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摩天大楼,天际线上的亚洲雄心

更新时间:2017-10-12 18:57:03 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Asia Dreams in Skyscrapers
摩天大楼,天际线上的亚洲雄心

The skyscraper was born in the United States, but in recent years, it has grown and flourished in Asia. Countries there recognize that to be seen as a player on the global stage, it helps to have tall buildings.

摩天大楼诞生于美国,但近年来,它们在亚洲生根发芽,走向兴旺。那里的国家意识到,修建高楼大厦有助于它们被当作国际舞台上的一员。

Over a century ago, New York and Chicago demonstrated that the skyscraper is, fundamentally, a solution to an economic problem: how to allow for hundreds, if not thousands, of people and businesses to be at the same place at the same time. Urban clustering, especially in a high-tech world, is more important than ever. By promoting density, skyscrapers confer a competitive advantage and allow a city to become a beacon of commerce.

一个多世纪前,纽约和芝加哥证明摩天大楼可以从根本上解决一个经济问题:如何让一个地方同时容纳即便不是数以千计也是数以百计的人和企业。特别是在高科技时代,城市集群比以往任何时候都更重要。通过增加密度,摩天大楼带来了一个竞争优势,让城市得以变成商业灯塔。

In April, President Xi Jinping of China announced plans for a new city, Xiongan, not far from Beijing. A kind of Chinese field of dreams, Xiongan is to be built on what is now hundreds of square miles of farmland and towns, house millions of people and be a center for technology jobs. Like the cities it’s being modeled after — Shenzhen, near Hong Kong, and Shanghai, particularly its Pudong neighborhood — it may someday claim the world’s tallest skyscrapers. The Ping An Finance tower in Shenzhen, completed this year, at 115 stories, is the fourth-tallest building in the world, while the Shanghai Tower, completed in 2015, at 128 stories, is the second-tallest skyscraper on the planet.

4月,中国国家主席习近平宣布在距离北京不远的地方兴建一座名为雄安的新城市计划。这有些像是中国的梦想之地。未来的雄安将在现在的数百平方英里农田和城镇上拔地而起,容纳数以百万计的人口,并成为科技就业的中心。和它效仿的城市——邻近香港的深圳,以及上海,特别是浦东地区——一样,雄安可能也会在某一天修建全世界最高的摩天大楼。深圳今年完工的平安国际金融中心115层,是世界第四高的大楼,而建成于2015年、128层的上海中心则是全球第二高大楼。

Since the 1990s, the world’s tallest buildings have been built in the East. The current prize holder — the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (828 meters, or about 2,717 feet, 2010) — will be soon be surpassed by the Jeddah Tower in Saudi Arabia (1,000 meters, or about 3,281 feet, 2020). Nine of the 10 world’s tallest buildings are in Asia. In addition, the continent now has more 150-meter (about 492 feet) or taller buildings than the rest of the continents combined.

自90年代以来,全球最高的建筑都在东方。目前的第一高楼,阿拉伯联合酋长国迪拜的哈利法塔(Burj Khalifa,828米,2010年建成)很快将被沙特阿拉伯的吉达塔(Jeddah Tower)(1000米,预计2020年建成)超越。世界排名前十的高楼中,九栋位于亚洲。此外,亚洲现在高度在150米或以上的建筑,比其他几个大陆加起来还多。

An awe-inspiring skyline is a city’s announcement that it is open for business and confident in its future growth. Supertall structures stand as “place makers” in the planning process, since they create neighborhood landmarks to draw companies, residents, tourists and foreign direct investment. Arab workers are no longer just oil drillers, but global traders and financiers.

令人惊叹的天际线是一个城市表明自己对商业持开放态度、并且对自己未来的增长充满信心的名片。超高建筑在规划过程中的身份就是“创造者”,因为它们会形成区域性地标,吸引公司、居民、游客和外国直接投资。阿拉伯工作者已不再只是石油钻井工人,而是跨国商人和金融人士。

But just as important, cities that have record-breaking buildings are not just constructing super-tall monoliths. There is a strong correlation between the number of tall buildings of all sizes and the likelihood a city will have a supertall building; heights and frequencies are strongly related. The Burj Khalifa and Shanghai Tower, for example, are the most visible signs that a city embraces skyscrapers more broadly to enhance economic growth and the quality of life of residents and companies.

但同样重要的是,拥有破纪录高楼的城市不只是修建超高的庞然大物。各类规模的高楼数量与一座城市拥有一栋超高建筑的可能性之间有着很强的相关性;高度和重复发生率关系密切。比如,哈利法塔和上海中心是最醒目的标识,表明一座城市为了促进经济增长和提升民众和公司的生活质量而普遍支持修建摩天大楼。

Consider where these nations stand. Over the last decade, the average annual gross domestic product growth rates in India, China, Indonesia and Malaysia were, in most years, more than three times that of the United States. As part of this development, nations expand their financial and banking sectors; research shows that skyscrapers are needed for this to happen.

想想这些国家所处的位置。过去十年,印度、中国、印度尼西亚和马来西亚的平均年国内生产总值增长率大部分时候都是美国的三倍多。作为这种发展的一部分,这些国家扩大了金融和银行领域,而研究显示,这需要通过摩天大楼来实现。

Furthermore, China is witnessing what is arguably the greatest internal migration in human history. In 1979, only about 19 percent of its residents lived in urban areas; today that figure is about 57 percent, and this movement shows no sign of slowing. To put this in perspective, the number of Chinese residents who have moved to cities since 1979 (600 million) is greater than the total current population of North America (580 million). By comparison, in 1900, urbanization in the United States was at 40 percent; by 1970, it was up to 74 percent, and has since inched up to 82 percent.

此外,中国正在经历可以说是人类历史上规模最大的内部迁徙。1979年,中国只有大约19%的人生活在城镇地区,而现在这个数字大约是57%,并且这种流动没有表现出放缓的迹象。可以这么比较,中国自1979年以来搬迁至城市的人数(6亿)比目前北美洲的总人口(5.8亿)都高。相比之下,美国1900年的城市化水平为40%,到1970年增至74%,之后又慢慢上升至82%。

Given this rapid growth, governments generally have two options: They can encourage tall buildings to satisfy the urban demand, or they can restrict building heights, which then increases sprawl, congestion and the distances between people. As a result, Asian governments establish land-use rules that increase density, as well as sponsor international architecture competitions, provide subsidies or simply lend support. Across China, we see a strong correlation between the heights of cities’ skyscrapers and the size of their populations and local economies.

考虑到这种迅速增长,政府一般来说有两个选择:可以鼓励修建高楼,以满足城市需求,也可以限制建筑高度,但这么做会加剧城市的无序蔓延和拥堵,并增加人与人之间的距离。因此,亚州政府制定了增加密度的土地使用规则,还赞助国际建筑比赛、发放补贴或是简单地提供支持。在整个中国,我们都能看到城市摩天大楼的高度,与当地的人口规模和经济的密切关系。

In the United States, high-rise construction remains controversial. Though things are starting to change, at its core, the country remains dedicated to promoting single-family homes in the suburbs and sprawling car-dependent office parks. Many municipalities put up hurdles for tall building construction, allowing them only in densest parts of the central city. As a result, we see a flowering of new supertall buildings there, but they are frequently derided as “safe deposit boxes with views.” Because of the negative perceptions, it has become difficult to have conversations about how they can make cities more resilient and less dependent on fossil fuels.

在美国,高层建筑依然有争议。尽管情况开始发生变化,但核心上美国依然一心宣扬郊区的独栋房屋和依赖汽车的大型办公园区。很多城市给修建高楼设置了障碍,只允许它们建在市中心人口最稠密的区域。因此,我们看到新的超高建筑在那些地方繁荣发展,但它们常常被嘲笑是“能看风景的保险箱”。因为这些负面看法,有关它们如何能增强城市的适应能力,并降低城市对化石燃料的依赖的交流难以展开。

What is the future of the skyscraper? As long as Asian countries pursue lifestyles similar to that of the West, skyscrapers will continue to be built, as they not only help foster economic growth, but also establish a city’s skyline, which then becomes part of a city’s identity and character.

摩天大楼将何去何从?只要亚洲国家追求与西方类似的生活方式,摩天大楼就会继续出现,因为它们不仅有助于促进经济增长,还会塑造一个城市的天际线,后者会成为一个城市身份和特征的一部分。

As technological improvements make building skyscrapers easier and faster, the race for the world’s tallest building will continue as well. Since 1890, their heights have grown, on average, about 17 feet per year. Statistically speaking, this suggests that a mile-high building will be built in the middle of the 22nd century. But don’t tell that to Tokyo, which wants to get there first by 2045.

随着科技进步让修建摩天大楼变得更容易、更快,对全球最高建筑展开的争夺也会继续。自1890年以来,它们的高度一直在增加,平均每年增加17英尺。从统计角度来说,这表示22世纪中期将建成1英里(约合1600米)高的建筑。但不要和东京这么说,因为东京想在2045年之前率先实现这个目标。

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