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韦恩斯坦走了,但好莱坞性别歧视的阴魂未散

更新时间:2017-10-13 11:38:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Harvey Weinstein Is Gone. But Hollywood Still Has a Problem.
韦恩斯坦走了,但好莱坞性别歧视的阴魂未散

When I read the recent allegations that Harvey Weinstein had sexually harassed women for decades, I thought — well, of course. Weinstein was a famously swaggering bully, and while I hadn’t heard about the specific charges of sexual abuse by women working for him, such behavior fits the movie industry’s pervasive, unrepentant exploitation of women. And then on Tuesday, The New Yorker revealed that three women, including the Italian actress-turned-director Asia Argento, said that “Weinstein raped them.”

最近读到关于哈维·韦恩斯坦(Harvey Weinstein)数十年来性侵女性的指控时,我觉得——呃,他当然是这样的。韦恩斯坦是出了名的嚣张恶霸,虽然我之前没听说过为他工作的女性的具体性骚扰指控,但此类行为,与电影业对女性进行的普遍的、不思悔改的剥削是相符的。周二,《纽约客》(The New Yorker)爆料称,三名女性,包括女演员出身的意大利导演艾莎·阿基多(Asia Argento),声称“韦恩斯坦强奸过她们”。

It is the perverse, insistent, matter-of-factness of male sexual predation and assault — of men’s power over women — that haunts the revelations about Weinstein. This banality of abuse also haunts the American movie industry. Women helped build the industry, but it has long been a male-dominated enterprise that systematically treats women — as a class — as inferior to men. It is an industry with a history of sexually exploiting younger female performers and stamping expiration dates on older ones. It is an industry that consistently denies female directors employment and contemptuously treats the female audience as a niche, a problem, an afterthought.

男性的这种龌龊、持续、确凿的性掠夺和性侵犯,也就是男性对女性的威压,在韦恩斯坦性侵曝光过程中时时可见。性侵的司空见惯也萦绕着美国电影业。女性参与建立了这个行业,但长期以来,电影业一直由男性主导,它从体制上将女性置于低男性一等的阶层。该行业长期以来对年轻女性表演者进行性掠夺,给年长女性表演者打上过气标签。该行业一直排斥女性担任导演,轻蔑地视女性观众为一块利基市场,一个问题,某种锦上添花的东西。

It’s greatly encouraging that women like Gwyneth Paltrow have gone public about Weinstein. But he is not an aberration. He is an ordinary, malignant symptom of systemic sexism, as is everyone who facilitated him, shrugs it off now or mendaciously asks why women didn’t say something sooner. What largely separates Weinstein from other predators, within and without the entertainment world, is that he was once powerful, he got caught and a number of gutsy women are on the record. Together, their voices are creating a forceful rejoinder to an industry that runs on fear and in which silence is at once a defense and a weapon as well as a condition of employment.

令人鼓舞的是,格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)等女性公开揭露了韦恩斯坦。但他不是特例。他是体制性性别歧视的一个寻常的、恶性的表现,其他表现包括那些为他提供方便的人,现在对此事无动于衷的人,或者虚伪地询问那些女性为什么没早些说出来的人。韦恩斯坦跟娱乐圈内外的其他猎艳者最大的不同在于,他曾经很有权势,他被抓住了,很多勇敢的女性站出来了。她们共同发声、强烈反抗这个依靠恐惧运行的行业,在这里,沉默曾经是盾牌、武器,以及获得工作机会的条件。

The industry’s silence has historically shielded the men who make movies, including the old studio bosses like Louis B. Mayer to whom Weinstein has often been nostalgically compared. In histories, these old-studio chiefs are genteelly referred to as womanizers, a polite metaphor for conduct that ranges from time on the casting couch, another odious euphuism, to what sounds a lot like prostitution. According to the historian Scott Eyman, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer — the studio that bore Mayer’s name and boasted that it had more stars than there are in heaven — had a supply “of what were known as ‘six-month-option girls’ to be passed around the executive offices.”

该行业的沉默曾经保护了那些制作电影的男性,包括路易·B·梅尔(Louis B. Mayer)等老一代电影公司老板,人们经常怀旧地将韦恩斯坦与他相提并论。那些老式电影公司高管,被文雅地称为好色之徒(womanizer),这个礼貌的隐喻所指代的行为包括“沙发试镜”(casting couch,另一个龌龊的委婉语),以及那些很接近卖淫的活动。据史学家斯科特·艾曼(Scott Eyman)称,米高梅电影公司(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer)——公司名中有梅尔的名字,宣称它拥有的明星比天上的星星还多——曾经提供“所谓的‘六个月选择期女孩’,她们被轮流送到高管们的办公室里”。

If this seems, well, normal it is because this tawdry glimpse into the industry — with its powerful men and passed-around girls — is deeply embedded in its history, its lore and its very identity. It’s the old yet evergreen story of the dewy young woman who comes to Hollywood, does a screen test and maybe signs a contract. The company dyes her hair blonde, feeds her pills and puts her on a diet or under a plastic surgeon’s knife. The lucky ones become Marilyn Monroe (or the It Girl du jour); the luckier ones get out alive. Others remain passed-around girls. The old studio system is gone, but the attitude that exploitation is part of the price for being in the business — hey, it’s Hollywood — endures.

如果这看似,呃,正常,那是因为这产业龌龊的一面——有权势的男人和被轮番蹂躏的女孩——深深根植于于它的历史、传统和身份认同中。这个古老的故事一直存在:稚嫩的年轻女子来到好莱坞,参加试镜,也许还签了个合约。公司把她的头发染成金黄色,让她吃药,让她减肥或整容。幸运的话,她会成为玛丽莲·梦露(或热门的It Girl);更幸运的话,她能全身而退。而那些不走运的依然被四处转手。旧的电影公司体系消失了,但“被掠夺是在电影业生存的代价”这样的观念依然存在——嘿,这里是好莱坞。

Given the revelations about Weinstein, it may seem surprising that his companies also offered actual opportunities for women, including directors like Jane Campion (“The Piano”) and older actresses like Judi Dench (“Shakespeare in Love”). This wasn’t progressive; it was evidence of a shrewd embrace of old-studio-style product diversification. In some ways, it is because Weinstein and his brother, Bob Weinstein, released different kinds of movies and didn’t pour all their resources only into formulas — and male-driven superhero movies — that they gave women opportunities.

考虑到韦恩斯坦的那些性侵事件,你可能会吃惊地发现,他的公司也确实给女性提供过机会,包括简·坎皮恩(Jane Campion,曾执导《钢琴课》[The Piano])等导演,以及朱迪·丹奇(Judi Dench,曾参演《恋爱中的莎士比亚》[Shakespeare in Love])等年长的演员。这不是进步,只是对老式电影公司产品多样化作风的精明接纳。从某种意义上讲,那是因为哈维·韦恩斯坦和弟弟鲍勃·韦恩斯坦(Bob Weinstein)发行不同风格的电影,而不是把所有的资源都用到程式化的电影上,比如以男性为主的超级英雄电影,所以他们给女性提供了一些机会。

Jenni Konner, the co-showrunner for the HBO series “Girls,” has said that the revelations about Weinstein are a tipping point: “This is the moment we look back on and say, ‘That’s when it all started to change.'” I hope she’s right. One problem is that the entertainment industry is extraordinarily forgiving of those who have made it a lot of money, as Mel Gibson can tell you. It might glance at the fallen comrade on the floor, but only so it can step over the body en route to the next meeting. And if that comrade somehow gets on his feet again, the industry will ask if he has a new project. This forgiveness is often ascribed to the familiar line that the only thing the business cares about is money.

HBO电视剧《都市女孩》(Girls)的联合制作人詹妮·康纳(Jenni Konner)曾说,韦恩斯坦性侵曝光事件是一个转折点:“将来我们回顾这个时刻时会说:‘一切都是从那时开始改变的。’”我希望她是对的。一个问题是娱乐业对那些给它赚过很多钱的人非常宽容,梅尔·吉布森(Mel Gibson)就是个例子。它可能会看一眼倒在地上的战友,然后跨过他的身体,去参加下一个会议。如果那位战友不知怎么再次站起来了,那么行业里的人会问他有没有新项目。这种宽容往往被归因于那句老话:生意场只认钱。

Money often serves as a rationale for some of the industry’s noxiousness, including its sexism and racism: We can’t hire women, blacks, etc., because they don’t sell. Outsiders tend to see the industry as liberal, and while insiders do promote progressive causes, the business hews to a fundamental conservatism. This conservatism shapes its story recycling, its exploitation of women (and men) and its preservation of a male-dominated, racially homogeneous system. Despite pressure, including from the likes of Ava DuVernay and Lena Dunham, the industry resists change. Those in power don’t see an upside in ceding it.

钱经常被用来解释该行业的某些道德败坏行为,包括性别歧视和种族歧视:我们不能雇佣女性和黑人等,因为他们不卖座。圈外人往往觉得这个行业很开明,然而,虽然圈内人的确也支持进步事业,但该行业坚守一些根本上的保守主义观念。正是这种保守主义导致往事不断重演,支持对女性(和男性)的剥削,保护由男性主导、在种族上同质的体系。尽管受到阿娃·杜威內(Ava DuVernay)和莉娜·丹恩(Lena Dunham)等人的压力,但该行业拒绝改变。那些掌权者看不到放弃它有什么好处。

Although the allegations against Weinstein may not prove to be the necessary tipping point, they are part of growing feminist pressure to change the industry. Activists inside and outside the entertainment bubble are calling out its biases — and showing how those biases affect employment, which in turn affects representations and audiences. (According to The Los Angeles Times, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission — spurred to action by the American Civil Liberties Union — began contacting female film and TV directors in 2015 to see what issues they’re facing.)

虽然针对韦恩斯坦的指控最终不一定会成为必要的转折点,但这是女权主义者为改变该行业而不断增加的压力的一部分。娱乐圈内外的活动人士在强烈抨击它的偏见,并指出这些偏见如何损害就业,从而影响表现与受众(据《洛杉矶时报》报道,就业机会均等委员会[Equal Employment Opportunity Commission]在美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)的敦促下,开始于2015年与女性电影和电视导演接触,了解她们面临的问题)。

I hope real change comes soon, especially for the women working in the industry who each day are forced to fight sexism just so that they can do their jobs. I hope change comes because the movies need new and different voices and visions, something other than deadening, damaging stereotypes and storybook clichés. And I hope change comes for those of us who love movies. I’ve spent a lifetime navigating the contradictions of that love, grappling with the pleasures movies offer with the misogyny that too often has informed what happened behind the camera and what is on screen. The movies can break your heart, but this isn’t the time only for tears. It is also the time for rage.

我希望真正的改变能很快到来,尤其是对该行业的女性从业者来说,为了进行自己的工作,她们不得不每天与性别歧视作斗争。我希望出现改变,是因为电影需要新鲜的、不同的声音和视角,而不是死气沉沉的、破坏性的陈旧观念和老套的故事书情节。我希望出现改变,也是为了我们这些热爱电影的人。我一直在为这种热爱中的矛盾而纠结,在电影带来的愉悦和贯穿于它的台前幕后的性别歧视之间挣扎。电影能让你心碎,但现在不只是流泪的时刻。它也是愤怒的时刻。

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