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美国向中俄妥协,联合国升级对朝制裁

更新时间:2017-9-12 19:18:14 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

After U.S. Compromise, Security Council Strengthens North Korea Sanctions
美国向中俄妥协,联合国升级对朝制裁

UNITED NATIONS — The U.N. Security Council on Monday ratcheted up sanctions yet again against North Korea, but they fell significantly short of the far-reaching penalties that the Trump administration had demanded just days ago.

联合国——周一,联合国安理会再次升级对朝鲜的制裁,但它们远未达到特朗普政府几天前要求的广泛惩罚。

Moreover, it remained wholly unclear whether the additional penalties would persuade North Korea to halt its nuclear and ballistic missile tests — the latest just last week, when it detonated its sixth and most powerful nuclear device. North Korea claimed that detonation, in an underground site, had been from a hydrogen bomb.

此外,依然完全不清楚这些新增的惩罚措施是否能阻止朝鲜停止核试验和弹道导弹试验——上周它刚进行了最新一次试验,引爆了自己的第六枚、也是威力最大的核武器。朝鲜方面称,它在一个地下试验场引爆了一枚氢弹。

Although the resolution won backing from all 15 council members, the weakened penalties reflected the power of Russia and China, which had objected to the original language and could have used their votes to veto the measure.

虽然这项决议获得了安理会15个会员国的一致支持,但削弱的惩罚措施反映出俄罗斯和中国的力量,它们反对最初的措辞,并且可能动用否决权。

The U.S. ambassador to the U.N., Nikki R. Haley, reacted to the bomb test last week by calling for the fullest range of international sanctions, including a cutoff of all oil supplies, in a new Security Council resolution.

作为对上周导弹试验的回应,美国驻联合国大使尼基·R·黑利(Nikki R. Haley)要求通过一项新的安理会决议,实施最全面的国际制裁,包括完全切断石油供应。

Those demands were toned down in negotiations that followed with her Russian and Chinese counterparts. Late Sunday, after a series of closed-door meetings, a revised draft emerged, setting a cap on oil exports to North Korea, but not blocking them altogether.

在随后与俄国和中国大使的谈判中,那些要求遭到了削弱。周日晚些时候,在经过一系列闭门会议之后,安理会公布了一项修改后的草案,给向朝鲜的石油出口设定了上限,但没有完全禁运。

The resolution asks countries around the world to inspect ships going in and out of North Korea’s ports (a provision put in place by the Security Council in 2009) but does not authorize the use of force for ships that do not comply, as the Trump administration had originally proposed. The resolution also requires those inspections to be done with the consent of the countries where the ships are registered, which opens the door to violations. Under the latest resolution, those ships could face penalties, but the original language proposed by the United States went much further, empowering countries to interdict ships suspected of carrying weapons material or fuel into North Korea and to use “all necessary measures” — diplomatic code for the deployment of military force — to enforce compliance.

该决议要求世界各国检查出入朝鲜港口的船只(这是安理会2009年出台的一项规定),但没有像特朗普政府最初提议的那样,授权对那些不遵守规定的船只使用武力。该决议还要求检查必须得到船只注册国的同意,这为违反规定制造了机会。根据最新决议,那些船只可能面临罚款,不过美国最初草拟的条款比这个严厉得多,它授权各国阻拦涉嫌向朝鲜运送武器原料或燃料的船只,使用“所有必要的措施”执行规定——这是“使用武力”的外交说法。

Nor does the resolution impose a travel ban or asset freeze on the North Korean leader, Kim Jong Un, as the original U.S. draft had set out. And the new measure adds a caveat to the original language that would have banned the import of North Korean laborers altogether, saying that countries should not provide work authorization papers unless necessary for humanitarian assistance or denuclearization. The weakened language was a nod to Russia, a big user of imported North Korean labor.

该决议也没有像美国最初的草案提议的那样,对朝鲜领导人金正恩(Kim Jong Un)实施旅行禁令或财产冻结。最初的草案提议完全禁止朝鲜劳动力的输出,修改后的草稿更改为警告,称各国不应向朝鲜劳工提供工作签证,除非出于人道主义援助或去核化的需要。措辞的减弱是应俄罗斯的要求,它是朝鲜劳动力输出的主要使用者。

The new draft does ban textile exports from North Korea, prohibits the sale of natural gas to North Korea and sets a cap on refined petroleum sales to the country of two million barrels per year. That would shave off roughly 10 percent of what North Korea currently gets from China, according to the U.S. Energy Information Agency.

新草案没有禁止朝鲜的纺织品出口,但禁止向朝鲜出口天然气,并给向该国销售的精炼石油设定了每年200万桶的上限。根据美国能源情报署(Energy Information Agency)的数据,那会减少朝鲜目前从中国所获石油的约10%。

Despite the weakened penalties, Haley cast the resolution as a victory in her Security Council remarks.

尽管处罚力度降低,但黑利在安理会上发言时称该决议是一场胜利。

Haley credited what she called President Donald Trump’s relationship with his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, in achieving the toughened sanctions — the second raft of U.N. penalties against North Korea since August. The two leaders spoke by phone last week about how to contain North Korea’s nuclear ambitions.

这是朝鲜自8月以来受到的第二批惩罚。黑利把制裁措施的加强归功于她所说的唐纳德·特朗普总统与中国国家主席习近平的关系。两位领导人上周就如何遏止朝鲜的核野心通过电话。

Haley said the resolution demonstrated international unity against the regime in Pyongyang, and she claimed that the new sanctions, if enforced, would affect the vast majority of the country’s exports.

黑利称,决议表明国际社会团结一致反对平壤政权。她还宣称如果得到实施,新一轮制裁将影响朝鲜绝大部分出口。

But in contrast to her assertion last week that the North was “begging for war,” Haley said Monday that Pyongyang still has room to change course.

但与上周断言朝鲜是在“讨打”形成对比的是,黑利周一表示,平壤依然有改变方向的空间。

“If it agrees to stop its nuclear program it can reclaim its future,” she said. “If it proves it can live in peace world will live in peace with it.”

“如果同意停止核计划,它还能重拾未来,”她说。“如果它证明能够与世界和平共处,世界也会与它和平共处。”

Ultimately, analysts said, diplomatic success would be measured not by the strictness of sanctions, but by the ability of world powers to persuade Pyongyang to halt its nuclear and ballistic missile tests.

分析人士称,最终,衡量外交成就的不是制裁的严厉程度,而是世界大国说服平壤停止核武器和弹道导弹试验的能力。

“There’s no only-sanctions strategy that will bring the North Koreans to heel,” said Daryl G. Kimball, executive director of the Arms Control Association, a disarmament advocacy group based in Washington. “It has to be paired with a pragmatic strategy of engagement. But those talks are not yet happening.”

“只有制裁的战略不会让朝鲜就范,”总部设在华盛顿的裁军倡导团体美国军控协会(Arms Control Association)负责人达里尔·G·金博尔(Daryl G. Kimball)说。“必须搭配务实的谈判战略。但这些谈判还没开始。”

Any Security Council measure needs at least nine out of 15 votes to be adopted, and no vetoes. Both Russia and China, as permanent members, wield veto power.

安理会的任何措施都需要获得15票中的至少9张赞成票才能通过,并且不得有否决票。而作为常任理事国的俄罗斯和中国拥有否决权。

In a nod to Chinese and Russian arguments, the resolution also calls for resolving the crisis “through peaceful, diplomatic and political means.” That is diplomatic code to engage in negotiations.

决议还认同中国和俄罗斯的观点,呼吁“通过和平的外交和政治手段”解决此次危机。这是举行谈判的外交说辞。

In his remarks, the Chinese envoy, Liu Jieyi, warned the United States against efforts at “regime change” and the use of military force.

中国常驻联合国代表刘结一在发言中告诫联合国不要试图“变更政权”,不要使用武力。

“China will continue to advance dialogue,” he said.

“中国将继续推进对话,”他说。

There was no immediate reaction to the new resolution from North Korea. But on Sunday the North warned that it would inflict the “greatest pain and suffering” on the United States, in the event of tougher international sanctions.

朝鲜未立即对新决议做出反应。但周日,朝鲜警告称如果国际制裁变得更加严厉,它会给美国制造“最大的痛苦和折磨”。

U.S. intelligence agencies say they are expecting North Korea to test another intercontinental ballistic missile, building on two tests in July. But the new test, they speculate, will not be into a high launch into space, but will be flattened out to demonstrate how far the missile can fly.

美国情报机构预计朝鲜会在7月的两次试验的基础上,再试射一枚洲际弹道导弹。但它们推测,进行新试验时,导弹不会向高空发射进入太空,而是会沿水平方向飞行,以证明导弹能飞多远。

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