您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 文化 >> 正文

从阳朔到纽约,改造城市生活的新世代建筑师

更新时间:2017-9-21 11:41:39 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

A Generation of Architects Making Its Mark at Dizzying Speed
从阳朔到纽约,改造城市生活的新世代建筑师

Sharon Johnston and Mark Lee, of the Los Angeles architectural practice Johnston Marklee, are busy getting famous.

洛杉矶建筑事务所约翰斯顿-马克李(Johnston Marklee)的莎朗·约翰斯顿(Sharon Johnston)和马克·李(Mark Lee),正奔忙在成名之路上。

On Sept. 16, they open the second edition of the Chicago Architecture Biennial as its artistic directors. Featuring work from more than 140 architects and designers around the world, the Biennial is expected to draw some 500,000 visitors. Across town that same week, Ms. Johnston and Mr. Lee, who are married, also unveil Phase 1 of their renovation of Josef Paul Kleihues’s Museum of Contemporary Art, an attempt to humanize the famously aloof building by unlocking some of its unyielding geometry and embracing the park to its east.

9月16日,他们以艺术总监的身份为第二届芝加哥建筑双年展(Chicago Architecture Biennial )拉开帷幕。此次双年展搜罗了世界各地逾140名建筑师和设计师的作品,预计将吸引约50万名参观者。同一周,在城市的另一边,李和约翰斯顿夫妇展示了他们翻修约瑟夫·保罗·克莱休斯(Josef Paul Kleihues)的当代艺术博物馆(Museum of Contemporary Art)的第一阶段成果——他们试图拆解博物馆的某些生硬的几何形,并善加利用东侧的公园,以便把这座以冷酷著称的建筑变得更有人情味。

And about two months later, when their 30,000-square-foot Menil Drawing Institute finishes construction (the building will open next spring), Johnston Marklee will add a new wing to Houston’s renowned Menil Collection. (Neither the Drawing Institute nor Renzo Piano’s main building for the Menil, which opened to great fanfare in 1987, were damaged during Hurricane Harvey.) The Drawing Institute extends Mr. Piano’s restrained visual language with a cluster of pavilions that define three new courtyards. Pleated ceilings activate the interiors, and attenuate Houston’s abundant daylight.

此外,再过两个月,等到面积为3万平方英尺的梅尼尔画院(Menil Drawing Institute)完工时(将于明年春天揭幕),约翰斯顿-马克李事务所将为休斯顿著名的梅尼尔收藏博物馆(Menil Collection)增添一栋新翼楼。(不论是画院,还是伦佐·皮亚诺[Renzo Piano]为梅尼尔设计、于1987年落成的主楼,都未在飓风哈维肆虐期间受损)。画院延续了皮亚诺克制的视觉语言,以一系列别馆定义了三个新庭院。带有皱褶的天花板让内部装饰变得更活泼,也弱化了休斯顿充足的日光。

Ms. Johnston, 51, and Mr. Lee, 49, are part of a bumper crop of designers whose sensibilities are bringing new depth to contemporary architecture around the world.

眼下,包括现年51岁的约翰斯顿和49岁的李在内,一大批设计师正以自己的感悟力为世界各地的当代建筑带来新的深度。

In architecture, where buildings germinate slowly and early commissions tend to be small, Ms. Johnston and Mr. Lee are still young. But after 20 years of practice, they’re seasoned enough for clients like the Menil to entrust them with significant commissions. They are in that fertile period — agewise, it typically runs from the mid-40s to mid-50s in architecture — when the profession’s next generation of leadership begins to make its mark. Mr. Piano was 50 when the Menil, his American debut, opened. It was only after the renovation of his house, at 48, that Mr. Gehry became architecture’s other important Frank. Zaha Hadid was mostly an academic architect well into her 40s.

在建筑物成形缓慢、早期委托项目往往很小的建筑圈,约翰斯顿和李都还算年轻人。但他们已从业20年,有足够的经验让梅尼尔这样的客户对他们委以重任。他们正处于高产期——就年龄而言,建筑设计师的高产期通常在四十多岁到五十多岁之间——也就是这一行业的下一代领导者开始崭露头角的时候。在美国的第一个作品梅尼尔收藏博物馆落成时,皮亚诺50岁。弗兰克·盖瑞(Frank Gehry)在48岁那年翻修了自家的房子以后,才得以成为建筑界的另一位重要的弗兰克。扎哈·哈迪德(Zaha Hadid)一直到四十多岁的时候基本上还是一个建筑学者。

In 2018, when they complete Rome’s Città del Sole (City of the Sun), Maria Claudia Clemente, 50, and Francesco Isidori, 47, partners of that city’s Labics studio, will have been at work on the complex for most of the time they’ve practiced together. Won in a 2007 competition, the 175,000-square-foot project comprises a library and residential, office, retail, parking and extensive public space — a critical component of Roman urban life. The sleek urban center replaces a derelict former bus depot and repair yard hidden behind fences along Rome’s eastern edge. “But our goal was not to build a collection of interesting architectural objects,” Ms. Clemente and Mr. Isidori said. “We wanted to create a coherent structural tissue for this part of the city.”

等到2018年,罗马Labics工作室的合伙人——50岁的玛丽亚·克劳狄娅·克莱门特(Maria Claudia Clemente)和47岁的弗朗切斯科·伊西多里(Francesco Isidori)——完成罗马的太阳之城(City of the Sun)时,两人已把合作后的大部分时间都花在了这座建筑综合体上。他们在2007年打败竞争者拿下面积17.5万平方英尺的太阳之城项目,包含居住区、办公区、零售场所、停车场,还有罗马城市生活的关键组成部分——巨大的公共空间。这个时髦的城市中心区取代了一个废弃的公共汽车站,以及隐身于罗马东缘一道围墙内的修理场。“但我们的目标不是修建一系列有趣的建筑物,”克莱门特和伊西多里说。“我们想要为罗马的这一部分打造统一的结构组织。”

Some 5,500 miles east of Rome, Gong Dong, the 45-year-old founder of Vector Architects in Beijing, has transformed another industrial relic into a contemporary retreat. His just-opened, 117-room Alila Yangshuo Hotel encompasses a former sugar refinery located along the banks of the Li River in Guilin. Though the refinery, a 1950s business, didn’t survive Deng Xiaoping’s economic modernization drive, its building did. Chinese investors, inspired by the picturesque location — its dramatic karst topography and lush growth have been the source of countless Chinese landscape paintings — approached the architect with the idea of a resort hotel.

在罗马以东5500英里处,现年45岁的北京直向建筑(Vector Architects)创始人董功,已经把另一个废弃的工业区转化为当代隐居之地。开业不久的阿丽拉阳朔糖舍共有117个房间,环绕着一个坐落在桂林漓江江畔的糖厂旧址。糖厂没能在邓小平开启的经济现代化建设中幸存,但它的建筑留存了下来。工厂所在之处风景如画——它那令人惊叹的岩溶地貌和繁茂的草木被画进了数不胜数的中国风景画中——受此吸引的投资者找到董功,想要建造一座度假酒店。

For Mr. Gong, the client’s interest in repurposing the original building reflects a renewed Chinese appreciation for cultural preservation. “Our society is rethinking what we’ve been doing over the last 20 years — this rapid urbanization at the cost of all else,” he said. “There is a new interest in quality, and in respecting the memory of what came before.”

董功认为,这位客户对改变原有建筑用途的兴趣,折射出中国人对文化保护的重新思考。“我们的社会正重新思考我们在过去二十年间的所作所为——以牺牲其他一切为代价,快速推动城市化进程,”他说。“人们对品质、对尊重往日的记忆有了新的兴趣。”

Boca del Río, Mexico, was not an industrial center. But over time, this once important port city was eclipsed by nearby Veracruz and fell into decline. City leaders are betting the arts can reverse their fortunes, and hope that Michel Rojkind, in Mexico City, will kick-start that process this fall with his tourism-worthy Foro Boca, a jagged assemblage of striated concrete volumes that will house an 800-seat concert hall for the city’s orchestra, and other functions.

墨西哥的博卡德尔里奥以前并不是工业中心。但随着时间的推移,这座一度很重要的港口城市被附近的韦拉克鲁斯抢走了风头,逐渐没落。它的领导者相信,艺术能让其命运发生逆转,他们希望墨西哥城的米歇尔·罗金德(Michel Rojkind)在今年秋年以其具有旅游价值的Foro Boca开启这一进程。Foro Boca是一片起起伏伏、由带裂缝的混凝土块组成的建筑,将包含一个有800个座位的音乐厅,可供该市的交响乐团演出,还可发挥其他一些功用。

Atelier TAG’s 875-seat Gilles-Vigneault Theater in Saint-Jérôme, Quebec, is also a craggy affair — and opens in October with a similar mission: to recast Saint-Jérôme — known for its logging and paper industries — as an arts center that can draw visitors from nearby Montreal, and elsewhere. The theater will anchor a “festival square,” over which it reaches with a dramatically cantilevered, 10,000-square-foot canopy, intended “to encourage gathering and outdoor performance,” according to the Montreal firm’s designers, Katsuhiro Yamazaki, 45, and his partner and wife, Manon Asselin, 50, who won the Prix de Rome architecture prize in 2008.

TAG工作室(Atelier TAG)在魁北克圣热罗姆设计的吉尔斯-维格尼奥特剧院也是一个棱角分明的作品,这座有875个座位的剧场将于10月开放,它肩负着类似的使命:将以伐木和造纸业闻名的圣热罗姆重塑为艺术中心,从附近的蒙特利尔等地吸引游客。TAG工作室位于蒙特利尔,其设计师——45岁的山口胜弘(Katsuhiro Yamazaki)及其妻子兼合伙人、2008年罗马建筑奖(Prix de Rome)获得者、50岁的玛侬·阿塞林(Manon Asselin)表示,该剧院将设立一个“节庆广场”,用于“促进集会和户外表演”,广场上方有一个一万平方英尺的悬臂式顶篷。

Ms. Asselin, like many of the leading architects of her generation, teaches as well as practices. So does Nader Tehrani, 53, dean of Cooper Union’s Chanin School of Architecture and co-founder of the Boston practice NADAAA. This fall, Mr. Tehrani will finish something highly unusual: his third building for an architecture school — this time for the Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design at the University of Toronto. The professional scrutiny that accompanies designing for each other can make an architect squirm, but Mr. Tehrani was game for another run. For Daniels, he floats an origami-like roof over a 110-foot-wide column-free room to create floodlit studio and social spaces below. A new circulation spine attempts to better link the building, which is set on a traffic roundabout, into the city.

和她这一代的许多顶级建筑师一样,阿塞林在同时进行教学和实践工作。现年53岁的纳达尔·德黑兰尼(Nader Tehrani)也是如此,他是库伯联盟查宁建筑学院(Cooper Union’s Chanin School of Architecture)院长,以及波士顿建筑事务所NADAAA的联合创始人。今年秋天,德黑兰尼将完成一件极不寻常的事情:第三次为建筑学校设计建筑——这次是多伦多大学的丹尼尔斯建筑、景观与设计学院(Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design)。为业内人士设计会引来的专业审视,可能令建筑师感到局促不安,但德黑兰尼敢于再次接受挑战。他为丹尼尔斯设计了一个110英尺宽的无柱空间,有折纸式的天花板,其下是一个以泛光照明的工作室和社交空间。该建筑坐落于城市交通枢纽,新的流通中心试图将它更好地与城市连接起来。

The Berlin architect Jürgen Mayer H, 51, wants his Business School for FOM University in Düsseldorf, Germany, to take on an urban agenda as well. In addition to its classrooms and meeting facilities, FOM offers a series of cantilevered balconies that create gathering spaces overlooking the city and an adjacent park. The biggest of these also attaches to a neighboring viaduct, inviting pedestrians to utilize the building as a pathway down to the park.

现年51岁的柏林建筑师于尔根·迈尔·H(Jürgen Mayer H)希望他设计的德国杜塞尔多夫FOM大学商学院(Business School for FOM University)能参与到城市日常生活中去。除了教室和会议设施之外,FOM还有一系列悬臂式阳台,可以俯瞰城市和毗邻的公园。其中最大的阳台连接着附近的高架桥,行人可以把这座建筑当做去往公园的通道。

Thanks to a percolating economy and the technological revolution that swept through architecture while most of these designers were building their practices, many of them are producing work at speeds and scales that were not possible even a decade ago. Today, a five-person office like the Oyler Wu Collaborative in Los Angeles, founded in 2004, can produce a residential high-rise in a faraway place — even one with the complex, syncopated screens that encase their recently completed Monarch residential tower in Taipei. “The building code there encourages standardization,” said Jenny Wu, 42. Her husband, Dwayne Oyler, 45, added, “We wanted to show that even in a constrained environment, you can still be creative.”

得益于日渐扩散的经济,以及席卷建筑界的技术革命,这些设计师大多创办了自己的事务所,他们中的很多人推出作品的速度和规模,就在十年前还是难以置信的。现今,于2004年在洛杉矶成立的五人建筑事务所奥伊勒-吴合作事务所(Oyler Wu Collaborative),可以远程实现一座高层住宅——最近在台北落成的忠泰 M(Monarch)住宅楼,外面甚至包裹着复杂的切分式幕墙。“那里的建筑法规鼓励标准化,”现年42岁的吴嘉华(Jenny Wu)说。她的丈夫、现年45岁的德韦恩·奥伊勒(Dwayne Oyler)补充说,“我们想要表明,即便所在的环境限制多多,你还是可以展现创造力。”

Two firms of this generation stand out for the scale and ambition of their enterprises. In New York City, SHoP Architects (whose founding partners range in age from 50 to 54) is now 200 strong, with 19 projects under construction around the world, and a dozen more in design. Two will open this fall in Manhattan. The first, in October, is Pier 17 at the South Street Seaport, reimagined as a 300,000-square-foot retail and entertainment complex. Upstream are the 48- and 43-story American Copper Buildings, sibling apartment towers that look as if they were being pulled toward each other by a 100-foot bridge at their waists (inside of which is what must be the coolest swimming pool in the city). Over time, the copper exteriors will oxidize to a Statue of Liberty green — a slow-motion art project provided by the architects, and by nature.

有两家属于这一世代的事务所因其规模和雄心而受到关注。在纽约市,SHoP建筑事务所(其创始合伙人的年纪均在50岁至54岁之间)目前有200多名员工,在世界各地有19个在建项目,另有十多个项目处于设计阶段。它的两个项目将于今秋在曼哈顿开放。第一个是位于南街海港(South Street Seaport)、将于10月开放的17号码头(Pier 17),它被改造成了一个面积为30万英尺的零售及娱乐建筑综合体。位于上游的美国铜大厦(American Copper Buildings)由48层和43层的公寓楼构成,这两栋姊妹楼于拦腰处以100英尺长的桥梁相连,看上去仿佛在相互拉拽(桥梁内有无疑是纽约城中最酷的游泳池)。随着时间的推移,铜质外墙将氧化为自由女神像的那种绿色——这是由建筑师和大自然共同奉上的一件缓慢成形的艺术作品。

The youngest architect in this current group also has the largest practice. Bjarke Ingels, 42, started the acronymically perfect Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) at the ripe old age of 30 and now employs nearly 450 people, primarily in Copenhagen and New York. BIG’s projects are by turns unorthodox, clever and even hopeful. Like the German war machine it in part catalogs, the Tirpitz Museum in Blavand, Denmark, which opened this summer, is an artifact buried in the sand. The Lego House, which opens Sept. 28 in Billund, Denmark, is a hybrid museum and play center devoted to the ubiquitous toys, and is, of course, a mound of interconnected blocks with a roof-scape of primary and secondary colors. But it is the Amager Resource Center in Copenhagen that epitomizes BIG’s approach. When completed in early 2018, the massive waste-to-energy plant will feature a stack that blows harmless vapor smoke rings to indicate tons of conversion, and — yes — a ski slope on its roof.

当前这群建筑师中最年轻的一位,运营着最大的事务所。现年42岁的比贾克·英格尔斯(Bjarke Ingels)在三十而立之际创办了比贾克·英格尔斯集团(Bjarke Ingels Group,简称BIG),目前雇用了将近450人,主要以哥本哈根和纽约为大本营。BIG的项目有的别具一格,有的巧妙灵动,有的甚至鼓舞人心。今夏在丹麦布拉旺德开幕的提尔皮茨博物馆(Tirpitz Museum),部分上是对一台德国战争机器的记录,而和机器一样,博物馆本身就是一件埋在沙中的制品。将于9月28日在丹麦比隆开放的乐高屋(Lego House)集博物馆和游乐中心为一体,里边到处都是玩具;它当然是由相互连接的方块构成,屋顶景观的色调为三原色和三间色。但最能体现BIG手法的是位于哥本哈根的阿麦格资源中心(Amager Resource Center)。等到在2018年初建成的时候,这个把废物转化为能源的巨型工厂将有一个大烟囱,会喷出无害的蒸汽烟雾环,以表明正在转化数以吨计的废物,而且——没错,屋顶上有一个滑雪坡道。

Mr. Ingels calls his approach ‘‘hedonistic sustainability’’: sustainability that increases the enjoyment of life.

英格尔斯形容他的手法是“带有享乐主义色彩的可持续性”:既要可持续,又要增加生活的乐趣。

Now that’s leadership any generation can appreciate.

这才是任何一个世代的人都会欣赏的领导力。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表