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大火肆虐加州酒乡:葡萄酒、旅游业损失惨重

更新时间:2017-10-12 11:02:39 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

In Wine Country, Wildfires Take a Toll on Vintages and Tourism
大火肆虐加州酒乡:葡萄酒、旅游业损失惨重

Fatal wildfires scorching eight Northern California counties this week have dealt a devastating blow to the important wine and tourism industries, destroying more than 1,500 buildings, including historic wineries.

本周,致命的大火波及到加利福尼亚州北部的八个县,给当地重要的葡萄酒产业和旅游业带来灾难性打击,大火烧毁了1500幢建筑,包括一些历史悠久的葡萄酒庄。

Although the seasonal harvest is nearly complete, the conflagration threatens to disrupt tens of thousands of jobs and destroy valuable stores of grapes waiting in bins, barrels and bottles to be fermented or aged. The extent of the damage will be unclear for days because the fires are blocking many winery owners from reaching their facilities.

虽然葡萄采收基本完成,但大火可能导致数万人失去工作,它还毁掉了在箱子、木桶和瓶子里发酵或陈放的珍贵葡萄。损失的规模要等数日后才能确定,因为大火导致很多葡萄酒庄所有者无法查看自己的设施。

Tourism in the region — a multibillion-dollar economic machine that includes high-end hotels, wine-tasting tours and upscale cuisine — is suffering as the flames claimed many establishments and forced many others to shutter for the rest of the week.

该地区的旅游业——一个价值数十亿美元的产业,包括高档酒店、葡萄酒品尝之旅和高端美食——也遭受了损失,因为大火吞噬了很多建筑,并迫使其他很多建筑在本周的剩余时间里无法使用。

“It has been a devastating fire,” the Sonoma County Winegrowers group said in a Facebook post. “Reports of fire damage to wineries, businesses and homes continues to grow.”

“这是一场毁灭性的大火,”索诺马县葡萄酒酿造商组织在Facebook上发贴称。“关于酒庄、公司和家庭遭受大火损害的报告还在不断增加。”

The blazes — which have left at least 15 people dead — continued to rage Tuesday. Seventeen separate fires, across 115,000 acres, have forced more than 20,000 people to evacuate.

周二,大火继续肆虐,至少已造成15人死亡。共有17处独立起火点,过火面积11.5万英亩,两万多人被迫疏散。

California is the fourth-largest wine producer in the world, behind France, Italy and Spain, according to the Wine Institute advocacy group, and generates $15.2 billion in taxes annually.

根据倡议组织葡萄酒协会(Wine Institute)的数据,加利福尼亚州是全球第四大葡萄酒产地,仅次于法国、意大利和西班牙,每年大约创造152亿美元税收。

Among the damaged wineries:

遭受损失的葡萄酒庄包括:

— White Rock Vineyards, established as a winery at the foot of the Stag’s Leap area of Napa Valley in 1871 and owned by the Vandendriessche family since 1977, burned to the ground Monday.

——白石葡萄园(White Rock Vineyards)周一被夷为平地。该葡萄酒庄于1871年在纳帕谷的鹿跃区(Stag’s Leap)脚下创建,自1977年起由范登德里斯奇(Vandendriessche)家族掌管。

— Signorello Estate, a family-owned, ivy-draped winery along the scenic Silverado Trail in Napa, was also engulfed in flames.

——西尼奥雷洛庄园(Signorello Estate)也被大火吞噬。这个长满常春藤的家族经营酒庄位于纳帕县风景优美的西尔弗拉多小道(Silverado Trail)旁。

— Paradise Ridge posted photos of the charred rubble and blackened hillside where its Santa Rosa winery — just shy of its 40th anniversary — had stood.

——天堂山脊葡萄酒厂(Paradise Ridge)发布了烧焦的瓦砾和发黑的山坡的照片,那里是它的圣罗莎葡萄酒庄的所在地,该酒庄已有近40年的历史。

— Ancient Oak Cellars in Santa Rosa said in a Facebook post that the fire had destroyed a house, two redwood barns and the tasting counter on the property. But the majority of the company’s bottled wines and all its wine barrels are safe in other locations.

——圣罗莎的老橡树酒窖葡萄酒庄(Ancient Oak Cellars)在Facebook上发帖称,大火毁掉了它的一座房子、两个红杉仓库以及园区的品酒柜台。不过该公司的绝大多数瓶装酒和所有桶装酒都在其他地方安然无恙。

The fires also destroyed several Santa Rosa establishments, including the Fountaingrove Inn, the Hilton Sonoma Wine Country hotel, Willi’s Wine Bar and the Cricklewood steakhouse.

大火还烧毁了圣罗莎的几幢建筑,包括喷泉树林酒店(Fountaingrove Inn)、希尔顿索诺马葡萄酒乡村度假酒店(Hilton Sonoma Wine Country)、威利葡萄酒吧(Willi’s Wine Bar)和Cricklewood牛排馆。

The wine industry in Napa County supports 46,000 jobs locally through the 700 grape growers and 475 wineries operating in the area, the vast majority of them family owned, according to the Napa Valley Vintners trade group.

据纳帕县葡萄酒商行会称,该县的葡萄酒产业为当地提供了4.6万份工作,该地区有700名葡萄种植者和475个葡萄酒庄,绝大多数是家庭经营。

Last year, California wineries drew 23.6 million visits and $7.2 billion in tourist expenditures, according to the Wine Institute. Napa and Sonoma produce only 11 percent of the state’s wine, but are “among the most well-known wine regions in the world and are closely identified with the California industry,” said Nancy Light, a vice president with the institute.

据该葡萄酒协会称,去年,加州的葡萄酒庄吸引了2360万人次游览,旅游消费高达72亿美元。该协会的副主席南希·莱特(Nancy Light)称,纳帕和索诺马生产的葡萄酒仅占该州的11%,但它们“作为全球最著名的葡萄酒产区之一,被认为是加州葡萄酒产业的代表”。

Many wineries — faced with heavy consolidation among retailers and distributors, as well as fierce competition — now raise revenue through tasting rooms and direct-to-consumer sales, according to the Wine Institute, drawing aficionados, couples on dates and bachelorette parties.

很多葡萄酒庄面临零售商和发行商的大量合并以及激烈的竞争,现在通过品酒屋或直接向顾客销售来增加收入,招揽葡萄酒爱好者、约会的情侣以及女性婚前单身派对。

The rebuilding effort will help buoy the local economy as it recovers, but wineries that lost vineyards will have to wait three to five years to nurse the soil back to health and coax out a viable crop of grapes, said Karissa Kruse, president of the Sonoma County Winegrowers.

索诺马县葡萄酒酿造商组织的主席卡丽萨·克鲁斯(Karissa Kruse)表示,重建工作将有助于振兴当地经济,但那些失去葡萄园的酒庄将必须花费三至五年时间将土壤养护至健康状态,才能培育出可用的葡萄。

Surviving grapes may suffer smoke taint — a smoky flavor that makes them unusable for wine, she said. Wineries damaged or destroyed by the fire could lose vast reserves of wines aging in barrels and bottles. The repercussions of the fire on wine stored in barrels and tanks is unclear.

她说,幸存的葡萄可能遭到了烟熏,那种味道会导致它们无法被用于生产葡萄酒。被大火破坏或毁掉的酒庄可能会损失大量在木桶和瓶子里存放的葡萄酒储备。大火对储存在木桶和酒罐里的葡萄酒的影响尚不可知。

Still, Kruse pointed to some silver linings. In most cases, the flames destroyed the brush planted between the rows of grapes, and not the resilient vines themselves. And record-breaking temperatures in September meant that fewer grapes were left exposed to the fires.

不过,克鲁斯也提到一些幸运之处。大部分情况下,大火只会烧掉种植在葡萄藤列之间的灌木,但不会烧死具有很强复元能力的葡萄藤。九月份打破记录的高温意味着留下来被大火吞噬的葡萄更少。

“For the most part, the vintage is in, and we should still have a viable wine community as we move forward,” Kruse said. “We all grumbled that the Labor Day heat was going to define the 2017 vintage, but it expedited the harvest, which we now look at as such a blessing.”

“总体来讲,葡萄已经采收完毕,所以我们的葡萄酒产业应该还能复元,向前发展,”克鲁斯说。“之前我们都在抱怨,劳动节的高温会决定2017年产葡萄酒的品质,但这一点加速了葡萄的采收,回头看来,真是万幸。”

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