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更新时间:2017-9-8 12:12:00 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Where Your Mercedes-Benz and Porsche Were Born

When I stepped off the S-Bahn at the Neckarpark station in Stuttgart on my way to the Mercedes-Benz Museum, I ran into a gaggle of Idaho high school students who nicely summed up the two automotive museums they had just visited.

在从斯图加特的城市快铁内卡公园站下车,前往梅赛德斯-奔驰博物馆(Mercedes-Benz Museum)的路上,我撞见一群叽叽喳喳的爱达荷州高中生,他们很好地总结了刚刚参观的两座汽车博物馆。

“Mercedes has more details and has more history,” one of them told me. Porsche, he said, was more about Porsche and its racing heritage.


Inside the Porsche Museum.

There you have it. My work is done.


Stuttgart is home to these two luxury brands, and as a car guy and automotive journalist, I have always wanted to make the pilgrimage there. Germany does not have the sort of geographic center for its auto industry that the United States has in Detroit. But since the companies’ founders got their 19th century starts in Stuttgart, it comes closest.


I had heard that the Mercedes-Benz Museum, like the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation in Dearborn, Mich., offered an exhaustive history of transportation. I also knew that Stuttgart was a must-see for Porschephiles. I got my excuse to visit when my daughter, Marian, moved to Düsseldorf, an easy train ride away.

我听说梅赛德斯-奔驰博物馆和密西根州迪尔伯恩的亨利·福特美国创新博物馆(Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation)一样,呈现了一部详尽的交通运输史。我还知道,斯图加特是保时捷狂热分子必去的地方。我的女儿玛丽安搬到杜塞尔多夫后,我终于有了去那里的借口,坐一趟火车就到了。

My first stop was Mercedes, which presents a captivating walk through the birth of the automobile with the kind of historical sheet-metal eye candy that will wow an automotive fanatic. It’s a tale the company is allowed to own because a founder, Karl Benz, is credited with making the first car, and its other founder, Gottlieb Daimler, was not far behind.

我的第一站是梅赛德斯馆,这里提供了一条令人着迷的参观路线,用养眼的古早金属片造物呈现汽车的诞生,让汽车迷大呼过瘾。这样的故事,是这家公司可以据为己有的,因为它的创始人卡尔·本茨(Karl Benz)被誉为第一辆汽车的制造者,而另一位创始人戈特利布·戴姆勒(Gottlieb Daimler)也没有比他晚太多。

But before I even entered the museum, I was stunned by the building. It’s a double-helix design by the Dutch architects UNStudio and sits like a round jewel on Mercedes Street. It opened in 2006.


Though Henry Ford made the expensive automobile popular with his affordable Model T in the early 20th century, it was Mr. Benz, an engineer and inventor, who got things started in 1885, when he installed the almost-one-horsepower internal combustion engine he invented into a three-wheel buggy.


The building provides a floor-by-floor circular walk through Mercedes history over its nine floors and 177,000 square feet of exhibition space, with the timeline starting on the top floor. There I found a reproduction of that first car, with the real Daimler car next to it. Actually, a horse, thankfully another reproduction, greeted me as I began my tour at the start of the automobile age, when one horsepower meant what it advertised.


To my jaded 21st century eyes, those cars looked more like contraptions than useful transportation, but the engines were evidence of the true genius of these men. As the technology improved, internal combustion engines got the world moving and quickly ended up in buses, trucks, boats, airships and tractors, some of which are on display here. A descendant of those engines is sitting in your driveway.


Within a few years cars started to look like cars instead of horse-drawn carriages — for example the museum’s 1902 40 HP, the oldest-existing Mercedes-branded car. Still, the industry used carriage types to describe its models, like phaeton (a light, open carriage), shooting brake (a carriage meant for gamekeepers and sportsmen) and cabriolet (a light carriage with a foldable hood drawn by one horse). Even dashboard is a leftover carriage term — it was the board that insulated the driver from rocks and dirt from the road.

几年下来,汽车已经有了汽车的样子,而不是像马车的车身——例如馆中展出的1902年产40 HP,现存最古老的梅赛德斯牌汽车。不过业界仍然用马车车身的类型来描述其出品型号,比如法厄同(phaeton,一种轻型敞篷车),猎车(shooting brake,一种供猎场看守人和狩猎者使用的车身)以及“小羊羔”(cabriolet,一种有折叠车篷的轻型车身,由一匹马拉动)。连仪dashboard(仪表盘)都是马车车身术语的遗存——指的是帮驾车者抵挡路上的石头和泥土的一种板子。

The walls of the ramps that connect the floors are also part of the show. As I made my way down to the fourth floor, which highlighted safety, I learned that the ramp walls were made of polyamide, an airbag material. Clever.


“It is the only museum in the world that can document over 130 years of automobile history complete from the very first day,” Miriam Weiss, a Mercedes spokeswoman, wrote in an email.

“这是世上唯一一座可以从第一天开始,完整记录130年汽车史的博物馆,”梅赛德斯发言人米莉安·魏斯(Miriam Weiss)在一封电邮中说。

Frankly, the museum can seem overwhelming because there is so much of that history to take in and so many beautiful cars to sigh over, like the 1955 300SL Coupe, known as the Gullwing. You will learn that Mercedes was the name of an important customer’s daughter, Mercédès Jellinek (interesting that her father, Emil, eventually changed his last name to Jellinek-Mercedes), and that the company’s logo, the three-pointed star, symbolizes earth, water and air.

坦白讲,这座博物馆有时让人有些招架不住,因为有太多的历史要了解,太多美丽的车辆要看,比如1955年产300SL轿跑,也就是人们所说的“鸥翼”(Gullwing)。你将了解到,“梅赛德斯”这个名字得于一位重要客户的女儿默希迪丝·耶利内克(Mercédès Jellinek,有意思的是,她的父亲埃米尔后来把自己的姓改成了耶利内克-梅赛德斯),公司的三叉星标志象征着水、土和空气。

I traveled to the museum by train, but left with a strong urge to drive, something from the AMG performance division preferably, but alas, there was no opportunity. I went to the dealership on the bottom floor, but was told test drives must be scheduled about a week in advance.


There is no such problem at the Porsche Museum, about seven miles away from Mercedes. The Porsche building, which sits on three V-shape columns, is striking and seems to float above the ground. It was designed by Delugan Meissl Associated Architects of Vienna and opened in 2009.

距离梅赛德斯大约七英里的保时捷博物馆(Porsche Museum)就不存在这个问题。它的建筑以三组V形柱支撑,看上去十分惊人,彷佛是悬浮在地面上。它的设计者是维也纳的德鲁甘-麦斯尔联合建筑事务所(Delugan Meissl Associated Architects),于2009年开放。

Representatives in the lobby will let you drive, say, a 911 for about $165 an hour and up to about 60 miles, but be aware you have to leave a $3,000 deposit.


No matter — see the museum first. It’s more straightforward than Mercedes’s, with everything on one floor and a loft. It contains more than 60,000 square feet of exhibition space, and the displays are spread out. You can follow the development of Porsche’s models, from the design ultimately used for the Volkswagen Beetle, first created by Ferdinand Porsche, the company founder, to the car that defines the company, the 911. You can see how the sleek Type 64 racecar from the late 1930s led to the beloved Porsche 356 and then to the 911.

没关系——先看看博物馆吧。它比梅赛德斯的更简单明了,所有内容都位于一个楼层和一间阁楼里。展览空间占地超过6万平方英尺,展品分散在各个位置。你可以追溯保时捷车型的发展,从该公司创始人费迪南德·保时捷(Ferdinand Porsche)最初创造、最终被大众甲壳虫(Volkswagen Beetle)采用的设计,到定义了这家公司的保时捷911。你可以看到1930年代晚期线条明快的64赛车(64 racecar)如何启发了广受喜爱的保时捷356,以及后来的911。

And for fun, there’s an area where you can press buttons to hear the engines of several cars, like the Panamera GTS and 911 GT3. Also impressive is the case that displays dozens of trophies from the company’s 30,000 motorsport wins. If you love the brand, especially its racing history, you’ll love this museum.

如果想找好玩的,有一个区域,你在那里点一下按钮就可以听到多款汽车的引擎发动的声音,比如帕纳梅拉GTS(Panamera GTS)和911 GT3。另一个让人印象深刻的地方是一个展示箱,里面陈列着保时捷从3万场赛车比赛的胜利中留下的几十件纪念品。如果你热爱这个品牌,尤其是它的参赛历史,你会爱上这座博物馆。

“Racecars have real road grime, dirt and dents,” Achim Stejskal, director of the Porsche Museum and Historical Communications, wrote in an email about some of the museum’s exhibits. “And all the cars actually run and participate in hundreds of events worldwide every year.”

“赛车会留下道路的污垢、灰尘和凹痕,”保时捷博物馆馆长以及历史交流部主管阿希姆·斯泰斯卡尔(Achim Stejskal)在一封关于该馆的一些展览的邮件中写道。“而且所有的车每年都真的会上路,并且参加世界各地的数百个活动。”

Both museums touch on World War II and the roles that Mercedes and Ferdinand Porsche played, with Mercedes devoting part of a ramp wall explaining its use of forced labor and the allied bombing of its plants. Porsche has a brief mention of Mr. Porsche’s work as an engineer during the war, when he assisted Germany with tank design.


But do not, under any circumstance, miss the two-hour factory tour across the street from the Porsche Museum. (You need to book about a month in advance.) I was able to watch workers hand-make these precision sports cars, with 911s, 718 Caymans and 718 Boxsters teasing me as they crawled by on the assembly line. My tour group was full of Porsche owners who were being schooled on why their cars cost so much.

无论什么情况,千万不要错过在保时捷博物馆对面街道上的时长两小时的工厂参观活动。(你需要提前大约一个月预约。)我看到了工人们手工打造那些精密的跑车,在装配线上缓缓移动的911、卡宴718和718 Boxsters不断地挑逗我。我跟随的参观团里满是保时捷车主,他们得到了“为什么你的车那么贵”的教育。

Fun factory facts: It makes about 240 cars a day; 15 percent of the work force is women; it takes 4.5 hours to make the famed boxer engine; and, the tour guide said, most of the leather comes from Austria.


Many of the cars being built that day were headed to China and the United States. I watched as a powertrain arrived on an orange cart under a 718 Boxster for what my tour guide called its marriage into the chassis. A worker hit a button, and the powertrain rose precisely into the chassis. It was a beautiful thing to see.

许多在那天制造的车会被运往中国和美国。我看到一辆橙色手推车载着一套动力总成,将它送到一辆718 Boxster的下面,我的导游把这称为它“和底盘结婚”。一名工人点了一下按钮,动力总成精准地升高、与底盘合并。那个场景很美。

I would have liked to have followed that car to its new owners, telling them I saw their baby being born. And if their baby grows up and also moves to Düsseldorf, Stuttgart, after all, isn’t too far away.


Mercedes-Benz Museum, Mercedesstraße 100, 70372 Stuttgart. mercedes-benz.com/en/mercedes-benz/classic/museum/

梅赛德斯-奔驰博物馆:Mercedesstraße 100,70372 Stuttgart。网址:mercedes-benz.com/en/mercedes-benz/classic/museum/

Tuesday to Sunday 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.

周二至周日,9 a.m.——6 p.m.

Adults: 10 euros, or $12. Children 15 to 17: 5 euros. Children up to 14: Free.


Porsche Museum, Porscheplatz 1 70435 Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen. porsche.com/museum/en/

保时捷博物馆:Porscheplatz 1 70435 Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen. porsche.com/museum/en/

Tuesday to Sunday 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.

周二至周日:9 a.m. ——6 p.m.

Adults: 8 euros. Children up to 14, accompanied by an adult: Free.


The museums offer a 25 percent discount if you present a ticket from the other museum.


Porsche factory tours start at the museum; the factory is across the street. Available Monday to Friday. Advance reservations are a must. They can be made at factorytours@porsche.de


Adults and children (must be at least 12 years old): 6 euros.