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撬锁加传票:通俄案检察官给华盛顿“下马威”

更新时间:2017-9-20 11:26:29 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

With a Picked Lock and a Threatened Indictment, Mueller’s Inquiry Sets a Tone
撬锁加传票:通俄案检察官给华盛顿“下马威”

WASHINGTON — Paul J. Manafort was in bed early one morning in July when federal agents bearing a search warrant picked the lock on his front door and raided his Virginia home. They took binders stuffed with documents and copied his computer files, looking for evidence that Manafort, President Donald Trump’s former campaign chairman, set up secret offshore bank accounts. They even photographed the expensive suits in his closet.

华盛顿——七月的一个清晨,唐纳德·特朗普总统的前竞选主席保罗·J·马纳福特(Paul J. Manafort)还在睡觉,联邦探员奉搜查令撬开了他家前门的锁,突击搜查了这座位于弗吉尼亚州的宅邸。他们拿走了许多塞满文档的文件夹,复制了他的电脑文件,寻找马纳福特建立秘密离岸银行账户的证据。他们甚至给衣柜里的昂贵套装拍了照片。

The special counsel, Robert S. Mueller III, then followed the house search with a warning: His prosecutors told Manafort they planned to indict him, said two people close to the investigation.

两名了解该调查的人说,搜查结束后,特别检察官罗伯特·S·穆勒三世(Robert S. Mueller III)又下达了警告:他手下的检察官告诉马纳福特,他们准备起诉他。

The moves against Manafort are just a glimpse of the aggressive tactics used by Mueller and his team of prosecutors in the four months since taking over the Justice Department’s investigation into Russia’s attempts to disrupt last year’s election, according to lawyers, witnesses and U.S. officials who have described the approach. Dispensing with the plodding pace typical of many white-collar investigations, Mueller’s team has used what some describe as shock-and-awe tactics to intimidate witnesses and potential targets of the inquiry.

根据了解该事件的律师、证人和美国官员的说法,自穆勒及其检察官团队接替司法部,开始对俄罗斯企图破坏去年总统选举一事展开调查后,四个月来一直在采取各种强硬策略,针对马纳福特的行动只是其中一小部分。和许多典型的白领调查一样,案件的进展非常缓慢,穆勒的团队采用了许多被描述为下马威的手段,恫吓证人和潜在的调查目标。

Mueller has obtained a flurry of subpoenas to compel witnesses to testify before a grand jury, lawyers and witnesses say, sometimes before his prosecutors have taken the customary first step of interviewing them. One witness was called before the grand jury less than a month after his name surfaced in news accounts. The special counsel even took the unusual step of obtaining a subpoena for one of Manafort’s former lawyers, claiming an exception to the rule that shields attorney-client discussions from scrutiny.

律师和证人们说,穆勒已经取得了一大批传票,迫使证人对大陪审团作证,其中有些没有按照惯例先安排他的检察官面谈。穆勒的名字在新闻中出现不到一个月,便有一名证人被传至大陪审团作证。这位特别检察官甚至采取了一个不寻常的做法,不顾律师-客户间的谈话不受审查这一规则,破例传唤了马纳福特的一位前律师。

“They are setting a tone. It’s important early on to strike terror in the hearts of people in Washington, or else you will be rolled,” said Solomon L. Wisenberg, who was deputy independent counsel in the investigation that led to the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999. “You want people saying to themselves, ‘Man, I had better tell these guys the truth.'”

“他们正在定下基调。重要的是尽早在那些华盛顿政界人物心中引发恐惧,否则你就会被压倒,”曾在导致比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)总统面临弹劾的1999年调查中担任副独立检察官的所罗门·L·韦森伯格(Solomon L. Wisenberg)表示,“你的目标是让人们在心里盘算,‘天哪,我最好告诉把真相告诉这些人。’”

A spokesman for Mueller declined to comment. Lawyers and a spokesman for Manafort also declined to comment.

穆勒的发言人拒绝置评。马纳福特的律师和发言人也拒绝置评。

Few people can upend Washington like a federal prosecutor rooting around a presidential administration, and Mueller, a former FBI director, is known to dislike meandering investigations that languish for years. At the same time, he appears to be taking a broad view of his mandate: examining not just the Russian disruption campaign and whether any of Trump’s associates assisted in the effort, but also any financial entanglements with Russians going back several years. He is also investigating whether Trump tried to obstruct justice when he fired James B. Comey, the FBI director.

没有谁能像一名围绕一届政府展开深入调查的联邦检察官这样,让华盛顿陷入天翻地覆的境地,而曾任联邦调查局局长的穆勒则是出了名的不喜欢迂回曲折、需要拖延数年的调查。与此同时,他似乎正以更广阔的视角看待自己的任务:不仅要调查俄罗斯破坏选举的行为,以及特朗普的任何助手是否参与协助这项工作,而且还要调查他们近年来与俄罗斯人的经济纠葛。目前他还在调查特朗普解除詹姆斯·B·科米(James B. Comey)的联邦调查局局长职务时,是否试图妨碍司法公正。

Manafort is under investigation for possible violations of tax laws, money-laundering prohibitions and requirements to disclose foreign lobbying. Michael T. Flynn, the former national security adviser, is being scrutinized for foreign lobbying work as well as for conversations he had last year with Russia’s ambassador to the United States. On Monday, Flynn’s siblings announced the creation of a legal-defense fund to help cover their brother’s “enormous” legal fees.

马纳福特正因违反税法、洗钱禁令以及外国游说报备规定而接受调查。前国家安全顾问迈克尔·T·弗林(Michael T. Flynn)正因外国游说工作以及去年同俄罗斯驻美大使的对话而接受调查。周一,弗林的兄弟姐妹宣布设立一个诉讼辩护基金,帮助他们的兄弟支付“庞大”的诉讼费用。

The wide-ranging nature of Mueller’s investigation could put him on a collision course with Trump, who has said publicly that Mueller should keep his investigation narrowly focused on last year’s presidential campaign. In an interview with The New York Times, Trump said Mueller would be overstepping his boundaries if he investigated his family’s finances unrelated to Russia.

穆勒调查的广泛性可能令他与特朗普发生冲突,特朗普已经公开表示,穆勒应该把他的调查限定在去年的总统竞选中。特朗普在接受《纽约时报》采访时表示,穆勒如果调查他的家族与俄罗斯无关的财务状况,将会是越界的行为。

For the moment, Mueller’s team has shown a measure of deference to White House officials, sparing them grand jury subpoenas and allowing them to be appear for voluntary interviews. Those sessions are expected to begin soon. Ty Cobb, a lawyer brought in to manage the White House response to the inquiry, has told administration officials that he wants to avoid any subpoenas from the special prosecutor.

目前,穆勒的团队对白宫官员表现出一定程度的尊重,没有向他们发出大陪审团传票,并允许他们自愿与检察官面谈。预计这样的面谈即将开始。白宫聘请律师泰·柯布(Ty Cobb)负责回应这项调查,他告诉政府官员们,他希望避免任何来自特别检察官的传票。

Staff members have been working long hours answering Mueller’s request for 13 categories of documents, including records related to Comey’s firing and Trump’s role in drafting a misleading statement about a June 2016 meeting between campaign officials and Russian-born visitors. Nonetheless, the demand for documents has provoked at least one angry confrontation between Cobb and Donald F. McGahn II, the White House counsel, over whether certain documents should be withheld to protect the president’s right to confidentiality.

工作人员加班加点,整理穆勒需要的13类文件,其中包括与科米被解职有关的记录,以及特朗普在一份供词的起草中所起到的作用,该供词就竞选官员与俄罗斯裔访客在2016年6月的一次会面给出了误导性的陈述。然而,穆勒对这些文件的索取,已经令柯布与白宫律师唐纳德·F·麦格恩二世(Donald F. McGahn II)之间发生了至少一场愤怒的争执,他们对于是否应该扣留某些文件以保护总统的保密权这个问题有不同看法。

But associates of both Manafort and Flynn have received more peremptory treatment. Instead of invitations to the prosecutor’s office, they have been presented with grand jury subpoenas, forcing them to either testify or take the Fifth Amendment and raise suspicions that they had something to hide.

但是马纳福特和弗林的助手们都遭到了更强硬的对待。他们没有收到检察官办公室发来的面谈邀请,而是收到了大陪审团的传票,迫使他们要么对陪审团作证,要么援引宪法第五修正案拒绝作证,这样便会令人怀疑他们有所隐瞒。

At least three witnesses have recently been subpoenaed to testify about Manafort: Jason Maloni, a spokesman who appeared before the grand jury for more than two hours on Friday, and the heads of two consulting firms — Mercury Public Affairs and the Podesta Group — who worked with Manafort on behalf of Viktor F. Yanukovych, the pro-Russia former president of Ukraine.

至少有三名证人最近接到传票,在陪审团面前就马纳福特的行为作证:发言人杰森·马洛尼(Jason Maloni)周五在大陪审团作证长达两个小时。此外还有水星公共事务(Mercury Public Affairs)和波德斯塔集团(Podesta Group)这两家咨询公司的负责人,他们曾与马纳福特合作,代表亲俄罗斯的乌克兰前总统维克托·F·亚努科维奇(Viktor F. Yanukovych)的利益。

Mueller’s team also took the unusual step of issuing a subpoena to Melissa Laurenza, a specialist in lobbying law who formerly represented Manafort, according to people familiar with the subpoena. Conversations between lawyers and their clients are normally considered bound by attorney-client privilege, but there are exceptions when lawyers prepare public documents that are filed on behalf of their client.

据知情人士透露,穆勒团队还采取了另一个颇不寻常的行动,传唤了曾代表马纳福特的游说法专家梅丽莎·劳伦萨(Melissa Laurenza)。律师与客户之间的对话通常被认为受律师-当事人特权的保护,但当律师代表客户准备公开文件时可例外。

Mueller took over the Russia investigation in May, after the FBI had already spent nearly a year looking into connections between Trump’s associates and Russians. His team has occasionally been caught by surprise, hearing of possibly important information only when it is revealed in the news media.

联邦调查局已经花了将近一年时间研究特朗普的副手同俄罗斯人之间的联系,穆勒在五月份接手了这一调查。他的团队偶尔会感到措手不及:在新闻媒体曝光之后,他们才得知一些可能很重要的信息。

Some lawyers defending people who have been caught up in Mueller’s investigation privately complain that the special counsel’s team is unwilling to engage in the usual back-and-forth that precedes — or substitutes for — grand jury testimony. They argue that the team’s more aggressive tactics might end up being counterproductive, especially if some grand jury witnesses turn out to be more guarded than they would have been in a more informal setting or invoke the Fifth Amendment.

一些穆勒调查涉事人的辩护律师私下里抱怨说,这位特别检察官的团队不愿在大陪审团之前进行通常会有的那种协商,或者以协商取代作证。他们认为,这个团队更强硬的策略可能最终会收到反效果,特别是如果一些在大陪审团作证的证人比在非正式的场合更加戒备,或者援引第五修正案拒绝作证。

The longer Mueller’s investigation goes on, the more vulnerable he will be to allegations that he is on a fishing expedition, said Katy Harriger, a professor of politics at Wake Forest University and the author of a book on special prosecutors. Such accusations dogged the investigation of Kenneth W. Starr, the independent counsel whose investigation of Clinton stretched on for years.

维克森林大学(Wake Forest University)政治学教授凯蒂·亨利格(Katy Harriger)著有一本关于特别检察官的书,她指出,穆勒的调查工作持续时间愈长,他就愈会面对非法调查的指控。独立检查官肯尼斯·W·斯塔尔(Kenneth W. Starr)对克林顿的调查持续数年之后,便是因为这种指控结束了调查。

To a degree, Mueller is in a race against three congressional committees that are interviewing some of same people who are of interest to the special prosecutor’s team. Even if the committees refuse to grant them immunity, congressional testimony that becomes public can give other witnesses a chance to line up their stories.

在某种程度上,穆勒正在与三个国会委员会赛跑,这些委员会正在与他的团队感兴趣的同一批人面谈。即使委员会拒绝给予这些人豁免权,公开的国会证词也可以让其他证人有机会重新组织自己的说法。

Rep. Adam Schiff of California, the top Democrat on the House Intelligence Committee, said committee staff members were going to great lengths not to get in Mueller’s way. But Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, the chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, indicated last week that his committee might subpoena witnesses to testify about the circumstances of Comey’s firing even over Mueller’s objections.

加利福尼亚州的众议员亚当·席夫(Adam Schiff)是众议院情报委员会中地位最高的民主党人,他说,委员会的工作人员将竭尽全力不妨碍穆勒的调查。但是,艾奥瓦州共和党参议员、参议院司法委员会主席查克·格拉斯利(Chuck Grassley)于上周表示,他的委员会可能会不顾穆勒的反对传唤证人,就科米遭解职时的情况作证。

Mueller’s need to navigate this complex landscape could explain the timing of the raid on Manafort’s house, which took place in the early hours of July 26. The raid came one day after Manafort was interviewed by staff members of the Senate Intelligence Committee.

穆勒需要驾驭如此复杂的情况,由此可以理解他为何选择在7月26日凌晨突袭马纳福特的家——就在之前一天,参议院情报委员会工作人员刚刚与马纳福特面谈。

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