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忘了烧饼油条吧!试试瑞士什锦麦片

更新时间:2017-10-17 11:30:00 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How Switzerland transformed breakfast
忘了烧饼油条吧!试试瑞士什锦麦片

One early July morning, in a high Alpine valley above rolling pastures, a group of hikers gathered for breakfast at the historical Schatzalp Hotel in Davos, Switzerland’s easternmost resort. The sky was pallid grey, as were the clouds on the horizon, but the colour on the breakfast-goers cheeks was a healthy rose-pink.

七月的一天早晨,在牧场绵延起伏的高高的阿尔卑斯峡谷,在瑞士东端度假胜地达沃斯历史悠久的谢茨阿尔卑 (Schatzalp) 酒店,一群徒步旅行者正一起吃早餐。天空是暗淡的灰色,与地平线上的云朵一样,但用餐的人们脸上都洋溢着健康的淡粉红色。

One by one, they filled their dishes from the buffet, smiling contentedly as they took their time heaping spoonfuls of grated apple, cinnamon, rolled oats, seeds, nuts and dollops of yoghurt into the bowls. Eating it was proper work, but later, half a dozen of them went back for seconds. And so did I.

他们在享用自助餐,一个接一个填满自己的餐盘。他们一边满足地微笑着,一边用勺子将磨碎的苹果、肉桂、燕麦片、瓜子、果仁和酸奶盛到自己碗里。就餐过程一切顺利,但随后,其中六个人又再次返回。我也是这样。

On the face of it, the scene doesn’t look like much, but this perfect marriage of morning custom and cereal is the very reason Switzerland changed the way the world eats breakfast. Bircher muesli – a hosanna to healthy living – is the invention that gave Switzerland its mojo. And still today its influence shouldn’t be underestimated.

从表面看,似乎并无特别之处,但瑞士正是凭借这种将早餐与谷物完美结合的方式改变了世界各地人的早餐习惯。伯奇麦片(Bircher)——一曲健康生活的礼赞,它是为瑞士带来好运的发明。直到今天,它的影响仍然不容低估。

To learn more, I contacted Dr Eberhard Wolff from the Department of Social Anthropology and Cultural Studies at the University of Zurich. “First of all, muesli was not a breakfast idea,” said Wolff, who co-curated an exhibition at the Swiss National Museum on the country’s golden age as a health paradise. “Bircher muesli was intended as a starter to every meal, like bread and butter is today. Then, for a long time it became a Schweizer Znacht, a Swiss supper at night. But breakfast? Never.”

为了深入了解,我联系到苏黎世大学社会人类学和文化研究系的埃伯哈德·沃尔夫 (Eberhard Wolff) 博士。"首先,麦片并不是为早餐而提出的,"沃尔夫说,他与人合作策划了在瑞士国家博物馆举行的关于瑞士作为健康乐园的黄金时代的展览。"伯奇麦片的本来是作为每餐的开胃菜,就像今天的面包和黄油一样。随后很长一段时间,它成了瑞士的一种晚餐,称为"Znacht"。但早餐呢?从来没有这样。"

Tell plenty of Swiss this today and they’ll counter with a quizzical look. Many have only the vaguest knowledge of muesli’s roots. The older generation may picture its inventor, Dr Maximilian Oskar Bircher-Benner, as a charismatic Doctor Doolittle-like character strolling the forests above Lake Zurich. But the younger generation are unlikely to know more.

如果今天再和瑞士人讲这样的故事,他们很多人会报以困惑的表情。对于麦片的来源,很多人都知之甚少。年长的一代也许会对它的发明者马克西米兰·奥斯卡·伯奇-本纳 (Maximilian Oskar Bircher-Benner) 博士还有印象。他是位魅力非凡的医生,喜欢像萧伯纳笔下的人物杜利特尔一样在苏黎世湖畔的森林里散步。但是年青一代对此却知之甚少。

Which is to say the backstory needs some unpacking. It begins around 1900 with the Swiss physician’s crusade to combat the ill effects of tuberculosis through improved diet. Far from being a nutritionist, Bircher-Benner first conceived the idea while studying medicine at the University of Zurich, experimenting with the effects raw food had on the body, and later using himself as a lab rat after falling ill with jaundice. The conclusion? His recovery was proof-of-concept for the health benefits of raw apple, nuts and oats mixed with water, lemon juice and condensed milk. A bowl of this Apfeldiätspeise (literally ‘Apple Diet Meal’, as Bircher museli was then known) will stay with you for the day, he reasoned, and probably for the rest of your life, too.

也就是说我们还需要展开介绍一下背景故事。伯奇麦片最初源自 1900 年左右这位瑞士内科医生发起的改革,他试图通过改善饮食来对抗结核病的不良作用。伯奇-本纳远非营养师,他是在苏黎世大学做医学研究时首次提出这种想法的,他针对生食给人体带来的影响进行实验,随后在染上黄疸之后,他又亲自充当小白鼠进行实验。那么实验结论如何呢?他的实验证明了生苹果、坚果和燕麦混合水、柠檬汁以及炼乳对健康的益处。他详细论证了这样一碗"Apfeldiätspeise"(顾名思义,即"苹果膳食",之后才有了伯奇麦片的叫法)对人体的短期好处,长远也许同样有益。

Around this time, everyone from a fledgling Nestlé in the Swiss town of Vevey to English tour operator Thomas Cook began propagating the idea of Switzerland as a paragon of healthy living. And no one cast this spell better than Swiss author Johanna Spyri. When her character Heidi falls ill, the mountains and alpine herbs are the only possible cure for her homesickness. And when Clara Sesemann, her wheelchair-bound friend, follows Heidi back to the mountains, she is able to walk again.

差不多与此同时,从瑞士小镇韦威 (Vevey) 的初创公司雀巢到英格兰旅游经营商托马斯·库克 (Thomas Cook),纷纷开始将瑞士作为健康生活的典范进行宣传。在施展这个魔法方面,没有人比瑞士作家乔安娜·斯比瑞 (Johanna Spyri) 做的更好了。当她笔下的人物海蒂 (Heidi) 生病时,大山和阿尔卑斯植物是治愈乡愁的不二疗法。而当海蒂坐轮椅的朋友克拉拉·赛斯曼 (Clara Sesemann) 跟随她返回大山时,她已经能够再次行走了。

But Bircher-Benner’s research wasn’t so far-fetched. It became such a game changer that by 1904 he opened Lebendige Kraft, a chalet-style health sanatorium in the foothills of the Zürichberg, the city’s east-facing mountain. Switzerland’s reputation was such that thousands had begun to flock to health clinics in the Alps for the tangible healing properties of the sun, air and diet – but Bircher-Benner was also a shrewd businessman. Instead of opening on a sun-drenched Alpine ridge, he opened his sanatorium close to Zurich’s five-star Dolder Grand Hotel to lure in its affluent guests.

但是伯奇-本纳的研究并不像故事中一样牵强附会。到 1904 年时,他的研究已经风靡大街小巷。他开办了活力 (Lebendige Kraft) 疗养院,这是一家位于苏黎世山(苏黎世东面的山脉)的木屋风格健康疗养院。瑞士开始声名鹊起,成千上万的人涌入阿尔卑斯山的健康中心,体验阳光、空气和膳食的治疗功效,而伯奇-本纳还是一位精明的商人。他并没有在阿尔卑斯山脉向阳的一面开店,而是选择将疗养院设在苏黎世五星级的多尔德大酒店附近,目的是吸引其中的富人游客。

“In my eyes, his success was due to the easy rules he preached – raw food, early rise, early to bed, the virtues of fresh mountain air,” Wolff said. “But there was also a growing demand for ascetic self-control in the middle classes and the well-to-do at that time. And that’s why many flocked to the Zauber Berge, or the ‘Magic Mountain’ as it became known.”

"在我看来,他的成功之道在于他所宣扬的简单规则——生食、早起、早睡,以及山里新鲜空气的滋养。"沃尔夫说道,"但是当时的中产阶级和小康家庭的禁欲自我控制需求也越来越强烈。这就是随着它广为人知,许多人涌入"魔幻山 (Zauber Berge)"的原因所在。"

Further fuelling excitement over such sanatoria was the rise of lebensreform. A social movement born in Germany, it advocated a pre-Summer of Love utopia of freedom, hippy ideals and vegetarianism. Yet not everyone was impressed. The writer Thomas Mann, who stayed in Bircher-Benner’s clinic for four weeks, later penning The Magic Mountain while recuperating in Davos, went so far as to call the sanatorium a hygienic prison.

对于疗养院发展的进一步刺激则要归功于生活改革运动的兴起。生活改革是一项源于德国的社会运动,它倡导自由的夏日之恋乌托邦、嬉皮士理念和素食主义。当然并非所有人都会为此折服。作家托马斯·曼 (Thomas Mann) 曾在伯奇-本纳诊所待了四周,回到达沃斯后,他提笔抨击"魔幻山",他甚至称之为保健监狱。

Seen from the Zürichberg today, there is little of the original clinic left. Walk down Keltenstrasse and you’ll come to a training and conference centre for Zurich Financial Services, once part of the sanatorium. By turning on to Köllikerstrasse, you’ll pass three chalet-style houses that once housed paying guests. The splashy Dolder Grand Hotel is still as imposing as ever, but the area has become better known as the global headquarters of FIFA.

如今,从苏黎世山上看去,原先诊所的痕迹已经几乎不复存在。沿着 Keltenstrasse 大街前行,会来到苏黎世金融服务集团的培训和会议中心,它曾经也是疗养院的一个部分。拐进 Köllikerstrasse 大街后,你会经过三个木屋风格的房子,那里曾经是付费客人居住的地方。金碧辉煌的多尔德大酒店气势宏伟,一如既往,但如今,这一地区更为人所熟知的却是国际足联全球总部。

While the idea of the health sanatorium in Switzerland is more or less history, the country remains a proud muesli belt, populated by middle-class, health-conscious people who commonly snack on cereal at their office desks rather than a sandwich. Yet the golden days are not completely forgotten: one of the original luxury sanatoria still stands the test of time as a wellness hotel.

尽管健康疗养院的理念在瑞士或多或少已成历史,但是这个国家仍然是骄傲的穆兹利地带,人口构成主要是中产阶级和注重健康的人们,他们办公桌上的快餐一般都是麦片,而不是三明治。黄金岁月并未被完全遗忘:最早的一处豪华疗养院历经沧桑,依然屹立,现在是一家健康酒店。

A two hours’ drive from Zurich, crossing southeast into the canton of Graubünden, the art nouveau Hotel Schatzalp stands on the plateau of another fabled magic mountain, the Schiahorn. Like the Zürichberg, patients here surrendered to monastic routines of lying on a sun lounger for six hours to absorb Vitamin D, while eating vast quantities of muesli. And they would do so for months.

从苏黎世驱车两小时,向东南方进入格劳宾登州 (Graubünden),新艺术风格的谢茨阿尔卑酒店 (Hotel Schatzalp) 就位于希亚霍恩山 (Schiahorn) 的高地上,它是另一座传说中的魔幻山。与苏黎世山类似,这里的病人也按照修道院惯例,在日光浴躺椅躺上六小时,以吸收维生素 D,同时还进食大量的麦片。他们的这种生活方式会持续数月之久。

“The routine of sanatorium life was like something from the Grand Hotel Budapest film,” said hotel director Mark Linder, showing me around the historical property that dates to 1900. “People would travel eight hours by horse and cart from Landquart to take advantage of the air, altitude and spring water. They would often arrive lost, and hopefully get found. That was its purpose.”

酒店主管马克·林德 (Mark Linder)带我参观可以追溯到 1900 年的历史遗迹。他表示,"疗养院的生活习惯就像电影《布达佩斯大饭店》中的场景一样,人们会乘坐八个小时马车从兰德夸特 (Landquart) 前来享受这里的高山、泉水和空气。他们经常会感到迷茫,希望能在这里找回自我。这曾经也是疗养院的目的。"

Walking the hotel’s nostalgia-filled corridors, it is easy to see what Linder means. The glamorous bar and TV lounge once housed a medical wing and operating theatre, while the murals in the belle époque dining room capture scenarios from the Swiss lowlands so patients wouldn’t feel homesick when eating yet another bowl of raw fruit. But times don’t change that much: still today, the restaurant acts as a wistful backdrop for those who come to eat well, enjoy the fresh air and get fit on their own terms.

走进酒店充满怀旧意味的走廊,很容易就能理解林德的意思。迷人的酒吧和电视室曾被用作接诊室和手术室,而一派太平盛世的餐厅壁画则描绘了瑞士低地的景色,为的是病人在吃生水果时不会有乡愁。但是时间也并未改变许多:直到今天,酒店仍然让那些前来品尝健康食物、呼吸新鲜空气和健身的人们趋之若鹜。

Would Bircher-Benner approve? Wolff and Linder think he would. When it comes to the vital business of food and leisure in Switzerland, the doctor’s philosophy continues to influence the country’s national psyche. The Swiss all but invented healthy living, and embracing the great outdoors is so ingrained in their culture that mountain air, plentiful sunshine and a good diet is practically a human right.

伯奇-本纳会感到欣慰吗?沃尔夫和林德认为他会。说到瑞士重要的食品和休闲产业,这位医生的哲学对瑞士的国民心态仍然继续发挥着影响。瑞士人除了创造健康的生活方式,积极参与户外活动在瑞士文化里也根深蒂固,山里的空气、充足的阳光和良好的膳食几乎已经成为了一种人权。

So next time you have a bowl of Bircher muesli, consider this: a nation’s soul and more than 100 years of history are at the tip of your spoon.

所以下次当你捧着一碗伯奇麦片的时候,不妨这样想想:你勺尖承载的是一个国家的灵魂和一百多年的历史。

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