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人生几岁开始往下坡路走?

更新时间:2017-10-17 11:48:13 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Is it all downhill from 35?
人生几岁开始往下坡路走?

What’s the perfect age? For some it’s the carefree teenage years or time at university. But 35 may in fact be the pivotal turning point, both personally and professionally.

人生中最美好的时光是什么时候?对某些人来说,是无忧无虑的青少年或者大学时光。但无论从个人生活还是职业发展角度来看,35岁或许才是重要的转折点。

Not only is 35 the age when we’re perceived to no longer be "young", according to a study from the University of Kent, but also when men reach "peak loneliness" and women hit "peak boring." And if that wasn’t bad enough, 35 is also the age at which we start hating our jobs, according to a survey of more than 2,000 UK employees by human resources company Robert Half.

肯特大学的一项研究显示,35岁的人不仅在别人眼中不再"年轻",男人到了这个年龄还会达到"寂寞巅峰",女人则会达到"无趣巅峰"。如果这还不够糟糕,人力资源公司罗致恒富 (Robert Half)对2,000多名英国雇员进行的调查还显示,35岁的我们还会开始憎恨工作。

Research suggests it’s during your mid-thirties that family pressure and increased financial responsibility conflate causing problems both at work and home.

研究表明,到了35岁左右,家庭压力和财务责任的增加会在工作与家庭中引发很多问题。

Under pressure

承受压力

Job security also becomes more of an issue. In the first quarter of 2017, UK workers aged 35-49 were twice as likely to be made redundant as those aged 25-34, according to data from the Office for National Statistics.

工作压力也越来越成问题。根据英国国家统计局的数据,2017年第一季度,英国35至49岁职场人士被裁员的概率达到25至34岁人群的两倍。

Moreover, this group were less content at work than their younger peers, the Robert Half UK survey found. It revealed that one in six British workers over the age of 35 were unhappy in their job – more than double the figure for those under 35.

另外,罗致恒富英国分公司进行的调查还发现,这一群体对工作的满意度也低于比他们更年轻的人。结果显示,超过35岁的英国劳动者中,有1/6对自己的工作不满——达到35岁以下人群的两倍多。

“It’s quite a combination to have a new family and more financial commitments… all while maturing into a career where you’ve started to go into leadership roles with more responsibility,” says Ashley Whipman, director at Robert Half UK.

"原因来自很多方面,包括组建新的家庭,肩负更多财务责任……再加上职业开始步入成熟期,使得你开始担任领导岗位,肩负更多责任。"罗致恒富英国分公司总监阿什利·维普曼(Ashley Whipman)说。

Whipman says younger workers often benefit from lower expectations from their managers and higher aspirations, while workers in their mid-30s struggle with the nagging question: Have I made it?

维普曼表示,比较年轻的员工往往受益于管理者的期待较低以及自身的抱负较高,而35岁左右的职场人士则要面对一个挥之不去的问题:我成功了吗?

Of course, 35 is also the age when we’re no longer in the same age bracket as 20-somethings and instead lumped in with the older generations, which could make it more of an arbitrary marker than studies claim it to be.

当然,35岁的我们也不再是20几岁的人,而是逐渐被归入较为年长的群体。尽管这些研究言之凿凿,但这个年龄的确可以在很大程度上做到随心所欲。

Julia Clark, a pollster with global market research company Ipsos, says, it’s fair “to consider that some of the ‘under 35’ and ‘over 35’ differences you find are due to the fact that that’s where we draw the line.”

国际市场调研公司Ipsos的民意调查员茱莉亚·克拉克(Julia Clark)表示,"的确可以这样认为:我们在'35岁以下'和'超过35岁'的人群之间看到的一些差异,是因为我们用这个年龄来区分两个年龄组。"

However Clark adds it’s a standard practice among the market research community to use age categories that cut across decades, rather than coincide with them, to accurately group people by life stage. A 20-year-old and a 29-year-old are often at very different life stages, so the first common demographic grouping runs from 18 to 24 (then 25-34). Macro groupings use 18-34 and 35-54, making 35 one of the most common dividers between those who are young and developing a career and those who are older and more established.

然而,克拉克也补充道,市场研究行业在划分人群时往往不会完全以10岁为一个单位划分人群,而是经常在中间断开。20岁和29岁是两个差异很大的人生阶段,所以人口统计学中最常见的第一个年龄组是18-24岁(之后是25至34岁)。大跨度的分组使用18-34和35-54岁的划分方法,因此35岁成为了职业处于发展期的年轻人和职业步入成熟期的年长者之间一个常见的分水岭。

Women who want to have children still face anxiety over their fertility post-35 although recent research suggests fertility doesn’t drop as sharply as once imagined. In the US, an increasing number of women are now postponing their first pregnancy well into their 30s to continue education and forge careers. The latest statistics from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that, for the first time in recorded history, women in their early 30s are now having more children than those in their 20s.

尽管最近的研究表明,生育能力的下降幅度并不像我们原本想象得那么剧烈,但想生孩子的女性还要在35岁之后面对生育能力引发的焦虑。在美国,越来越多的女性为了持续接受教育和发展自己的职业而把首次怀孕的时间推迟到30多岁。美国疾病控制和预防中心的最新统计表明,30岁出头才生儿育女的女性数量目前已经超过20多岁的女性,这是有记录以来第一次出现这种情况。

There are also financial reasons for delaying children – a 2011 study published in the Journal of Population Economics found that every year a woman postpones having children leads to a 9% increase in career earnings.

推迟怀孕还源自一些财务因素——2011年发表在《人口经济学期刊》(Journal of Population Economics)上的一项研究发现,女性每推迟怀孕一年,职场收益都会提升9%。

Deferred decisions

延期决策

Dilip Jeste, director of the Center for Healthy Aging at University of California San Diego, says there’s a common misconception that our 20s and 30s will be the best years of our lives, and that things only go downhill later on. In reality, these formative years are riddled with the stress and anxiety of making major life decisions.

加州大学圣迭戈分校健康老龄化中心主任迪利普·杰斯特(Dilip Jeste)表示,人们存在一种普遍的误区:他们认为二、三十岁是人生中最好的年份,之后便会走下坡路。但实际上,这些形成性格的时期充斥着因为要制定重大人生决策而引发的紧张和焦虑。

A longer life-span in the developed world, coupled with the overabundance of choices in a globalised economy, only makes this process of settling into a career, family and geographic location longer and harder than it was a generation ago.

发达国家较长的人均寿命,加之全球化经济带来的过多选择,只会导致这代人在适应职业、家庭和地理位置时比上一代人花费更多的时间,付出更多的努力。

“Previously people made definitive lifelong decisions in their early 20s, but today’s millennials are continuing to defer decisions,” says Jeste. “They’re getting married later in life, they’re having children later in life, and a lot of these stresses that once happened earlier in life are now happening in the 30s.”

"人们以前都是在20岁出头的时候制定人生决策,但今天的千禧一代不断推迟决策时间。"杰斯特说,"他们结婚时间更晚,生儿育女的时间也更晚,很多原本在人生中较早出现的压力现在都发生在30多岁的时候。"

The good news? “The rest of your life is going to be happier,” says Jeste.

好消息是什么?"你人生中剩下的时间将会更加幸福。"杰斯特说。

Of course, ageing isn’t a glamorous affair but your mental health may improve as the decades pass “we know ourselves better, we make informed decisions and we tend to be less selfish,” Jeste says. “That’s the wisdom that comes with experience, which only comes from ageing.”

当然,变老并不是什么令人向往的事情,但你的心理状态会随着数十年的光阴流逝而变得更加健康。"我们越来越了解自己,可以制定明智的决策,也不会像以前那么自私。"杰斯特说,"这都是通过经验得来的智慧,唯有岁月能给予我们如此的馈赠。"

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