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时报记者深入拉卡:被战火摧毁的“鬼城”

更新时间:2017-10-19 11:28:25 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

‘Come Out and Surrender’: Inside Raqqa, With the Fighters Who Drove Off ISIS
时报记者深入拉卡:被战火摧毁的“鬼城”

From the top-floor sniper position in western Raqqa, members of an American-backed militia scanned the ground for any signs of movement.

在拉卡西部,美军支持的民兵成员在楼顶狙击手位置仔细观察地面,搜索任何有人行动的迹象。

“We have hot soup, we have bread: Come out and surrender,” one of the fighters said on a loudspeaker. “The ISIS members and their families who surrendered to us are safe.”

“我们有热汤,我们有面包:出来投降吧,”扬声器里传出一名战士的声音。“向我们投降的伊斯兰国成员及其家属不会有危险。”

I was one of a handful of journalists who accompanied the militia, known as the Syrian Democratic Forces, for about 10 days. Twice I went to the front lines in the city, which has been largely liberated after a four-month battle. I talked to civilians who had endured Islamic State rule for more than four years and survived.

我和其他几名记者跟随这些民兵一起活动了大约十天,他们以叙利亚民主力量(Syrian Democratic Forces)这个名字为世人所知。经历四个月的战斗,拉卡的大部分已经获得解放。我曾两次亲赴这个城市的前线,和四年多来忍受伊斯兰国统治并幸存下来的平民交谈。

Only a few weeks ago, the battle for Raqqa, the self-proclaimed capital of the Islamic State, appeared to be at a stalemate. Hundreds of die-hard Islamic State fighters there were using thousands of civilians as human shields.

拉卡是伊斯兰国自称的首都;就在几个星期前,这里的战斗似乎还处于僵局之中。数百名伊斯兰国的死忠战士将这里成千上万的平民作为人盾。

But the resistance began to crumble in recent weeks. On Tuesday, the city was declared liberated, although pockets of fighting remain.

但是最近几个星期,抵抗力量开始崩溃。周二,尽管还有一些小区域内的战斗,这个城市已经宣布得到解放。

Last week, when I visited eastern Raqqa, it was hard to find a street or building that had not been damaged by the fighting. The ceaseless whiz and boom of shells fired by American-manned heavy artillery from a firebase 12 miles outside the city sent plumes of smoke rising from the relatively small area still under the Islamic State’s control.

上周我访问拉卡东部时,那里几乎找不到没有被战火破坏的街道或建筑物。在距离城市12英里(约20公里)以外的重型火力点,由美军操纵的重炮不断发射着炮弹,呼啸着落在这片相对较小、仍由伊斯兰国控制的地带,爆炸开来,升起一股又一股浓烟。

Fighters from the militia kept watch from an observation post in a bombed-out building. Some of their comrades had been cut off and ambushed; one was dead, and two injured. Lacking armored vehicles, they had at first not been able to launch a rescue operation to retrieve the stranded soldiers.

民兵战斗人员在观察站里放哨,它设立在一座被炸弹摧毁的建筑物中。早些时候,他们的一些战友遭到伏击,联系也被切断,一人死亡、两人受伤。他们缺乏装甲车辆,因此一开始没能发起救援行动,救回受困的士兵。

In another bombed-out building several hundred yards away, the men spotted movement. Two of them sent controlled bursts of machine-gun fire through holes smashed in a stairwell wall. The men sent journalists, including me, back to the rear, as they braced for a counterattack.

他们发现几百米之外,另一栋被轰炸摧毁的建筑中有人活动的迹象。他们当中的两人透过楼梯间墙壁上砸出的洞,开始用机枪冷静地射击。之后他们开始准备反击,把我和其他记者送回到后方。

The following day, I talked in a hospital with Mohammed Sheko, 25, who had been shot through the shoulder once the fighters did begin trying to retrieve the stranded unit.

第二天,我来到医院,和25岁的穆罕默德·谢科(Mohammed Sheko)交谈,他在援救受困战友的行动中肩膀中弹。

Beside him was Salah al-Raqawi, 18, his friend and comrade from the same battalion, who had been injured two days earlier by a rocket-propelled grenade.

他身边是他的朋友,和他同属一个营的萨拉赫·拉卡维(Salah al-Raqawi),现年18岁。两天前,拉卡维被一枚火箭推进榴弹击中负伤。

With both his arms fully covered in bandages, Mr. Raqawi was more incapacitated than his fellow patient and needed help to eat. His head propped against the worn metal railing of his bed, he was fed spoonfuls of rice and chicken by his injured friend.

他的双臂上裹满了绷带,比身边的病友虚弱得多,需要有人帮助才能进食。他的头靠着破损的床头金属栏杆,他的一个受伤的朋友用勺子喂他吃米饭和鸡肉。

Mr. Sheko told me that Islamic State fighters had been waiting to ambush the rescue operation and began their attack from the basement as soon as the troops entered.

谢科告诉我,伊斯兰国的战斗人员一直在等待机会伏击救援人员,部队一进入,他们就从地下室发动攻击。

When asked if he felt this was a cause worth being injured for, he replied: “It is worth more than that. It is worth dying for, for my people.”

我问他为这项事业流血受伤是否值得,他答道:“为了我的同胞,死都值得,何况受伤。”

Another young man, Omar al-Abed, 20, had died for the cause some three months earlier, but his body was recovered only recently, according to his cousin and fellow fighter, Abed al-Issa. He said that Omar had grabbed an Islamic State suicide bomber, shielding his comrades from the brunt of the blast.

三个月前,20岁的奥马尔·阿贝德(Omar al-Abed)为这项事业牺牲了生命,但他的遗体直到前不久才被发现。他的表亲和战友阿贝德·艾萨(Abed al-Issa)说,奥马尔抓住了一个伊斯兰国自杀炸弹袭击者,为掩护战友在爆炸中牺牲。

Mr. Abed was buried last week at a martyrs’ cemetery in Hukumya, about nine miles northwest of Raqqa.

上周,阿贝德被安葬在距拉卡西北约9英里(约15公里)外的胡库姆亚一处烈士陵园。

When it came time to fill his grave, a group of more than 20 militia fighters — men and women alike — put down their weapons and began to shovel. Dust blurred their camouflage uniforms and tears as dusk fell.

入葬时,20多名男男女女的民兵战士放下手中的武器,开始挖掘墓穴。黄昏时分,他们的迷彩军服已经沾满尘土,眼泪也浑浊不清。

When they were nearly finished, there was some commotion to the side of the grave. The young man’s sister, who was wearing a blue head scarf, had collapsed in grief. She didn’t make a sound for 10 minutes or so, until the funeral was over.

工作快完成时,坟墓的一侧出现一点扰动。一个戴着蓝色头巾的女子,这位年轻人的姊妹,被悲伤击垮了。有大概十分钟的时间,她一声不吭,直到葬礼结束。

The London-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights says that more than 3,000 were killed during the battle in Raqqa, including 1,130 civilians. Many others are missing.

总部位于伦敦的叙利亚人权观察组织(Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)说,在拉卡的战斗中,有3000多人丧生,其中包括1130名平民;还有很多人失踪。

Last week, I visited a hospital supported by the charity Doctors Without Borders in the town of Tal Abyad, 55 miles north of Raqqa on the border with Turkey.

上周,我来到拉卡以北55英里(约90公里)的叙利亚和土耳其边境城市泰勒艾卜耶德,走访了那里一家由慈善组织无国界医生(Doctors Without Borders)支援的医院。

There I spoke with Abdel Hemedi, 52, who escaped Raqqa on Oct. 6 after being wounded in what he described as an airstrike a week earlier.

在那里,我遇到了52岁的阿卜杜勒·哈米迪(Abdel Hemedi)。他是10月6日逃离拉卡的;此前一周,他在拉卡的空袭中受伤。

Mr. Hemedi told of how he woke to find himself in his neighbor’s house, crudely bandaged, the day after his home was hit. Still missing was his son Mohammed, who had been with him minding the family home for the duration of the battle.

哈米迪说,他的房子在空袭中被击中;翌日,他从昏迷中醒来,发现自己置身邻居家中,身上草草缠了一些绷带。他的儿子穆罕默德至今下落不明,战争期间两人一直在照看着家里的房子。

Badly burned, and with a bleeding head wound, Mr. Hemedi was being cared for by his wife and youngest son, Bassam, whom he had been reunited with the night before after months of separation.

哈米迪被严重烧伤,头部也受了伤,妻子和小儿子巴萨姆(Bassam)照顾着他。他们经历了几个月的分离,在空袭前一天晚上刚刚重聚。

Mr. Hemedi’s wife, Kawther al-Obaid, 47, said she held out hope that Mohammed had survived. “I just have a feeling he is still alive,” she said. “I am thinking he will walk through the door at any minute.”

哈米迪的妻子卡瑟·奥贝德(Kawther al-Obaid)今年47岁,她说她对穆罕默德的生死仍然抱有希望。“我就是觉得他还活着,”她说。“我想他随时都会走进这扇门。”

Although the battle for Raqqa may not be over, one turning point seems to have come on Sunday morning, when around 275 fighters and their families surrendered and evacuated on buses as part of a deal brokered by tribal elders, according to Omar Alloush, a member of the Raqqa Civil Council.

拉卡公民委员会(Raqqa Civil Council)成员奥马尔·阿卢什(Omar Alloush)表示,尽管拉卡的战役并没有结束,但转折点似乎已在周日上午到来:根据部落长老从中协调的一项交易,约有275名伊斯兰国战斗人员和他们的家属投降,乘坐若干大巴车撤离。

On Monday morning, I visited a defensive position held by the Syrian Democratic Forces at a hospital west of Raqqa. The commander in charge estimated that there were only 50 to 70 fighters left in the city.

周一上午,我访问了叙利亚民主力量在拉卡以西一座医院里布置的一个防御工事。负责这里的指挥官估计,这座城市中只剩下50到70名战斗人员。

The four-month-long campaign to retake Raqqa left behind a ghost city and killed thousands of civilians. Much of Raqqa, in an area that has been inhabited since antiquity, was leveled.

拉卡收复战持续了四个月的时间,令这里成为一座鬼城,导致数千平民丧生。拉卡大部分地区自古以来就是聚居地,如今已被夷为平地。

The physical destruction of the city was pervasive, and documentation of the damage has barely begun. The fighters I accompanied used destroyed buildings as shelters.

对城市环境的破坏无处不在,损失情况基本上还没有开始评估。我所跟随的战斗人员利用被摧毁的建筑物作为庇护所。

During the more than four years that Raqqa was under the control of the Islamic State, citizens endured violent and brutal repression. Residents — helped by Syrian exiles — risked their lives to document it through the project Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently.

在四年多的时间里,拉卡在伊斯兰国的控制之下,市民忍受着暴力和残酷的镇压。在叙利亚流亡者的帮助之下,这里的许多居民冒着生命危险,通过一个名为“拉卡正被悄悄屠杀”(Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently)的项目记录这里的生活。

“We haven’t eaten bread since Ramadan, because we couldn’t buy the flour to make it,” Younes Omar, 37, a father of four who escaped with his family from one of the last contested areas of the city, told me on Monday morning, near the main soccer stadium on the western outskirts of Raqqa. He was inside a mosque that had been turned into a gathering point for the displaced.

“自从斋月以来,我们一直没有吃到面包,因为我们不能买面粉做饭,”37岁的尤尼斯·奥马尔(Younes Omar)告诉我,他是四个孩子的父亲,带领全家从这座城市最后一批交战地带逃了出来。周一早晨,我去拉卡西郊的大足球场附近探望他。他暂住在一座清真寺内,那里已经成了流离失所者的聚居处。

As he spoke, his children — pale and undernourished — devoured a humble meal of chicken and bread.

他的孩子们个个面色苍白、营养不良,就在他说话的工夫,他们狼吞虎咽地吃着一顿有鸡肉和面包的简陋饭菜。

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