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缅甸罗辛亚人危机:持续而痛苦的种族冲突

更新时间:2017-9-14 19:04:00 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Rohingya in Myanmar: How Years of Strife Grew Into a Crisis
缅甸罗辛亚人危机:持续而痛苦的种族冲突

A military crackdown against the Rohingya ethnic group has driven hundreds of thousands of men, women and children from their homes in Myanmar.

针对少数民族罗辛亚人的军事镇压已经导致几十万男女幼孺离开了他们在缅甸的家。

The Rohingya have faced violence and discrimination in the majority-Buddhist country for decades, but are now fleeing in unprecedented numbers, from violence that the United Nations human rights chief, Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, has called “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing.”

几十年来,罗辛亚人在这个以佛教徒为主的国家一直遭受着暴力和歧视,不过现在他们正以前所未有的规模逃离该国,躲避联合国人权事务主管扎伊德·拉阿德·侯赛因(Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein)所称的“教科书般的种族清洗”。

Here’s how an old and bitter dispute has managed to become even more charged.

下文将向你讲述一场古老而痛苦的冲突是如何愈演愈烈的。

Who are the Rohingya?

罗辛亚人是什么人?

The Rohingya are a Muslim ethnic group that practices a form of Sunni Islam and have lived in Rakhine, one of Myanmar’s poorest states, for generations. Before the latest exodus, an estimated one million Rohingya lived there, but even then they were a minority in the state. The group has its own language and cultural practices.

罗辛亚人是信仰逊尼派伊斯兰教的一个穆斯林少数民族,世代生活在缅甸最穷的若开邦。在最近的大批流亡之前,约有100万罗辛亚人生活在那里,不过即使在当时,他们也是该邦的一个少数民族。他们有自己的语言和文化习俗。

Some trace their origins there to the 15th century, an assertion the government disputes. Their name itself refers to the area they claim as home, according to the Council on Foreign Relations: Rohang derives from the word “Arakan,” (the former name of Rakhine State) in the Rohingya dialect and ga or gya means “from.”

有些罗辛亚人认为自己从15世纪起就生活在那里,政府否定了这种说法。据对外关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations)称,这个民族的名字本身指的就是他们视为家园的那个地区:Rohang衍生自罗辛亚方言中若开邦的旧称Arakan,而ga或gya的意思是“来自”。

Myanmar doesn’t recognize Rohingya as citizens, and sees them instead as immigrants from Bangladesh who came to Rakhine under British rule. The country’s first census in 30 years, carried out in 2014, didn’t count the Rohingya; those who identify as part of the group were told to register as Bengali and indicate that their origins were in Bangladesh. The government’s stance makes them one of the largest stateless groups in the world.

缅甸不承认罗辛亚人是缅甸公民,认为他们是英国统治时期从孟加拉来到若开邦的移民。2014年,该国进行了30年来的首次人口普查,没有将罗辛亚人计算在内,那些认为自己属于这个民族的人被要求登记成孟加拉人,注明自己的原籍在孟加拉。政府的立场令他们成为世界上最大的无国籍群体。

Many live in squalid conditions similar to refugee camps.

很多人生活在类似难民营的极其肮脏的环境中。

Violence against the Rohingya in Rakhine is part of a “longstanding pattern of violations and abuses; systematic and systemic discrimination; and policies of exclusion and marginalization” that have persisted for decades, according to the United Nations human rights agency.

据联合国人权机构称,针对若开班罗辛亚人的暴力是持续数十年的“长期侵害和虐待、系统性的全面歧视,以及排挤和边缘化政策的一部分”。

Myanmar has passed discriminatory laws.

缅甸通过了歧视性法律。

Since a 1962 coup in Myanmar, the country’s successive governments have significantly limited the rights of the Rohingya.

从缅甸1962年发生政变以来,该国的几任政府极大限制了罗辛亚人的权利。

A law passed in 1982 denied them citizenship, leaving them off a list of 135 ethnic groups formally recognized by the government. This limited the Rohingyas’ access to schools and health care and their ability to move in and out of the country. The government in Rakhine at times has also enforced a two-child limit on Rohingya families and has restricted interfaith marriage.

1982年通过的一项法律否认他们的公民权,将他们排除在政府正式承认的135个少数民族的名单之外。这限制了罗辛亚人受教育、享受医疗服务以及出入该国的能力。若开邦地方政府有时还要求罗辛亚家庭最多只能生“两个孩子”,并限制跨信仰婚姻。

Waves of violence have been occurring for years.

多年来经常爆发暴力浪潮。

Tensions in Rakhine have often erupted into violence, prompting hundreds of thousands to seek refuge in Bangladesh and Pakistan in different waves over the decades.

若开邦的紧张局势经常发展成暴力,导致成千上万人在数十年来的多次风潮中前往孟加拉和巴基斯坦避难。

In May 2012, the rape and murder of a Buddhist prompted a series of revenge attacks against Muslims. The violence quickly intensified. The military began a wide-ranging crackdown and hundreds of thousands fled.

2012年5月,一名佛教徒遭强奸并被杀害的事件引发了一系列针对穆斯林的报复性打击。暴力很快激化。军方开始进行大范围的镇压,成千上万人逃离家园。

In October 2013, thousands of Buddhist men carried out coordinated attacks on Muslim villages throughout Rakhine. Human rights groups say the violence that erupted in 2012 and continued into 2013 amounted to ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. A 2013 Human Rights Watch report said violence in Rakhine was a “coordinated campaign to forcibly relocate or remove the state’s Muslims.” The response from world leaders, however, has been limited.

2013年10月,成千上万名佛教男子在整个若开邦对穆斯林村庄进行协同打击。人权组织称,2012年爆发并持续至2013年的暴力活动演变为种族清洗和反人类罪。据人权观察组织(Human Rights Watch)2013年的一份报告称,若开邦的暴力活动是“强行迁移或清除该邦穆斯林的协作活动”。不过,世界各国领导人对此的回应非常有限。

Last October, an armed Rohingya insurgency came to light when militants from the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army, then known as Harakah al-Yaqin, attacked three border guard posts.

去年10月,罗辛亚反叛武装出现,当时被称为“坚定信仰运动”(Harakah al-Yaqin)的若开罗辛亚救世军(Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army)的武装分子袭击了三个边境岗哨。

Over the four months that followed, Myanmar’s army, known as the Tatmadaw, and the police killed hundreds, gang-raped women and girls, and forced as many as 90,000 Rohingya from their homes.

在之后的四个月里,被称为缅甸国防军(Tatmadaw)的政府军和警察杀害了成百上千人,轮奸妇女和女童,迫使多达九万罗辛亚人逃离家园。

How did the latest bloodshed begin?

最近的杀戮是怎么开始的?

On Aug. 25, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army attacked again, targeting police posts and an army base. Security forces cracked down on the wider population, and rights groups accused them of killing, raping, burning villages and shooting civilians from helicopters. The exodus into Bangladesh began: More than 370,000 Rohingya fled.

8月25日,若开罗辛亚救世军再次对警察岗哨和一个军事基地发动攻击。安全部队对更广泛的人群进行镇压,人权组织指控他们杀人、强奸、烧毁村庄,以及从直升机上射杀平民。向孟加拉的逃亡开始了:逾37万罗辛亚人逃离家园。

An additional 12,000 people, mainly ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and other non-Muslims, are also displaced within the state, according to Human Rights Watch. Myanmar has halted humanitarian aid to Rakhine, leaving those still in the state with limited access to food and water.

据人权观察组织称,该邦的其他1.2万人也流离失所,主要是少数民族佛教徒和其他非穆斯林。缅甸中断了对若开邦的人道主义援助,留在那里的人只能得到有限的食物和水。

Myanmar has framed the actions as a necessary counterinsurgency operation.

缅甸认为这些活动是平息叛乱的必要行动。

What has Aung San Suu Kyi done about it?

昂山素季(Aung San Suu Kyi)做了些什么?

Governments from several predominantly Muslim countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan and Turkey, have expressed concern about the most recent violence. Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan and Bishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa have both called on their fellow Nobel Prize laureate, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar’s de factor leader, to do something about the bloodshed.

几个以穆斯林为主的国家的政府,包括印度尼西亚、马来西亚、巴基斯坦和土耳其,对最近的暴力活动表示了关切。巴基斯坦的马拉拉·优萨福扎伊(Malala Yousafzai)和南非主教德斯蒙德·图图(Desmond Tutu)都呼吁同为诺贝尔奖获得者、缅甸实际领导人昂山素季对杀戮做出反应。

Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi, who leads Myanmar’s civilian government but does not control the military, has largely avoided public statements about the crackdown and the flight of refugees.

昂山素季领导缅甸的平民政府,对军队没有控制权,她基本上避免对镇压活动以及难民的困境发表公开声明。

But during a phone call last week with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey, she complained of “a huge iceberg of misinformation calculated to create a lot of problems between different communities and with the aim of promoting the interest of the terrorists,” according to her office. (On Wednesday, her office said she had canceled a planned visit to the United Nations General Assembly.)

不过据昂山素季的办公室称,上周在与土耳其总统雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)通话时,她抱怨“大量的虚假消息在不同的社区之间制造了很多问题,为恐怖分子的利益服务”(周三,她的办公室称,她取消了参加联合国大会[United Nations General Assembly]的计划)。

Analysts have said that it would be politically difficult for Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi to denounce the crackdown, given the military’s political power and the unpopularity of the Rohingya among the country’s Buddhists. Her critics say she has a moral obligation to speak out, and some have called for her Nobel to be withdrawn.

分析人士表示,从政治角度讲,昂山素季很难去谴责镇压活动,因为缅甸国防军具有很大的政治影响力,而且罗辛亚人在该国的佛教徒中很不受欢迎。她的批评者表示,她有发声的道德义务,有些人还要求取消她的诺贝尔奖。

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