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华裔建筑师黄振捷逝世,曾设计多个洛杉矶地标

更新时间:2017-9-19 10:27:11 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Gin Wong, Who Designed Futuristic Buildings in Los Angeles, Dies at 94
华裔建筑师黄振捷逝世,曾设计多个洛杉矶地标

Gin Wong, a Chinese-born architect whose modernist designs helped define the postwar landscape of Los Angeles in structures as diverse as a gas station, CBS Television City and Los Angeles International Airport, died on Sept. 1 in Beverly Hills. He was 94.

中国出生的建筑师黄振捷(Gin Wong)于9月1日在美国加利福尼亚州比佛利山去世,享年94岁。他的现代主义设计帮助定义了洛杉矶市二战后的城市景观,这些设计体现在不同的建筑上,包括一个加油站、CBS电视城,以及洛杉矶国际机场。

His death was confirmed by his daughter Janna Wong Healy.

他的女儿珍娜·黄-希利(Janna Wong Healy)证实了他去世的消息。

Architects traditionally achieve renown with corporate headquarters, private residences, museums, concert halls and stadiums. And while Mr. Wong worked on many conventional projects, his 1960 design of a Union 76 gas station in Beverly Hills is one of his most beloved and enduring. With its red swooping canopy angling toward the sky, it wed a space-age look to the mundane task of filling up in a city devoted to car culture.

传统上,建筑师靠设计公司总部、私人住宅、博物馆、音乐厅和体育场获得声望。虽然黄振捷做过许多常规的设计项目,但他1960年设计的比佛利山Union 76加油站是他最钟爱且最经久不衰的作品之一。加油站的红色天篷犹如即将升空的羽翼,给在这个致力于汽车文化的城市中为车加油这种平淡无奇的事情增添了太空时代的色彩。

“This was always designed as a simple structure, to represent everyday life,” Mr. Wong told Los Angeles magazine in 2015.

2015年,黄振捷曾对《洛杉矶杂志》这样说:“它自始至终都是作为一个简单结构来设计的,体现的是日常生活。”

The station, which was originally to be within an airport, became a landmark that the Los Angeles Conservancy called “one of the highest examples of Googie architecture in the world.” (Googie refers to ultramodern, futuristic design.)

这个最初为一个待建机场设计的加油站,后来成为一个地标建筑,洛杉矶保护协会称之为“全世界古奇建筑(Googie architecture)的最佳代表作之一”。(“古奇建筑”指的是超现代的未来派设计。)

Mr. Wong designed the gas station while working for his former teacher and mentor, William L. Pereira, around the time that he was also credited with creating the startling, spider-like Theme Building at the Los Angeles airport.

黄振捷设计这个加油站时仍在为他以前的老师和指导者威廉·L·佩雷拉(William L. Pereira)工作,人们认为他在这个时期也对创造出洛杉矶机场令人震惊的蜘蛛状主题建筑有贡献。

Writing in The Los Angeles Times in 2010, Bob Pool called the building “part spaceship, part flying saucer” and said that Mr. Wong “set out to create a futuristic building that would both reflect its relationship with aviation and stand the test of time.”

2010年,鲍勃·普勒(Bob Pool)在为《洛杉矶时报》写的一篇文章中称该建筑“既像宇宙飞船,又像飞碟”,并说黄振捷“一心要创造一座既体现其与航空有关、又经得起时间考验的未来派建筑”。

Throughout his career, Mr. Wong was professionally connected to the sprawling airport. Part of the allure of helping to physically transform it to accommodate the jet age was that Mr. Wong had been a B-29 navigator in the Pacific during World War II, based on the island of Tinian.

黄振捷在自己的整个职业生涯中都与这个不断拓展的机场有着专业联系。帮助从根本上改造洛杉矶机场,使其适应喷气式飞机时代,吸引了黄振捷,部分原因是,他在第二次世界大战期间曾在太平洋战区的B-29轰炸机上担任导航员,驻扎在提尼安岛上。

He became the airport’s director of design development for a joint venture of architects in the 1950s, and three decades later, his firm supervised a redesign. He developed its satellite terminal system and its two-level roadway.

1950年代,他曾代表一个建筑师合资企业成为机场设计开发董事会的一员,30年后,他的建筑事务所指导了洛杉矶机场的重新设计工作。他创造了机场的卫星厅系统、以及双层道路系统。

Gin Dan Wong was born on Sept. 17, 1922, in Guangzhou, China, and moved to Los Angeles with an aunt at age 9. He was later joined by his mother, Ng Pui King, and his sister, Wong Kam Chung. His father died before Mr. Wong immigrated to the United States. As a youngster, he excelled in mathematics, science and drawing; he once said he found it easier to draw a word than spell it.

黄振捷于1922年9月17日在中国广州出生,9岁时与一位姨妈一起移民洛杉矶,他的母亲吴佩敬(Ng Pui King,音)和妹妹黄锦颂(Wong Kam Chung,音)随后来美。黄振捷的父亲在他移民美国之前就已去世。他年轻时在数学、科学和绘画方面表现出色;他曾说,他发现画单词比拼写单词更容易。

He studied engineering at Los Angeles City College before serving in the Army Air Corps. While there, a platoon member whose father was an architect noticed Mr. Wong’s skills in math and art (he drew posters there) and suggested that he study architecture.

他曾在洛杉矶市立学院读工程系,后入伍陆军空军兵团。服役期间,一位父亲是建筑师的同排战士注意到黄振捷在数学和艺术方面的技能(黄振捷为排里画海报),建议他学习建筑。

Years later, he recognized how helpful being a navigator had been to his work as an architect.

好多年后,黄振捷认识到,担任导航员对他作为建筑师的工作有多么大的帮助。

“I had to learn how to get from here to there,” he told The Los Angeles Times in 1974. “I had to know how much fuel would be needed and how long the trip would take. The big message was to minimize the odds to survive.”

他曾在1974年对《洛杉矶时报》说,“我必须学习怎样从这里到那里。我必须知道(每次执行轰炸任务)飞机需要多少燃料、飞行多长时间。最重要的是尽量减少(对方的)生存概率。”

After the war, he studied at the University of Illinois and graduated from the University of Southern California’s School of Architecture before working for Mr. Pereira at two firms, Pereira & Luckman and William L. Pereira & Associates. He quickly became indispensable and had a principal role in creating CBS Television City, which opened in 1952.

战后,黄振捷在伊利诺伊大学读书,从南加州大学建筑学院毕业,并先后在“佩雷拉和拉克曼”(Pereira & Luckma)以及“威廉·L·佩雷拉及合伙人”(William L. Pereira & Associates)这两家建筑事务所工作。他很快成为事务所必不可少的人,在1952年建成开业的CBS电视城的设计上起了主要作用。

A simple, large and practical design built in the early days of the medium, Television City housed studios, offices, a carpenter’s shop for building sets and areas to make props and service cameras, and featured exterior walls that could be removed for future expansion. It was the subject of a segment of “See It Now,” a CBS News program hosted by Edward R. Murrow.

电视城的设计简单、大型、实用,该建筑是在电视这种媒体的起步阶段建成的,电视城包括演播室、办公室、搭建布景所需的木工车间,以及制造道具和布置摄像机的区域,这座建筑的外墙十分特别,可以在将来建筑物扩建时拆除。爱德华·R·默罗(Edward R. Murrow)主持的CBS新闻节目See It Now部分曾介绍过这座建筑。

“He had a very refined sense of style in terms of his design aesthetic and, if you look at what he did, pre-1970s, he had a clear eye for what he wanted to see,” said Trudi Sandmeier, the director of graduate programs in heritage conservation at the U.S.C. School of Architecture. “The gas station was elegant and beautiful and that was his hallmark. And function was the primary driver of Television City, with its clean lines, not a lot of fuss, and a way of uniting a campus for a purpose that was coming of age.”

“从他的设计审美来看,他有着非常精致的风格,如果你看看他1970年代以前的设计,他对他想要看到的东西有清楚的眼光,”南加州大学建筑遗产保护研究生项目主任特鲁蒂·桑德迈耶尔(Trudi Sandmeier)说。“加油站优雅美观,那是他风格的标志。在电视城的设计中,功能是主要的驱动力,这个设计线条清晰,没有多少声张的东西,把为一种正在走向成熟的用途服务的园区连接了起来。”

Mr. Wong eventually became president of the second Pereira firm before opening Gin Wong Associates in 1973. He shuttered it two years ago upon his retirement.

黄振捷最终成为第二家佩雷拉事务所的总裁。后来,他在1973年成立了黄振捷事务所。两年前他退休后关闭了这家事务所。

Among his many other works were commercial buildings in Singapore and Honolulu; a savings and loan branch in Rancho Mirage, Calif., with curved walls made of Mexican black lava rock; hotels, restaurants and houses; a library in South Korea; and the Midnight Mission for the homeless in downtown Los Angeles that featured landscaping with golden-leaved honey locust trees that shimmered in the breeze.

黄振捷的许多其他作品包括为新加坡和檀香山设计的商业建筑;为加利福尼亚州兰乔米拉市设计的一家储蓄和贷款银行,这座建筑有用墨西哥黑色火山石修建的弧形墙;酒店、餐馆和私人住宅;韩国的一家图书馆;以及午夜慈善(Midnight Mission)机构在洛杉矶市中心的无家可归者收容所,其景观设计使用了金黄色树叶在微风中闪烁的蜜槐。

While running Mr. Pereira’s company in the late 1960s, Mr. Wong oversaw the design of the Transamerica Pyramid, the striking 853-foot-tall building that pierces the sky in San Francisco.

黄振捷在1960年代后期负责佩雷拉事务所时,曾指导设计了泛美金字塔,这座260米高的建筑刺破了旧金山的天际线。

Mr. Wong said that Jack Beckett, the chairman of Transamerica, gave him straightforward direction. “His first statement was, ‘I want to make sure that everybody in the financial world knows who we are,’” Mr. Wong recalled in a video made by Neil Healy, his son-in-law. The general public, he added, understood that the building was making a statement.

黄振捷说,泛美公司董事长杰克·贝克特(Jack Beckett)直截了当地向他提出要求。“他的第一句话就是,‘我想让全金融界的人都知道我们是谁,’黄振捷在女婿尼尔·希利(Neil Healy)录制的一个视频中回忆说。他补充说,公众知道这座建筑是要表明一种态度。

In addition to his daughter, Mr. Wong is survived by his wife, the former Louise Yvonne Tom; two other daughters, Terrina Wong and Kimberlee Durst; and four grandchildren.

黄振捷的后人除了前述女儿,还有婚前名是路易丝·伊芳·谭(Louise Yvonne Tom)的妻子,另外两个女儿特里娜·黄(Terrina Wong)和金伯利·杜斯特(Kimberlee Durst),以及四个孙子辈的后代。

Mr. Wong said the lessons from being a B-29 navigator that he applied to architecture gave him peace.

黄振捷说,把从给B-29当导航员时学到的东西用在建筑上,让他得到了内心的平静。

“I was never really close to people in the sense that I could open my heart and spill out all my problems,” he told The Los Angeles Times in 1974. “So I found a tranquillity within myself. I plan ahead and therefore I seldom have anything to worry about.”

“我与别人的关系从来都没有密切到我可以向他们敞开心扉、把我所有的问题都讲给他们听的程度,”他在1974年对《洛杉矶时报》说。“所以我从自身内部找到安宁。我预先作计划,所以很少有什么我要担心的事情。”

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