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更新时间:2017-9-14 19:04:00 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Rohingya in Myanmar: How Years of Strife Grew Into a Crisis

A military crackdown against the Rohingya ethnic group has driven hundreds of thousands of men, women and children from their homes in Myanmar.


The Rohingya have faced violence and discrimination in the majority-Buddhist country for decades, but are now fleeing in unprecedented numbers, from violence that the United Nations human rights chief, Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, has called “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing.”

几十年来,罗辛亚人在这个以佛教徒为主的国家一直遭受着暴力和歧视,不过现在他们正以前所未有的规模逃离该国,躲避联合国人权事务主管扎伊德·拉阿德·侯赛因(Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein)所称的“教科书般的种族清洗”。

Here’s how an old and bitter dispute has managed to become even more charged.


Who are the Rohingya?


The Rohingya are a Muslim ethnic group that practices a form of Sunni Islam and have lived in Rakhine, one of Myanmar’s poorest states, for generations. Before the latest exodus, an estimated one million Rohingya lived there, but even then they were a minority in the state. The group has its own language and cultural practices.


Some trace their origins there to the 15th century, an assertion the government disputes. Their name itself refers to the area they claim as home, according to the Council on Foreign Relations: Rohang derives from the word “Arakan,” (the former name of Rakhine State) in the Rohingya dialect and ga or gya means “from.”

有些罗辛亚人认为自己从15世纪起就生活在那里,政府否定了这种说法。据对外关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations)称,这个民族的名字本身指的就是他们视为家园的那个地区:Rohang衍生自罗辛亚方言中若开邦的旧称Arakan,而ga或gya的意思是“来自”。

Myanmar doesn’t recognize Rohingya as citizens, and sees them instead as immigrants from Bangladesh who came to Rakhine under British rule. The country’s first census in 30 years, carried out in 2014, didn’t count the Rohingya; those who identify as part of the group were told to register as Bengali and indicate that their origins were in Bangladesh. The government’s stance makes them one of the largest stateless groups in the world.


Many live in squalid conditions similar to refugee camps.


Violence against the Rohingya in Rakhine is part of a “longstanding pattern of violations and abuses; systematic and systemic discrimination; and policies of exclusion and marginalization” that have persisted for decades, according to the United Nations human rights agency.


Myanmar has passed discriminatory laws.


Since a 1962 coup in Myanmar, the country’s successive governments have significantly limited the rights of the Rohingya.


A law passed in 1982 denied them citizenship, leaving them off a list of 135 ethnic groups formally recognized by the government. This limited the Rohingyas’ access to schools and health care and their ability to move in and out of the country. The government in Rakhine at times has also enforced a two-child limit on Rohingya families and has restricted interfaith marriage.


Waves of violence have been occurring for years.


Tensions in Rakhine have often erupted into violence, prompting hundreds of thousands to seek refuge in Bangladesh and Pakistan in different waves over the decades.


In May 2012, the rape and murder of a Buddhist prompted a series of revenge attacks against Muslims. The violence quickly intensified. The military began a wide-ranging crackdown and hundreds of thousands fled.


In October 2013, thousands of Buddhist men carried out coordinated attacks on Muslim villages throughout Rakhine. Human rights groups say the violence that erupted in 2012 and continued into 2013 amounted to ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. A 2013 Human Rights Watch report said violence in Rakhine was a “coordinated campaign to forcibly relocate or remove the state’s Muslims.” The response from world leaders, however, has been limited.

2013年10月,成千上万名佛教男子在整个若开邦对穆斯林村庄进行协同打击。人权组织称,2012年爆发并持续至2013年的暴力活动演变为种族清洗和反人类罪。据人权观察组织(Human Rights Watch)2013年的一份报告称,若开邦的暴力活动是“强行迁移或清除该邦穆斯林的协作活动”。不过,世界各国领导人对此的回应非常有限。

Last October, an armed Rohingya insurgency came to light when militants from the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army, then known as Harakah al-Yaqin, attacked three border guard posts.

去年10月,罗辛亚反叛武装出现,当时被称为“坚定信仰运动”(Harakah al-Yaqin)的若开罗辛亚救世军(Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army)的武装分子袭击了三个边境岗哨。

Over the four months that followed, Myanmar’s army, known as the Tatmadaw, and the police killed hundreds, gang-raped women and girls, and forced as many as 90,000 Rohingya from their homes.


How did the latest bloodshed begin?


On Aug. 25, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army attacked again, targeting police posts and an army base. Security forces cracked down on the wider population, and rights groups accused them of killing, raping, burning villages and shooting civilians from helicopters. The exodus into Bangladesh began: More than 370,000 Rohingya fled.


An additional 12,000 people, mainly ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and other non-Muslims, are also displaced within the state, according to Human Rights Watch. Myanmar has halted humanitarian aid to Rakhine, leaving those still in the state with limited access to food and water.


Myanmar has framed the actions as a necessary counterinsurgency operation.


What has Aung San Suu Kyi done about it?

昂山素季(Aung San Suu Kyi)做了些什么?

Governments from several predominantly Muslim countries, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan and Turkey, have expressed concern about the most recent violence. Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan and Bishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa have both called on their fellow Nobel Prize laureate, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar’s de factor leader, to do something about the bloodshed.

几个以穆斯林为主的国家的政府,包括印度尼西亚、马来西亚、巴基斯坦和土耳其,对最近的暴力活动表示了关切。巴基斯坦的马拉拉·优萨福扎伊(Malala Yousafzai)和南非主教德斯蒙德·图图(Desmond Tutu)都呼吁同为诺贝尔奖获得者、缅甸实际领导人昂山素季对杀戮做出反应。

Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi, who leads Myanmar’s civilian government but does not control the military, has largely avoided public statements about the crackdown and the flight of refugees.


But during a phone call last week with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey, she complained of “a huge iceberg of misinformation calculated to create a lot of problems between different communities and with the aim of promoting the interest of the terrorists,” according to her office. (On Wednesday, her office said she had canceled a planned visit to the United Nations General Assembly.)

不过据昂山素季的办公室称,上周在与土耳其总统雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)通话时,她抱怨“大量的虚假消息在不同的社区之间制造了很多问题,为恐怖分子的利益服务”(周三,她的办公室称,她取消了参加联合国大会[United Nations General Assembly]的计划)。

Analysts have said that it would be politically difficult for Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi to denounce the crackdown, given the military’s political power and the unpopularity of the Rohingya among the country’s Buddhists. Her critics say she has a moral obligation to speak out, and some have called for her Nobel to be withdrawn.