您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 风尚 >> 正文

时尚在朝鲜:色彩、质感和个人表达欲望

更新时间:2017-10-18 13:15:41 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Decoding Dress in North Korea
时尚在朝鲜:色彩、质感和个人表达欲望

Say “fashion in North Korea” to anyone and you’re liable to get a snort in return and a snarky comment about the hair of Kim Jong-un, the 33-year-old leader.

跟任何人说起“朝鲜的时尚”,对方大约都会嗤之以鼻,并且对33岁的朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong-un)的发型发表尖刻的评论。

It’s true that most North Koreans are too poor and too hungry to think much about clothing in what may be the most authoritarian, least accessible state on earth. It is a country run by a dictator, the scion of a dynasty that has ruled with complete control since an armistice ended the Korean War in 1953.

的确,朝鲜或许是当今世界上最专制、最孤立闭塞的国度,大多数朝鲜人过着贫穷饥饿的生活,根本顾不上琢磨自己的衣着。眼下朝鲜被一个独裁者统治着,他是金氏家族的后裔,自1953年朝鲜战争休战以来,这个家族便一直彻底掌控着这个国家。

And it’s easy to think of North Korea as an irredeemably one-dimensional place. Just look at the huge demonstrations that are the most common public image of local life, invariably showing thousands of citizens, some in military garb, some in Korean cultural dress, still others in various uniforms, all performing in lock step.

世人很容易把朝鲜想象成一个单调得无可救药的地方。在公众心目中,对这里的生活最寻常的印象就是那些千篇一律的大型表演。成千上万的朝鲜人,有些穿军装,有些穿朝鲜民族服饰,还有的穿着各种各样的制服,做出整齐划一的动作。

Yet Pyongyang, the capital, where I spent five days earlier this fall as part of a trip with The New York Times editorial board, has more nuance, texture and color than I expected. While it’s important not to overanalyze a first trip to any country, I was struck by the fact that contrary to the blistering official propaganda, not all North Koreans are eager to bomb the United States. People will fight for their country, absolutely, they told me, but some insisted they harbor no ill will toward Americans and would prefer to live in peace.

不过,今秋早些时候,我随《纽约时报》编委会出访,在朝鲜首都平壤待了五天,那里有着出乎我预料的细腻、质感和色彩。如果你是首次到访某个国家,就不要对这段经历进行过度解读,这一点固然非常重要,但我还是被一个事实深深触动:与愤怒激烈的官方宣传不同,并非所有朝鲜人都急于轰炸美国。他们告诉我,民众绝对会为国家而战,但一些人坚称自己对美国人没有恶意,更愿意生活在和平之中。

Details of dressing that I saw, and of the life in general, reinforced suspicions that the desire for personal expression has not been totally snuffed out.

我注意到服饰上的细节以及日常生活中的种种细节,这些都令我愈发怀疑,在这里,个人表达的欲望尚未被完全清除。

In Pyongyang, where the party elite dominate and some have more chance of rubbing shoulders with foreigners, either in the city or on trips to China or Europe, I was surprised by the stiletto high heels, a staple of the attractive young women who are overwhelmingly favored for jobs as waitresses, singers and virtually any responsibility that has public visibility and requires long hours on one’s feet.

平壤是由党内精英主导的地方,一些人有更多机会,能同外国人接触,有时是在这座城市里,有时是在出访中国或欧洲期间。让我吃惊的是,在平壤,迷人的年轻女性大多脚踩细高跟鞋——服务生、歌手以及任何需要抛头露面并长时间站立的工作岗位都青睐这样的女性。

Our junior minder, Hong Hye Gyong, a 20-something intern with the foreign ministry, walked miles in her heels — they looked to be about three inches — without complaint as our group traipsed the uneven city sidewalks en route to a gift store and amusement park.

我们那位年纪较轻的陪同人员洪惠敬(Hong Hye Gyon,音),大约二十几岁,是外交部的实习生。她的鞋跟看上去约有三英寸高,她穿着这双鞋,毫无怨言地陪着我们在这座城市并不平坦的人行道上游逛,一会儿去礼品店,一会儿又去游乐园,走了很远的路。

Ms. Hong favored a tailored black dress as her work outfit topped by a short fitted jacket, including one in bright red. Indeed, though clothing tends to the black and gray, apparently pink, purple and white are becoming more popular. Even so, makeup tends to be minimal or nonexistent and people generally dress conservatively, even at amusement parks and dolphin shows; there was no sign of bluejeans, thought to be a sign of Western decadence. On the other hand, skirts often ride slightly above the knee.

洪惠敬工作时喜欢穿一件定制的黑色长裙,外搭短款紧身外套——其中一件是大红色的。事实上,虽然人们的衣服往往是黑色或灰色,但粉色、紫色和白色似乎正变得更加流行。不过,这里的人通常只稍微化一点儿妆,或完全素颜,衣着也很保守,就连去游乐园和观看海豚表演时也是如此;我没看到有人穿牛仔裤,在朝鲜,牛仔裤被认为象征着西方的颓废堕落。另一方面,裙摆的长度通常是到膝盖往上一点点。

The sartorial fresh air is often attributed to Mr. Kim, who isn’t much of a fashion plate himself but reportedly expanded the importing of luxury goods after coming to power in 2012, or at least he did before the United Nations tightened sanctions. His wife, Ri Sol-ju, who has a fondness for tailored form-fitting dresses, is seen as something of a style icon.

这股时装方面的清新风气常常被归因于金正恩,他本人算不得时髦人物,但据报道,他于2012年上台后扩大了奢侈品的进口,至少在联合国收紧制裁前是如此。他的妻子李雪主(Ri Sol-ju)喜欢穿定制的紧身裙装,在某种程度上被视为时尚偶像。

While a number of young women carried fashionable purses, we weren’t permitted to visit any department stores, so examining the provenance of items was impossible. Chinese counterfeits are reportedly plentiful. Most people wear clothes made of vynalon, a synthetic fiber produced in North Korea since the 1950s that is considered a symbol of the country’s ideology of self-reliance but has the disadvantage of being stiff and difficult to dye.

很多年轻女子都拿着时尚的手袋,但我们未获准进入任何商场,因此无法探寻这些手袋的来源。据报道,这里有大量来自中国的假冒商品。大多数人的衣服料子都是维纶的,朝鲜从1950年代开始生产这种化纤衣料,它被视为该国自给自足意识形态的象征,但缺点是不够柔软,且难于染色。

The senior Foreign Ministry officials who were our interlocutors — all men — would have easily blended into the crowd in New York. One wore a blue blazer and blue trousers with a white button-down shirt; another, a black and white checked jacket, black pants and a white shirt; the third, a black suit, white shirt and blue tie with white polka dots.

跟我们对话的朝鲜外交部高官都是男性,他们可以轻易混入纽约的人群。其中一位穿着蓝色外套、蓝裤子和白色纽扣领衬衫;另一位穿着黑白相间的格纹夹克、黑裤子和白衬衫;还有一位穿一身黑西装和白衬衫,打着带白色圆点图案的蓝领带。

Despite such evidence of what, for a repressive country, constitutes fashion experimentation, uniforms were ubiquitous. And not just for those in the military, where hats with tops as big as small pizza pans and sharply pressed loosely fitted brown pants are worn by men and women officers.

尽管对于一个专制国家来说,这一切证据都表明有人在尝试时尚,但制服依然无处不在。这里的男女军官都戴着帽顶和小披萨一样大小的军帽,穿着熨烫平整的棕色宽松裤子,不过穿制服的不仅限于军人。

Women directed traffic on main city streets and took tickets in the subway in prim blue suits (the color varied with the job), short white socks and sensible chunky pumps. Those waiting on tables in restaurants were more apt to wear matching dresses like black and orange sheaths, while silk factory workers toiled away in shapeless housedresses and aprons, with kerchiefs on their heads; day care workers wore white dresses and accordion hats à la Western nurses of yore.

在城市主干道上指挥交通,或在地铁里检票的女性身穿古板的蓝色套装(不同工作的制服颜色略有差别)、脚穿白色短袜和厚重实用的便鞋。餐厅的服务员大多身穿撞色连衣裙,比如黑色和橙色的紧身裙;丝绸厂的工人穿的是宽松的家常便服,戴着围裙和头巾;日托中心的工作人员穿着白色连衣裙,戴着类似西方护士从前戴的那种百褶帽。

Pins, required to be worn by all adults, feature either Kim Il Sung, North Korea’s founder, his son Kim Jong-il, or both. People told us it didn’t matter which one you wore as long as it was on to the lapel over the heart in full view.

成年人都必须佩戴朝鲜开国领袖金日成(Kim Il Sung)或其子金正日(Kim Jong-il)的像章。那里的人告诉我们,不管戴谁的像章,只要是别在胸前翻领上显眼的地方就行。

For students of all ages, the routine was white shirts, red kerchiefs and navy on the bottom: pants for the boys, skirts for the girls. But even here, individuality is creeping in. Some children wore white blouses with ruffles instead of plain long-sleeved white shirts, and others added diverse accessories — pink backpacks, red and black striped socks, black platform shoes, an orange/black and white athletic jacket. On the sports field, the boys looked like athletes anywhere, in their jerseys and ersatz polo shirts.

各年龄段学生们的日常着装是白衬衫、红领巾,男生穿蓝裤子,女生穿蓝裙子。但是即便如此,人们也在悄悄展现自己的个性。有些孩子穿的是带有褶饰的白衬衫,而不是普通的长袖白衬衫,也有些孩子添加各种各样的配饰,比如粉色背包、红黑条纹短袜、黑色厚底鞋、橙色/黑色和白色运动衫。运动场上的男孩们穿着运动服和劣质马球衫,看上去和其他地方的运动员没什么两样。

It was the toddlers at day care, however, who really caught my eye. In unmatched T-shirts and pull-up pants, they were a riot of pattern and hue, wearing a yellow shirt with purple pants, say, or a multistriped shirt with print bottoms, or a yellow and pink top, pink bottoms and blue and white socks. As far as fashion goes, that youngest generation made the most radical statement of all.

不过,真正吸引我眼球的是托儿所蹒跚学步的孩子们。他们穿着不成套的T恤和松紧带裤,各种式样和颜色应有尽有,比如黄色衬衫搭配紫色裤子,或者彩条衬衫搭配搭配印花裤,又或者黄色/粉色上衣搭配粉裤子和蓝白短袜。在时尚方面,最年轻的一代做出了最激进的声明。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表