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全球领导人齐聚联合国大会,他们要聊些什么?

更新时间:2017-9-18 18:37:05 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

What We’re Watching at This Year’s United Nations General Assembly
全球领导人齐聚联合国大会,他们要聊些什么?

UNITED NATIONS — When the 193-member United Nations convenes this week for the annual General Assembly speeches and high-level meetings, world leaders will be paying closest attention to the words and gestures of the most unconventional — and powerful — leader among them.

联合国——由193个成员国组成的联合国将于本周召开年度会议,届时将有一系列的演讲和高规格会议,世界领导人也将密切关注他们中最不符传统、同时也是权力最大的那个人的言论和姿态。

What President Trump says, whom he may offend, please or surprise and how other international leaders react at the world’s largest diplomatic gathering are topics that are likely to dominate the chatter at the United Nations, which, in its 72nd year, is barely older than Mr. Trump.

特朗普总统说了什么,得罪了谁,是意料之中还是出人意料,以及国际领导人对这场全世界最大的外交会议作何反应,可能会在联合国的议论声中占主要地位。成立72年的联合国,略年长于特朗普。

Here are five issues to watch:

以下是五个值得关注的问题:

The Trump effect

特朗普效应

While this will be Mr. Trump’s first visit to the United Nations as president, he has castigated the organization as an elitist “club” and proposed what amount to drastic cuts in voluntary contributions from the United States, the single-biggest donor.

尽管这将是特朗普首次以总统的身份前往联合国,但他一直批评联合国是精英主义“俱乐部”,并提议美国大力削减自愿提供给联合国的会费。美国是交纳会费最多的国家。

Mr. Trump has taken issue with what much of the world regards as one of the most significant achievements at the United Nations, the Paris climate accord to curb greenhouse gases and arrest global warming. His administration also has objected to other positions advocated by the United Nations: protecting the rights of refugees and migrants; the Iran nuclear agreement; and a new treaty that many members are expected to sign on Wednesday that would outlaw all nuclear weapons.

特朗普对意在控制温室气体和抑制全球变暖的巴黎气候协议提出了异议,而后者被全球很多地方视为联合国取得的最重要成就之一。同时,他领导的政府还反对联合国支持的其他一些立场:保护难民和移民的权利、伊朗核协议以及一项规定一切核武器均为非法的新条约——预计很多成员国会在周三签署该条约。

On Monday, Mr. Trump will host a meeting to discuss what his ambassador, Nikki R. Haley, has described as badly needed reforms at the United Nations to make it more efficient and responsive. What will he demand from an organization he has pilloried? How will he treat the new leader of the United Nations, Secretary General António Guterres, who told reporters last week that he had been trying to build a “constructive relationship” with Mr. Trump? What, if anything, will Mr. Trump say about global warming in his speech to the General Assembly on Tuesday morning?

特朗普将于周一主持召开一场会议,讨论美国驻联合国大使尼基·R·黑利(Nikki R. Haley)所说的联合国为了变得更加高效、反应更加灵敏而急需进行的改革。他会对自己公开批评过的一个组织提出什么要求?他将如何对待上周对记者表示一直试图与特朗普建立“有建设性的关系”的联合国新任秘书长安东尼奥·古特雷斯(António Guterres)?周二上午在联合国大会上发表讲话时,如果提到全球变暖,特朗普又会怎么说?

North Korea’s continued defiance

朝鲜持续的公然违抗之举

By now, North Korea’s defiance of United Nations Security Council resolutions banning its tests of ballistic missiles and atomic bombs has become almost routine. Kim Jong-un, the North Korean leader, launched a missile on Friday that flew longer than any others previously tested — just four days after the most recent raft of sanctions was adopted and just as General Assembly preparations were getting underway.

截至目前,朝鲜违反联合国安理会禁止其试验弹道导弹和原子弹的决议几乎已经成了常态。就在最近一轮制裁通过四天后,且联合国大会的准备工作正在进行之际,朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong-un)周五发射一枚导弹。这枚导弹飞得比之前试射的所有导弹都远。

What will he do when world leaders converge in New York? (Mr. Kim is not coming.) Mr. Trump, who has vowed a “fire and fury” response if North Korea threatens the United States, is expected to make North Korea a major theme in his General Assembly speech. Whether he will engage in what critics have described as rash talk remains unclear.

在世界领导人齐聚纽约时,金正恩会做出什么举动(他不来纽约出席会议)?发誓如果朝鲜威胁美国,便会让其遭受“炮火和怒火”的特朗普,预计会把朝鲜作为其联合国大会讲话中的一大主题。他是否会再次出现批评人士所说的口不择言,目前尚不清楚。

Addressing atrocities in Myanmar

应对缅甸的暴行

Mr. Guterres and his top human rights official a textbook example of ethnic cleansing. With nearly a half-million Rohingya refugees now in Bangladesh and daily evidence of atrocities in Myanmar, what will world leaders say? Will the Security Council, which is empowered to do something to halt the killings, maintain its conspicuously mild response despite increased pressure to act quickly?

古特雷斯和他的最高人权官员均表示,缅甸罗辛亚穆斯林少数群体遭受的杀戮和迫害是教科书式的种族清洗范例。孟加拉国境内现在有近50万罗兴亚难民,缅甸国内每天都有暴行的证据。对此,世界领导人会怎么说?有权为阻止杀戮而采取行动的安理会,是否会不顾要求其迅速采取行动的压力加剧,继续保持其不同寻常的温和反应?

On Monday, Britain’s foreign secretary, Boris Johnson, is scheduled to lead a meeting of foreign ministers on Myanmar.

英国外交大臣鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)计划周一就缅甸问题主持召开一场外长会议。

Tensions around the Iran nuclear deal

围绕着伊朗核协议的紧张气氛

Mr. Trump and his ambassador, Ms. Haley, have both sought to vilify Iran as a sponsor of terrorism and have suggested that the United States may abandon the 2015 deal negotiated by the Obama administration and five other major powers that limited Iran’s nuclear activities. So far Mr. Trump — who is expected to make Iran another theme of his General Assembly speech — has grudgingly accepted the nuclear agreement despite having described it as one of the worst ever negotiated.

特朗普和美国驻联合国大使黑利均试图把伊朗说成是支持恐怖主义的国家,并表示联合国或可放弃2015年奥巴马政府和其他五个大国通过谈判达成的协议。该协议限制了伊朗的核活动。截至目前,预计会把伊朗作为联合国大会讲话的另一主题的特朗普,已经勉强接受了该协议,尽管他说它是有史以来达成的最糟糕的协议之一。

Will he go forward with threats to repudiate it and risk isolation? Western diplomats have expressed worry about the administration’s hostility to the accord, saying that it could create more nuclear uncertainty at a time when the world is trying to deal with North Korea.

他会不会继续威胁拒绝履行该协议并冒着遭到孤立的风险?西方外交官对特朗普政府对该协议的敌意已经表示了担忧,称在全世界都在努力应对朝鲜之际,它可能会制造更多核不确定性。

A meeting of the parties that negotiated the deal with Iran — Britain, China, France, Germany, Russia and the United States — will take place on the sidelines of the General Assembly on Wednesday. But there is no expectation that Mr. Trump’s secretary of state, Rex W. Tillerson, will meet his Iranian counterpart, Mohammad Javad Zarif. Nor is there is any expectation of direct communication between Mr. Trump and President Hassan Rouhani of Iran, who is expected to give a news conference on Wednesday.

在周三的联合国大会期间,同伊朗达成该协议的各方——英国、中国、法国、德国、俄罗斯和美国——将举行会议。但外界预计特朗普的国务卿雷克斯·W·蒂勒森(Rex W. Tillerson)不会同伊朗外长穆罕默德·贾瓦德·扎里夫(Mohammad Javad Zarif)举行会面,特朗普和伊朗总统哈桑·鲁哈尼(Hassan Rouhani)之间也不会出现直接交流。鲁哈尼预计会在周三召开新闻发布会。

Global warming and the Paris climate deal

全球变暖与巴黎气候协定

The General Assembly is taking place against a backdrop of apocalyptic droughts, floods and hurricanes, including two that have ravaged parts of Texas, Florida and the Caribbean in the past few weeks. What will world leaders say about these disasters and the Paris climate deal? Will the Trump administration be swayed to rethink its decision to withdraw?

联合国大会召开之际,世界各地出现了灾难性的干旱、洪水和飓风,包括过去几周在德克萨斯、佛罗里达和加勒比地区的一些地方肆虐的两场飓风。对于这些灾难和巴黎气候协议,世界领导人会作何表示?特朗普政府是否会被说服,重新考虑退出的决定?

Mr. Trump reiterated his climate-change skepticism after a visit to Florida on Thursday. “We’ve had bigger storms than this,” he told reporters.

周四视察佛罗里达州后,特朗普重申了自己对气候变化的怀疑。“我们经历过比这更大的风暴,”他对记者说。

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