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1812年,马萨诸塞州州长创造出了一个选区

更新时间:2017-10-10 12:09:25 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments last week in a case that could reshape American politics: whether extreme political gerrymandering violates the Constitution.

上周,美国最高法院对于一桩可能重塑美国政治的案子举行了聆讯:极端的操控选区划分是否违宪。

The practice of redrawing voting districts to gain political advantage is named after Elbridge Gerry, who as governor of Massachusetts signed a bill in 1812 creating a long, thin district designed to undermine Federalist candidates. An illustrator at a Boston dinner party is said to have drawn a picture of the district that looked like a salamander, and a political term was born.

为了获得政治优势而重新划分投票地区的行为,是以埃尔布里奇·格里(Elbridge Gerry)这个名字命名,他曾是马萨诸塞州的州长,于1812签署了一项法案,划出一个意在破坏拥护联邦制候选人的狭长选区。在波士顿的一个晚餐派对上,一名插画家据说画了一幅这个看上去像是火蜥蜴的选区图,一个政治术语就这么诞生了。

Critics say the drawing of districts should be assigned to an independent or bipartisan commission, which some states and Australia, Britain, Canada and most of Europe have already done. (One exception is France, where the constitutionality of a 2010 redistricting was contested by lawmakers.)

批评人士说,划分选区的权力可被指定给独立的或两党委员会,一些州和澳大利亚、英国、加拿大及欧洲大部分地区已经是这么做的了(法国是个例外,该国2010年重新划分选区的合宪性受到了议员的质疑)。

A bill introduced in Congress this summer would create such a commission and would allow voters to rank lists of House candidates in order of preference instead of vote for only one.

今年夏天引入国会的一项法案将创建这样的一个委员会,并允许选民根据偏好为国会候选人排序,列出名单,而不是仅为一人投票。

One obstacle in the fight against gerrymandering is finding a way to measure it. The Supreme Court’s ruling in the Wisconsin case could invalidate maps in up to 20 other states, as well as expose at least a dozen House districts to court challenges.

反对重新划分选区的一个障碍在于找到衡量方式。最高法院在威斯康星案中的裁决可能会让多达20个其他州的选举地图失效,同时还使得至少12个国会选区面临法庭挑战。

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