您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 旅游 >> 正文

苏格兰费尔岛有什么好?

更新时间:2017-10-16 18:47:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why people are obsessed with Fair Isle in the Shetlands
苏格兰费尔岛有什么好?

When David Brackenbury was six years old, he was given a Fair Isle jumper as a gift. Curious, he looked up Fair Isle on the map. Hailing from the industrial English town of Derby, “the furthest you can possibly get from the sea,” he found himself seduced by the idea of living there.

年仅六岁时,大卫·布拉肯伯里(David Brackenbury)得到了一件费尔岛(Fair Isle)套头衫礼物。他好奇地在地图上寻找费尔岛。他来自英国工业城市德比(Derby),对这里而言,费尔岛是"从海上可以抵达的最远的地方",他发现自己被去那里生活的念头所深深诱惑。

About 10 years ago, he made it happen. And while the detail that drew Brackenbury to this 3-sq-mile island may seem particularly idiosyncratic, he is far from the only person to have chased a dream here.

大约十年前,他终于实现了自己的梦想。尽管吸引他前来这个面积仅有三平方英里的小岛的个中缘由可能颇为特别,但他绝非唯一一个到这里来追逐梦想的人。

Marooned halfway between the Shetland and Orkney archipelagos, Fair Isle is one of Britain’s most remote inhabited islands. Raised by precipitous cliffs out of a sea that has claimed dozens of shipwrecks, the island can feel like the very edge of the world – particularly when howling gales ground the 25-minute air service and 2.5-hour ferry from Mainland, Shetland’s main island. Get caught in one of those fairly frequent travel disruptions and you may find yourself stuck on the island for extra days, or even weeks.

在苏格兰北方的设得兰群岛(Shetland)和奥克尼群岛(Orkney)之间孑孓独立的费尔岛是英国最偏远的有人定居岛屿之一。海面上凸起的悬崖峭壁曾导致多起海难事故发生,这座岛屿几乎就是世界的尽头。从设得兰群岛主岛——大陆岛前往这里需要 25 分钟飞行或 2.5 小时渡轮航行,途中都要面临咆哮大风,形势尤为险峻。如果遇上这些频繁发生的气象事件,你就可能数日被困在岛上,甚至数个星期。

Even so, Fair Isle draws hundreds of visitors a year. It also has drawn settlers, some coming from as far away as Venezuela to join the tight-knit community of around 55.

尽管如此,费尔岛每年仍然吸引数百人到访。此外,这里还有大约 55 名定居者,一些人甚至从委内瑞拉不远万里前来加入这个亲密的社区。

Most visitors are birders. For them, Fair Isle has an almost mythical allure: it is known as one of the best places in Europe to see rare birds make pit stops along their migration routes in spring and autumn – as well as seabirds nesting noisily in the cliffs in summer. When a particularly rare bird is spotted, it’s not unusual for serious birders to charter a plane and dash to the island to see it.

多数游客都是"鸟迷"。对他们而言,费尔岛有着神奇的魅力:在春季和秋季,鸟类迁徙时会途经这里,因而它是欧洲观看珍稀鸟类的最佳目的地之一,而在夏季,这里还有海鸟在悬崖上叽叽喳喳地筑巢。一旦发现珍稀鸟类,疯狂的鸟迷包机飞来岛上观看也不足为奇。

But birders aren’t the only visitors who tick an item off a list by coming here. Pharologists keen to visit all of Scotland’s 209 working lighthouses will find two, both built by the famed Stevenson engineering family. Mountaineers who have finished bagging Scotland’s 282 ‘munros’ (mountains higher than 3,000 feet) can climb Ward Hill, the island’s ‘marilyn’ (the name given to mountains over 490 feet). And, of course, anyone can check off another of Scotland’s 790 islands.

但是鸟迷并不是到访者的唯一来源,还有热衷于探访灯塔的学者。苏格兰共有 209 座灯塔仍在使用,在这里就有两座,它们都是由著名的史蒂文森(Stevenson)工程家族所建造。将苏格兰 282 个"munros"(海拔高度3,000英尺以上的山峰)都收入囊中的登山家们也会前来攀登沃德丘(Ward Hill),它是岛上的"marilyn"(海拔超过 490 英尺的山丘)。当然,苏格兰共有 790 座岛屿,人们还可以前去其他岛上一游。

Tommy Hyndman has welcomed many of these experience collectors into the Old Haa, the bed and breakfast he runs in the old house of the laird, or former landowner. Hyndman even has created another bucket list item himself by re-establishing the island’s six-hole Lighthouse Keeper’s Golf Course – the most remote in the UK.

汤米·海因德曼(Tommy Hyndman)迎接过许多寻求类似经验的游客,他经营住宿加早餐的简易旅馆"Old Haa",它就设在前业主的老房子里。海因德曼甚至还重建了岛上的六孔"灯塔看守人高尔夫球场",亲手打造了岛上另一处景观——英国最偏远的高尔夫球场。

Originally from New York, Hyndman was drawn to Fair Isle by a wish to live in a rugged landscape and by a radio broadcast. In September 2005, NPR’s All Things Considered ran a story about the National Trust for Scotland’s search for a tenant for the Old Haa. Hyndman’s then-wife was stuck in traffic when she heard the report.

海因德曼来自纽约,他渴望旷野生活,被一个无线电广播节目吸引到费尔岛上。2005 年 9 月,美国国家公共电台(NPR)的"All Things Considered"(深思熟虑)节目报道了一则苏格兰国家信托(National Trust for Scotland)寻找"Old Haa"承租人的消息。海因德曼当时的妻子听到这一报道时正被困在路上。

“If the drumbeat of news … gets overwhelming,” the broadcast went, “you might find yourself drawn to a small classified ad in the housing section of the Scottish newspaper Shetland Today.”

广播节目在继续:"如果新闻播报……密集到让人难以忍受,你也许会被苏格兰报纸《设得兰今日》的住房板块的某个小广告所吸引。"

The report went on to detail what kind of people would be suited to life on the island and explain that rent would be just £300 per year.

报道继续介绍了一些细节,包括哪种人适合生活在岛上,另外还说明租金仅为每年300欧元。

The NTS received around 1,000 applications. By the end, the list had been whittled down to only two families – including the Hyndmans.

苏格兰国家信托共收到了约1,000份申请。最终,候选名单只剩下两家人——其中之一便是海因德曼家。

Visiting for the first time and arriving in a blowing gale, their romantic notions were quickly dispelled. The first night was “horrible”, said Hyndman. But when their transport home was grounded, staying for a few days longer than planned gave them the time to get to know, and warm to, the island and its residents – most of whom appeared at one point at an impromptu music session in the community hall. The family’s son, Hyndman said, “played with their kids as if they had been friends forever.” When the Hyndmans finally were selected, they moved there in 2006.

他们首次来岛途中就遭遇大风,这让他们对费尔岛的浪漫幻想迅速破灭。海因德曼说,岛上的第一夜堪称"恐怖"。但当他们建好新家时,他们比原计划多待了几天,这就让他们有时间去了解并喜欢上这座岛和它的居民——大多数人只会在社区礼堂的即兴音乐会上露面。海因德曼说,"我儿子与其他居民的孩子们一起玩耍,就像是多年的老朋友一样。"海因德曼一家最终被选中,他们于 2006 年搬到岛上。

It’s an early example of an SOS-style call for people to live on a remote island going viral. The search for a schoolteacher for nearby Foula and a caretaker in Tasmania are more recent examples, as is Fair Isle’s own hunt for a new nurse.

这还只是开始,而这种像紧急呼救一样号召人们前来偏远岛屿生活的求救服务已经蔚然成风。例如,最近,附近的福拉岛(Foula)在寻求一名教师,塔斯马尼亚岛(Tasmania)在寻求看门人,而费尔岛也在招聘新护士。

These kinds of call-outs have helped keep Fair Isle alive. Once, evacuation, the fate that befell the now museum-like St. Kilda archipelago, seemed all but inevitable. That started to change in 1948 when George Waterson founded the Bird Observatory, which helped to bring in visitors and boost the economy. In 1954, Waterson sold the island to the National Trust for Scotland, which helped to modernise housing and improve transportation. While the population is still considerably smaller than its height of almost 400, new people and new ideas help to keep the island’s community sustainable.

这种求救服务为费尔岛上的生活带来便利。对于如今像博物馆一般的圣基尔达(St. Kilda)群岛,撤离的命运一度几乎不可避免。但在 1948 年,事情开始发生变化,乔治·沃特森(George Waterson)建立了野鸟观察站,这一举措既吸引了游客,又促进了经济繁荣。1954 年,沃特森将岛屿出售给苏格兰国家信托,后者帮助岛上的住宿和交通设施实现了现代化改造和升级。尽管目前的情况与高峰时期近 400 名居民的规模不可同日而语,但是新的居民和新的想法都有助于岛上社区的可持续发展。

Islanders always stress that the hardships of island life require people of a practical nature. Even so, these kinds of calls conjure such idyllic images that Hyndman has a word for the people, like himself, who were lured by them: ‘dreamers’.

岛上居民经常强调的一点是,岛上的艰难生活需要这里的人们富有实践精神。尽管如此,这些呼吁并不能阻碍像海因德曼这样的人们对田园生活的追逐,因为吸引他们的是:"梦想"。

Certainly there is an intangible element to Fair Isle’s magnetism. The name itself exerts a strong emotional pull. For Brits it may be associated with the daily, almost poetic, recitation of Britain’s shipping areas, of which Fair Isle is one, on the BBC radio broadcast The Shipping Forecast, read just before listeners drift off to sleep.

当然费尔岛的魅力还包括一种无形的因素。它的名字本身就给人以强烈的情感吸引。对于英国人而言,它和每日播出的、如同背诗一样的 BBC 无线广播节目《航海天气预报》密切相关,其中的地名每天都陪伴着听众入睡,费尔岛便是其中之一。

For the rest of the world, the words Fair Isle mean something else: the patterned woolly jumpers named after the island, which have been worn everywhere from catwalks to polar expeditions.

而对于其他人而言,"费尔岛"也有着特殊的意味:以岛为名的带图案羊毛套头衫随处可见,从秀场到极地探险,几乎不可或缺。

For Brackenbury, that single item of clothing launched a lifelong dream. Though he didn’t act on it for years – as an adult, he said, he realised he had “nothing to offer” to an island where the economy is still largely based on working the land and the sea – that changed about a decade ago.

对于布拉肯伯里而言,正是它开启了他一生的梦想之路。虽然他曾将梦想曾搁置多年,他说,成年后,他意识到自己对于经济仍然主要是"靠山吃山,靠海吃海"的小岛"爱莫能助",但十年前事情终于发生了转机。

His timing coincided with the lighthouse keeper’s cottage becoming available to rent at the South Lighthouse, which had been automated in 1998. Brackenbury moved in and now runs a B&B there. “Things have a way of coming together,” he said.

他刚好遇上小岛南部灯塔看守人的小屋可供租赁,而灯塔在 1998 年已经实现自动化。布拉肯伯里搬了过来,现在经营着一家简易旅馆。"事情总有办法圆满的,"他说。

Fair Isle knitting, which is still practiced commercially by three women on the island, also provided Marie Bruhat’s path to Fair Isle. A textile designer from Auvergne, France, she came to Fair Isle to work as an assistant to Mati Ventrillon, who has earned international recognition for creating garments that add a contemporary edge to the Fair Isle tradition.

费尔岛的编织品目前仍然由岛上的三名妇女传承经营,这也为玛丽·布鲁阿(Marie Bruhat)提供了前来费尔岛的途径。她是来自法国奥弗涅(Auvergne)的服装设计师,国际知名度很高,她的到来为费尔岛的传统增添了当代元素。

Bruhat says she wanted to work someplace with a close connection to a style of knitwear. She was drawn to Fair Isle “because of the history,” she said. “Here is a place that has given its name to a style of knitwear that has gone around the world. If you are passionate about something, you want to go where it is born. The best place to feel Fair Isle knitting is on Fair Isle.”

布鲁阿说,她想在与一种针织衫风格紧密关联的地方工作。她说,自己被费尔岛吸引是"因为这里的历史","以这座岛屿的名字所命名的针织衫引领了世界潮流。如果你对什么充满热情,那么就会想去它的发源地一探究竟。感受费尔岛针织衫的最佳选择自然就是费尔岛。"

Bruhat also is continuing the tradition of Fair Isle women of centuries past who earned their living by bartering their knitted goods with passing ships. “It feels good to carry on what they started,” she said.

布鲁阿还延续了数百年来费尔岛妇女以针织物与来往船只以物易物维持生计的传统。"延续他们最初的生活方式感觉很棒,"她说。

Finding a house so that she can settle permanently has been more of a challenge. “Things are going slowly because everything takes time here,” she said. “But I am quite confident something will show up. NTS [National Trust for Scotland] know they need young people.”

但是寻找永久定居地并不容易。"事情的进展很慢,因为这里任何事情都需要时间,"她说。"但我相信事情终究会发生转机。苏格兰国家信托知道他们需要年轻人。"

Still, her impermanence means that she cannot fully immerse herself into island life, for now. “I cannot start training for things like the Coast Guard or the Fire Brigade,” she says of the typical extra jobs most islanders take to piece together a living. “But as soon as I know I will be permanent here, I will. I would love to.”

但是,暂时居住意味着她目前无法让自己完全融入岛上的生活。"我无法像海岸警卫队或者消防队那样开始训练,"她指的是岛上居民为了谋生而经常参加的兼职工作。"不过,一旦我能永久待在这里生活,我也会这样做。我很乐意如此。"

And there is that magnetism at work again. No matter how idiosyncratic their reasons for being pulled to this edge of the world, once they are there it is the island itself that grounds the new arrivals, compelling them to put down roots and do what it takes to make it their home.

那种神奇的吸引力再次发挥作用。无论新来者最初因何被吸引到这个世界尽头的小岛,但只要他们来到这里,小岛本身就成为理由,呼唤他们生根发芽,建设家园。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表