalists absolutely adore condoms. Featherweight, ultracompact and durable, condoms (nonlubricated, please) can be used as a makeshift canteen to store water, a fire starter or as elastic bands for an improvised slingshot to hunt small game, according to Creek Stewart, a survival instructor and television host.

末日灾难降临时,带上避孕套。这看上去可能像是兄弟会派对T恤上的口号,但是末日幸存者对避孕套绝对钟爱有加。求生指导者、电视台节目主持人克里克·斯图尔特(Creek Stewart)说,它又轻又小,而且非常耐用。避孕套(请使用非润滑型)可用作储水的临时容器;还可以用来生火;或是当做橡皮筋,制作狩猎小型动物的简易弹弓。

When inflated, they can also be used as fishing bobbers or signaling devices for semaphore, according to SensiblePrepper. Oh, and they’re also great for the obvious use, too.


6. Armed to the Teeth, but With What?

6. 武装到牙齿,但是用什么武装?

Should law and order on the streets break down after, say, a massive hurricane or nuclear-reactor meltdown, that condom slingshot might come in handy in New York, where possession of the most fundamental survivalist self-defense staple — the gun — is highly restricted by law. (The same goes for brass knuckles, nunchucks, ninja stars, switchblade knives, wrist-brace slingshots and, that D.I.Y. prepper favorite, a paint ball pistol loaded with ghost-chili-powder balls.)


So what is a defenseless, law-abiding survivalist to do? Prepper bibles like “100 Deadly Skills,” by Clint Emerson, a former Navy SEAL, are filled with improvised alternative weapons, like a collapsible umbrella lined with wrenches, which is “not illegal to possess,” a New York City Police Department spokesman said, but “would be considered a weapon if you used it on someone.”

那么,一个手无寸铁、遵纪守法的末日生存者该怎么办呢?前海豹突击队员克林特·埃默森(Clint Emerson)的《致命技能一百种》(100 Deadly Skills)是末日准备者们的圣经,里面写了各种可以临时制作的另类武器,比如内装扳手的折叠伞,一个纽约警察局的发言人说,“持有这种东西不算非法”,但是“如果你把它用到某人身上,它就会被视为武器。”

Sure, you could master jiu-jitsu. “But if it’s really on, hand-to-hand self-defense will only take you so far,” said Jason Charles, a firefighter and organizer of the New York City Prepper’s Network. To balance legality with lethality in a bug-out bag, he said, “you have to go simpler — hammers, hatchets, certain heavy tools.” That roll of old silver quarters might come in handy, too.

当然,你也可以学习巴西柔术。“但是到实战的时候,徒手自卫效果不过如此,”消防员及纽约市末日准备者网络(New York City Prepper’s Network)的组织者杰森·查尔斯(Jason Charles)说。求生包中的物品必须兼顾合法性与杀伤力,他说,“工具必须简单一点——锤子、小斧头、某些重型工具”。用纸卷起来的旧银币也可能派上用场。

7. Paddling to Safety

7. 安全涉水

Manhattanites face challenges unknown to their Western counterparts hunkering in remote desert bunkers. Their home turf, after all, is not only a prime target, but an island. In the event of a cataclysmic emergency, bridges and tunnels may be closed, or choked off by marauding mobs, forcing survivors to consider waterborne escape.


A lightweight, folding kayak like the Oru Beach LT is a savvy, albeit expensive option ($1,299), since it weighs 30 pounds (easy enough to tote to the Hudson River if Lyft is offline) and collapses to the size of a suitcase — perfect for those tiny Upper West Side closets.

类似Oru Beach LT的折叠式轻便皮划艇是个明智而昂贵的选择(1299美元),它只有30磅重(如果叫车软件Lyft崩溃了的话,你能轻松地背着它走到哈德逊河),它能折叠成手提箱大小,非常适合上西区的小橱柜。

Sure, kayak pros counsel against newbies attempting a Hudson crossing. “There are strong tidal currents, few places to safely launch or land, and an abundance of commercial and ferry transit traffic,” said Randall Henriksen of the New York Kayak Company. But if the choice is armed mobs or choppy waters, many New Yorkers may reach for a paddle.

当然,皮划艇专业人士不建议新手尝试横渡哈德逊河。“河水湍急,几乎没有可以安全下河或上岸的地方,还有大量商业船只和渡轮经过,”纽约皮划艇公司(New York Kayak Company)的兰德尔·亨里克森(Randall Henriksen)说。但是如果要在武装暴徒和汹涌的河水之间做选择,估计很多纽约人会伸手去拿船桨。

8. Deliverance From Above

8. 从天而降

Since the Sept. 11 attacks, many cubicle dwellers have been haunted by fears of being stuck in a skyscraper when disaster strikes. In fact, tragic images from the World Trade Center inspired a micro-industry of high-rise-escape options. There are now escape chutes (basically, giant collapsible fabric tubes for shinnying down) and small parachutes.

自9·11恐怖袭击以来,很多在小隔间里工作的人时常担心,灾难发生时,自己会被困在摩天大楼里。事实上,世界贸易中心(World Trade Center)的悲惨照片衍生出了一个提供高楼逃生方式的微型产业。现在有了逃生槽(基本上就是巨大的可折叠织物管道,用来往下滑)和小型降落伞。

The SOS Parachute (about $2,400) is compact enough to store in a cubicle, opens in about two seconds and is designed to work for the 11th floor and higher. Granted, the parachute is exactly not 82nd Airborne-grade, and a 200-pound man might find the landing a little rough. “You may twist an ankle,” said Nicolas Havett, a company executive. But in a situation serious enough to warrant a parachute, that’s a deal that many would take.

SOS降落伞(约2400美元)体积很小,可以放在小隔间里,大约只需两秒钟就能打开,可在11层及以上使用。当然,它不是第82空降师使用的那种降落伞,200磅重的人着陆时可能会比较难受。“你可能会扭伤脚踝,”该公司的高管尼古拉斯·哈维特(Nicolas Havett)说。但在需要使用降落伞的紧急情况下,很多人愿意付出这样的代价。

9. Who Are You Calling “Rocket Man”?

9. 你说谁是“火箭人”?

They were a science-fiction fantasy in the Bond movie “Thunderball,” a space-age gag in “Gilligan’s Island.” But a half-century later, jet packs actually exist. A California company called JetPack Aviation unveiled a functioning turbojet version two years ago, capable of staying aloft for 10 minutes, traveling at speeds up to 100 miles per hour. Current models are available only to the military, but David Mayman, the company’s founder, said he plans to introduce a commercial version within 18 months.

他们是007电影《霹雳弹》(Thunderball)中的科幻想像,是《盖里甘的岛》(Gilligan’s Island)的太空时代恶作剧。但半个世纪后,喷气背包真的问世了。两年前,加州的JetPack Aviation公司推出了一款功能强大的涡轮喷气式背包,它能在空中停留10分钟,速度可达每小时100英里。目前的款式仅供军队使用,但该公司的创始人戴维·梅曼(David Mayman)表示,他计划在18个月内推出一个民用版。

Hard-core doomers need not drain their airplane-liquor-bottle stash to envision the potential: Imagine New York after, say, an electromagnetic pulse attack that wipes out the power grid (like the kind North Korea recently threatened). The bridges and streets resemble a scene from the old John Carpenter movie “Escape From New York,” but the privileged few can soar across the Hudson to safety (or at least New Jersey). “From the time you push the button, you could be in the air in less than 30 seconds,” Mr. Mayman said.

对于坚定的末日论者来说,以下的场景用不着喝光自己储藏的民航小瓶酒就能想象得到:比如纽约在遭到电磁脉冲攻击后全城断电的情景(就像朝鲜前不久威胁的那样)。桥梁和街道上的情况会像约翰·卡彭特(John Carpenter)的老片《纽约大逃亡》(Escape from New York)中的场景,但少数特权人士可以快速飞越哈德逊河,到达安全地带(或者至少到达新泽西州)。“从按下按钮时起,你可以在不到30秒内升到空中,”梅曼说。

Sure, there is the cost — about $250,000, which the company is hoping to bring down “to the price of a luxury car.” For now, just think of it as the survivalists’ Maybach.


10. No Place Like Dome

10. 没什么地方能比得上圆顶建筑

Sandy was not the first hurricane to devastate entire sections of New York. In 1893, a hurricane blew through the city with such force that it wiped an entire island — Hog Island, a glittering resort near the Rockaways — off the map. In the event of a megadisaster that leaves parts of the city uninhabitable, survivors might require cheap, stormproof shelter to start a new life.

飓风“桑迪”(Sandy)不是第一个彻底摧毁纽约一个城区的飓风。1893年,一场威力巨大的飓风席卷了该市,把一整个岛屿从地图上抹去了,那就是霍格岛(Hog Island),它曾是罗卡韦湾附近的一个富有的度假胜地。如果发生特大灾难,致使该市的某些地区完全无法居住,那么幸存者可能需要能抵挡暴风雨的廉价住处,开始新生活。

In the best of times, prefabricated dome shelters receive high marks from environmentalists and penny pinchers alike because of their low cost and minimal environmental impact.


A company called Intershelter sells igloo-shape pleasure domes that call to mind Luke Skywalker’s old pad on Tatooine, but cost only $12,000 for one big enough to include a kitchen; it can be thrown together in a few hours, to make an instant hunting or fishing lodge. But in the worst of times, this dome, “built to sustain hurricane strength winds or earthquakes,” makes great relief housing for disaster victims and, in theory, would make great bug-out bunkers for urbanites looking to build a survivalist compound on the fly.

一家名为Intershelter的公司销售一种圆顶玩乐小屋,它有点像天行者卢克(Luke Skywalker)在塔图因上住的老房子,售价仅为1.2万美元,而且足够大,包含一个厨房;只需几个小时就能搭成一个简易狩猎或钓鱼小屋。但在最坏的情况下,这种“为抵抗飓风或地震而建”的圆形小屋是灾民的理想避难所,理论上,对那些在匆忙撤退时寻找生存居所的城里人来说,它也会是理想的掩体。

The dome houses are so rugged, according the company’s founder, Don Kubley, “you could buy one today and your grandkids will be playing in it.” One can only hope.

据该公司创始人唐·库布利(Don Kubley)称,这种圆顶小屋非常结实,“现在买一个,将来你的孙子们还可以在里面玩。”希望如此。

Should disaster not strike? They make a great man cave or backyard cabana.


11. Pets or Meat

11. 是宠物还是肉

In the event of a breakdown of the food supply that leaves the shelves of Fairway bare and Le Coucou a ghost town on a Saturday night, you will still have to eat. Often.

一旦食物供应中断,导致在周六的晚上,富威超市(Fairway)的货架空空如也,Le Coucou餐厅空无一人,但你还是得吃东西。一天得吃好几顿。

That is why many survivalists are placing their hopes of sustenance in rabbit, a high-protein, low-fat meat that is also being embraced as “the new chicken” by sustainable food types including Michael Pollan. “Raising meat rabbits is one of the most space-efficient means of growing livestock for meat,” according to the site Survivalist 101.

所以,很多生存主义者把希望寄托在了兔子身上。兔肉是一种高蛋白、低脂肪的肉类,被迈克尔·波伦(Michael Pollan)等可持续食物倡导者称为“新鸡肉”。“饲养肉兔是最节省空间的一种通过饲养家畜获取肉类的方法,”Survivalist 101网站称。

By livestock standards, rabbits are relatively clean and quiet, too. They can survive on table-scrap vegetables or even grass, and as a bonus, yield valuable fur for improvised winter clothing. And boy do they breed. A doe can produce up to 50 kits a year, yielding 250 pounds of meat, according to researchers at the Penn State Extension.

从家畜的角度讲,兔子也比较干净、安静。它可以依靠厨余菜叶甚至青草为生,它的一个额外益处是,能为临时拼凑的冬装提供珍贵的皮毛。而且,兔子的繁殖力真的很强。据宾夕法尼亚州立大学进修部(Penn State Extension)的研究人员称,一只雌兔每年能生多达50只幼兔,产出250磅肉。

12. Beyond Medieval Times

12. 超越中世纪

To master archery and broadsword combat; to learn to manufacture fabric, bread, ceramic cookware and wood furniture by hand; to perfect the preindustrial arts of iron craft and tanning: Yes, there are worse things to carry into a post-apocalyptic world than a membership card to the Society for Creative Anachronism.

学习射箭和大刀格斗;学习手工制作织物、面包、陶瓷厨具和木制家具;改进前工业化时代的铸铁和制革工艺:是的,末日世界的可怕,仅靠一张复古协会(Society for Creative Anachronism)会员卡是不够应付的。

In normal times, this international historical-re-enactment organization seems like little more than a harmless bunch of Renaissance Faire types playing dress up on weekends and celebrating the arts, skills and costumes of pre-17th-century Europe.


But should Armageddon arrive — say, in the form of a limited nuclear exchange, global pandemic or cyber mega-attack — these hobbies could mean your survival. In other words, chivalry may not be dead after all.


13. The Final Frontier

13. 最后的边疆

There is bugging out, and then there is really bugging out. In a scorched-earth scenario where even a jet pack is not enough to escape harm’s way, preppers with deep pockets and a taste for Arthur C. Clarke might consider the ultimate escape: launching their DNA into space.

有的逃亡那才叫真正的逃亡。在地球满目疮痍的情况下,在喷气背包也不足以逃离伤害时,那些财力雄厚、喜欢阿瑟·C·克拉克(Arthur C. Clarke)的人可能会考虑终极逃亡:将自己的DNA发射到太空中。

Celestis, a company specializing in “memorial spaceflights” (sending cremated remains into space), recently introduced “genetic spaceflight.” For $12,500, for example, the cosmologically minded can send their DNA (a mouth swab or hair sample) into space on a “true mission of exploration,” aboard a spacecraft on a “permanent celestial journey well beyond the moon.”


Who knows — some ultra-intelligent alien being may discover it in the future, and use your genetic code to reanimate a race of humans on a distant planet. Let’s just hope those humans don’t choose to blow themselves up.