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富士康的制造模式在海外遇挫

更新时间:2017-9-22 11:29:36 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Before Wisconsin, Foxconn Vowed Big Spending in Brazil. Few Jobs Have Come.
富士康的制造模式在海外遇挫

Before the Taiwanese manufacturing giant Foxconn pledged to spend $10 billion and create 13,000 jobs in Wisconsin, the company made a similar promise in Brazil.

台湾制造业巨头富士康承诺,在威斯康星州投资100亿美元,以创造1.3万个工作岗位。此前,该公司曾在巴西做出过类似的承诺。

At a news conference in Brazil, Foxconn officials unveiled plans to invest billions of dollars and build one of the world’s biggest manufacturing hubs in the state of São Paulo. The government had high expectations that the project would yield 100,000 jobs.

当时,富士康的高管们在巴西的一个新闻发布会上公布了相关计划,说会在圣保罗州投资数十亿美元,建设一个在世界范围内都属于顶级规模的制造中心。巴西政府曾对该项目寄予厚望,希望它能创造十万个工作机会。

Six years later, Brazil is still waiting for most of those jobs to materialize.

六年后,巴西依然在翘首期盼大部分相关工作岗位的出现。

“The area where Foxconn said it would build a plant is totally abandoned,” said Guilherme Gazzola, the mayor of Itu, one of the cities that hoped to benefit from the project. “They haven’t even expressed an interest in meeting us.”

“富士康打算建工厂的那个区域完全被遗弃了,”伊图市市长吉列尔梅·加佐拉(Guilherme Gazzola)说。伊图市是期望从该项目中获益的一个城市。“他们甚至没有表现出与我们会面的兴趣。”

Foxconn’s experience in Brazil and other parts of the world illustrates how difficult it has been for it to replicate its enormously successful Chinese manufacturing model elsewhere.

富士康在巴西及世界各地的经历表明,它很难在其他地方复制自己异常成功的中国制造模式。

In China, Foxconn has built vast factories backed by large government subsidies. Its operations — assembling iPhones for Apple, Kindles for Amazon and PlayStations for Sony — employ legions of young assembly-line workers who often toil 60 hours a week for about $2.50 an hour.

在中国,富士康依靠政府的巨额补贴建立了很多工厂。它的工厂会为苹果(Apple)装配iPhone,为亚马逊(Amazon)装配Kindle,为索尼(Sony)装配PlayStations,它雇用了大批年轻的装配线工人,他们常常每周辛苦地工作60个小时,时薪约为2.5美元。

But the model does not translate easily to other countries, where Foxconn must navigate different social, political and labor conditions.

但这种模式很难用到其他国家,富士康必须适应不同国家的社会、政治和劳动条件。

In Brazil, Foxconn’s plans unraveled quickly. The administration that had wooed the company was soon swept from power amid corruption allegations and an impeachment vote. Some of the tax breaks that had been promised were reduced or abandoned, as economic growth and consumer spending slumped.

在巴西,富士康的计划很快崩溃了。曾争取该公司的政府很快在腐败指控和弹劾投票中下台。由于当地的经济增长和消费支出大幅下滑,政府承诺过的一些税收优惠被减少或取消。

Today, Foxconn employs only about 2,800 workers in Brazil.

如今,富士康在巴西仅雇佣了约2800名工人。

Foxconn does the “big song and dance, bringing out the Chinese dragon dancers, ribbon cuttings, toasts and signature of the usual boilerplate agreements,” said Alberto Moel, an investor and adviser to early-stage tech companies who until recently was a technology analyst at the research firm Sanford C. Bernstein. “Then, when it gets down to brass tacks, something way smaller materializes.”

投资人兼初创技术公司顾问阿尔贝托·莫伊尔(Alberto Moel)表示,富士康“举行了盛大的歌舞表演,带来中国舞龙队,还举行了剪彩仪式、祝酒会,以及惯常的合同草案的签字仪式。后来,在实际操作中,只有很小一部分得到实现”。莫伊尔不久前一直是调查公司桑福德·伯恩斯坦公司(Sanford C. Bernstein)的技术分析师。

Foxconn said in a statement that it was committed to investing billions of dollars in building facilities outside China. But the company also said it had been forced to adapt to changing conditions in markets like Brazil, where the economy had stagnated.

富士康在一项声明中表示,他曾打算在中国之外投资数十亿美元修建工厂。但该公司还说,他必须适应巴西等市场不断变化的情况——那里的经济出现了停滞。

“This and the changing needs of our customers that our proposed investments were designed to serve have resulted in scaled down operations in the country at this time,” the company said in its statement.

“鉴于这些情况,再加上我们提议投资所服务的客户的需求在不断变化,我们目前缩减了在该国的运营规模,”该公司在声明中表示。

With regard to the Wisconsin project, Foxconn has said it plans to build one of the world’s largest manufacturing campuses in the southeastern part of the state. The company expects the buildings that will make up the campus to total 20 million square feet — about three times the size of the Pentagon — and to help transform the region into a major production center for flat-panel display screens.

关于威斯康星州的项目,富士康表示,它计划在该州东南部建设一个有着世界顶级规模的制造园区。该公司预期,这些建筑能让园区面积达到2000万平方英尺——大约是五角大楼的三倍——帮助把该地区转变为平板显示屏的主要生产中心。

Speaker Paul D. Ryan, Republican of Wisconsin, called the Foxconn deal a “game changer” that could help spur a manufacturing revival in the Midwest. At the White House in July, President Trump hailed the agreement as a great one for American manufacturing, American workers and “everybody who believes in the concept, in the label, Made in the U.S.A.” Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin officially approved the deal on Monday.

代表威斯康星州的共和党众议院议长保罗·D·瑞安(Paul D. Ryan)曾表示,富士康的协议“将彻底改变现状”,帮助复兴中西部的制造业。特朗普总统今年7月在白宫赞扬该协议对美国的制造业、美国工人以及“所有相信‘美国制造’这个概念和品牌的人”来说都非常重要。威斯康星州州长斯科特·沃克(Scott Walker)周一正式批准了该协议。

Foxconn has good reason to diversify its manufacturing operations. About 95 percent of the company’s 1.1 million employees work in China. Building a large work force elsewhere could reduce the company’s reliance on a single locale, lowering its risk if countries imposed tariffs or other trade barriers on Chinese exports.

富士康有充分的理由让自己的制造运营变得多元化。该公司的110万员工有大约95%在中国工作。在其他地方建立庞大的劳动力队伍可以减轻该公司对一个地方的依赖,在他国对中国出口商品征收关税或设置其他贸易壁垒时减少风险。

“The closer they get to big markets like the U.S. or Brazil, the less they have to worry about import taxes or other barriers,” said Gary Gereffi, director of the Center on Globalization, Governance, & Competitiveness at Duke University. “Getting outside of China to supply these markets is like jumping over any potential tariff wall.”

“他们越接近美国或巴西等大型市场,越不必担心进口税或其他壁垒,”杜克大学(Duke University)的全球化、治理和竞争中心(Center on Globalization, Governance, & Competitiveness)主任加里·格里菲(Gary Gereffi)说。“离开中国去为这些市场服务就像是跳过潜在的关税壁垒。”

But exporting Foxconn’s Chinese strategy is virtually impossible.

不过,富士康中国战略的出口基本上是不可能达成的。

The global supply chain for electronics remains firmly rooted in Asia, where advantages like low-cost labor and an abundance of skilled engineers have been crucial to the region’s development as a manufacturing base.

电子产品的全球供应链依然深深扎根在亚洲,那里的低成本劳动力和大量熟练工程师等优势对于该地区作为制造基地的发展至关重要。

What makes Foxconn’s Chinese operations really hum are the extraordinary level of government subsidies and support, and the sheer scale of those operations. Local governments often finance and build the company’s factories, manage its dormitories and recruit tens of thousands of workers. Some government officials have gone door to door in small counties to recruit workers.

让富士康在中国的业务真正活跃起来的是政府的大力补贴和支持,以及那些工厂的规模。当地政府经常为该公司出资修建工厂,管理宿舍,招募数以万计的工人。有些政府官员在地方上挨家挨户招募工人。

The government aid can reach into the billions of dollars.

政府的资助可能高达数十亿美元。

Foxconn began to shift large-scale production operations beyond China in about 2009, when it opened plants elsewhere in Asia, including Vietnam and India. The company now has factories in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia, and a large plant in Mexico that employs 18,000 workers.

大约从2009年起,富士康开始将大规模生产运营转移到中国之外,它在亚洲其他地方开设了一些工厂,包括越南和印度。现在,该公司在捷克共和国、匈牙利和斯洛伐克拥有工厂,在墨西哥有一个大型工厂,雇佣了1.8万名工人。

When several countries began to require that some components be made locally as a way of encouraging production at home, Foxconn stepped up its efforts to build outside China. And company executives essentially followed the same playbook they had used inside China.

由于有几个国家为鼓励国内生产开始要求某些零件在当地生产,所以富士康加大了在中国之外建厂的努力。富士康的高管们基本上是按照在中国的运作方式行事。

Foxconn’s chairman, Terry Gou, met with high-ranking leaders, including Brazil’s president at the time, Dilma Rousseff, and Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India. Mr. Gou made pledges; won tax breaks and government concessions; and announced plans to spend billions of dollars to create tens of thousands of jobs in multiple countries. Brazil called one of the planned Foxconn sites the “City of the Future.”

富士康总裁郭台铭与高级领导人会晤,包括时任巴西总统迪尔玛·罗塞夫(Dilma Rousseff)和印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)。郭台铭做出承诺;获得税收减免和政府特许权;在多个国家宣布投资数十亿美元,创造数万份工作。巴西曾把一个计划中的富士康园区称为“未来之城”。

Then reality set in.

然后是现实。

Labor strikes in India and Vietnam prompted Foxconn’s operations in those countries to be shut down temporarily. Political and economic turmoil in Brazil led the authorities there to scale back some of tax breaks it had offered the company. A plan to invest $1 billion in the construction of a plant in Jakarta, Indonesia, collapsed, partly because Foxconn could not develop the supply chain it had hoped to, according to analysts and government officials.

印度和越南的工人罢工导致富士康在那些国家的运营暂时停止。巴西的政治和经济动荡导致当局缩减了承诺给该公司提供的一些税收减免。在印度尼西亚雅加达投资十亿美元建厂的计划失败了,据分析人士和政府官员称,一个原因是富士康无法像预期的那样建立供应链。

Foxconn’s plans also fizzled in Pennsylvania. In 2013, the company, which has a small office in Harrisburg, said it intended to build a $30 million factory in the state that could employ 500 workers. The plant has yet to be built.

富士康在宾夕法尼亚州的计划也不了了之。富士康在哈里斯堡有一个小办事处。2013年,该公司表示,它计划在该州投资3000万美元建一个工厂,可以雇用500名工人。该工厂至今尚未建立起来。

Pennsylvania officials declined to comment on why the factory had not been built, but said that they had not given up hope. (Foxconn also did not comment.)

宾夕法尼亚州官员拒绝就工厂没有建成的原因作出评论,但表示,他们尚未放弃希望(富士康也没有对此作出评论)。

“We do not believe Pennsylvania is out of the running for any particular project,” David Smith, a spokesman for the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development in Harrisburg, said about Foxconn’s commitment in the state.

“我们认为,宾夕法尼亚并没有退出任何具体项目的竞争,”哈里斯堡的宾夕法尼亚社区和经济发展局(Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development)发言人戴维·史密斯(David Smith)在提到富士康在该州的承诺时说。

For Foxconn, the move to Wisconsin offers political benefits.

对富士康来说,转向威斯康星州能带来政治益处。

On the campaign trail, Mr. Trump skewered China over what he deemed its unfair trade practices. He vowed to force Apple to make its products in the United States and said his administration might impose a border tax on imports, raising the prospect of a trade war.

特朗普在竞选期间尖利批评中国的不公平贸易行为。他承诺要迫使苹果在美国生产自己的产品,并表示他的政府可能会对进口商品施加边境税,从而增加了贸易战的可能性。

After the election, Foxconn joined a parade of global companies bearing promises.

选举结束后,富士康加入了很多全球性企业的行列,做出承诺。

Jack Ma, the executive chairman of the Chinese internet giant Alibaba, arrived at Trump Tower in New York and pledged to create one million jobs in America. Masayoshi Son, the founder of SoftBank of Japan, said his company would invest $50 billion in the United States. And at around the same time, Foxconn said it was planning to build production facilities in the United States.

中国互联网巨头阿里巴巴的董事局主席马云来到纽约的特朗普大厦(Trump Tower),承诺在美国创造100万个工作机会。日本软银公司(SoftBank)的创始人孙正义(Masayoshi Son)表示,他的公司会在美国投资500亿美元。富士康几乎在同一时间表示,它正计划在美国建设生产设施。

The Trump administration helped start some of the talks between Foxconn and officials in Wisconsin, including teams led by Mr. Ryan and Mr. Walker. Negotiations began in June and an agreement was reached a month later, with Wisconsin pledging $3 billion in tax breaks and other subsidies over a 15-year period.

特朗普政府帮助开启了富士康和威斯康星州官员之间的一些对话,包括与瑞安和沃克领导的团队。6月份开始谈判,一个月后达成协议,威斯康星州承诺在未来15年内提供价值30亿美元的税收减免和其他补贴。

Democrats in the state questioned whether the price tag was justified and whether the jobs would materialize. A state analysis, by the nonpartisan Legislative Fiscal Bureau, found that taxpayers would not recoup the state’s investment until at least 2042.

该州的民主党人质疑优惠数额是否合适,工作是否能落实。无党派的立法财政局(Legislative Fiscal Bureau)对该州的一项分析发现,纳税人至少要到2042年才能收回该州的这项投资。

Wisconsin lawmakers pushed it through nonetheless, and when Mr. Walker approved the deal on Monday, he called it “a truly transformational step for our state.”

不过,威斯康星州的议员还是强力通过了该协议。周一,沃克在批准该协议时表示,它将“给我们州带来真正的变革”。

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