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研究称大熊猫栖息地面临威胁

更新时间:2017-9-26 19:20:43 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Pandas Are No Longer Endangered. But Their Habitat Is in Trouble.
研究称大熊猫栖息地面临威胁

One year after giant pandas graduated from endangered to “vulnerable,” a welcome designation after 28 years, Chinese scientists have sobering news: The animal’s natural habitat in China is in serious danger.

一年前,大熊猫从濒危降为“易危”物种——历经28年后,这一标签广受欢迎。如今中国科学家敲响了警钟:大熊猫在中国的自然栖息地正处于严重危险中。

In a study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution on Monday, researchers report that suitable panda habitats have significantly and steadily declined since 1990, the year the International Union for the Conservation of Nature first classified the animals as endangered. That could make any gain in China’s wild panda population a short-lived conservation victory.

周一,在《自然生态与进化》(Nature Ecology & Evolution)杂志发表的一项研究中,研究人员指出,1990年以来,适合大熊猫栖息的地区面积持续显著减少。当年,国际自然保护联盟(International Union for the Conservation of Nature,简称IUCN)首次将大熊猫列为濒危物种。这可能使得中国在保护野生大熊猫数量方面取得的成就成为短期的胜利。

Logging, human encroachment, road construction and agriculture have conspired to divide panda habitats into tiny sections, a process known as fragmentation, the study said.

该研究指出,伐木活动、人类侵扰、道路建设和农业活动,导致大熊猫的栖息地被分隔成了小块,也就是所谓的栖息地碎片化。

Ouyang Zhiyun, a professor of environmental science at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and his colleagues studied 40 years of satellite data to reach their conclusions, and are urging the Chinese government to take specific steps to restore panda-friendly environments.

中国科学院环境科学教授欧阳志云和他的团队研究了40年来的卫星数据,得出了相关结论,并敦促中国政府采取实际行动,恢复对大熊猫友好的环境。

Giant pandas are a national icon of China, the only place in the world where they live outside of captivity. Years of Chinese government efforts to reverse their dwindling numbers, such as the restoration of bamboo forests and establishment of national habitat reserves, helped bring the animals back from the brink. They were declared no longer endangered in September 2016 after population estimates reached 1,864 — not counting cubs. That’s up from a low of about 1,200 in the 1980s.

大熊猫是中国的国家象征,中国也是世界上唯一现存有非圈养大熊猫的国家。多年以来,中国政府采取了各项行动,如恢复竹林、建立国家级大熊猫自然保护区等,使得大熊猫数量减少的情况得以扭转。2016年9月,成年大熊猫的数量从20世纪80年代约1200只的低点回升,据估计达到了1864只,大熊猫随即被认定不再属于濒危物种。

But even with that good news came a warning: Climate change and other factors could devastate the pandas’ habitat in the longer term, rendering any population surge a temporary victory, the IUCN said. Exacerbating the problem is the fragmentation of China’s panda population, confined now to just six mountain ranges and about 30 isolated groups, 18 of which contain no more than 10 individuals.

然而,即使是这一好消息也伴随着警告:国际自然保护协会指出,从长期来看,气候变化和其它因素仍会对大熊猫栖息地造成毁灭性的破坏,导致大熊猫数量的增长只是一个暂时的胜利。大熊猫的分散化分布加剧了这一问题:目前它们仅分布在六个山系中,被分割为30余个孤立的小种群,其中18个种群中大熊猫的数量不超过10只。

Dr. Ouyang and colleagues note that Chinese restoration efforts have had a positive effect on panda habitats in recent years, and planned changes mean that “various pressures on pandas and their habitat will likely decrease” in the short-term, the study said. But infrastructure development, tourism and other encroachments could undermine these improvements, they add.

欧阳志云及其同事指出,近些年来,中国的恢复努力对于大熊猫的栖息地产生了积极的效果。该研究称,有计划的改变意味着“大熊猫及其栖息地所面临的多重压力将会有所下降”。但他们也补充说,基础设施建设、旅游业和其它侵害行为,可能会破坏这方面的成果。

The researchers recommend specific steps China can take prevent the pandas from becoming endangered again. China must “improve connectivity for isolated small panda populations by building habitat corridors and reducing habitat fragmentation,” Dr. Ouyang said. The paper also called for the establishment of “ecological red lines” that physically separate panda habitats from human development, the expansion of panda preserves and the restriction of tourism in national parks containing pandas.

研究人员对中国应采取哪些具体措施,防止大熊猫再次面临灭绝危险提出了建议。欧阳志云说,中国必须“通过建设栖息地走廊和减少栖息地碎片化,改善孤立的大熊猫小种群间的连通性。”该论文还呼吁建立切实将大熊猫栖息地与人类开发活动隔离开来的“生态红线”、扩大大熊猫保护区、限制熊猫国家公园的旅游活动等。

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