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朝核危机深化,美韩67年同盟现裂痕

更新时间:2017-9-5 20:42:55 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Allies for 67 Years, U.S. and South Korea Split Over North Korea
朝核危机深化,美韩67年同盟现裂痕

SEOUL, South Korea — For seven decades, the United States and South Korea have been the closest of allies. Their soldiers have served together not just on the Korean Peninsula but in Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq. And under America’s protective umbrella, the South Korean economy has soared.

韩国首尔——70年来,美国和韩国一直是最亲密的盟友。两国的士兵不仅在朝鲜半岛,还在越南、阿富汗和伊拉克并肩作战。并且在美国的保护伞下,韩国经济突飞猛进。

Now, as North Korea carries out a series of provocative missile and nuclear bomb tests, that alliance is straining at a time when both nations may need it more than ever.

现在,随着朝鲜进行一系列挑衅性的导弹和核弹试验,在两国可能比以往任何时候都更需要这个联盟时,双方关系却紧张起来。

President Trump issued a blast of antagonistic comments in the last few days that have made South Koreans doubt that they can take the alliance for granted any longer.

过去几天,特朗普总统发表了一连串的对抗性言论,让韩国怀疑与美国的联盟不再是理所当然的事情。

On Twitter on Thursday, he declared that “talking is not the answer!” in dealing with North Korea, casting aside the push by the new South Korean president, Moon Jae-in, to hold talks with the North. On Saturday, he threatened to withdraw the United States from a five-year-old free trade agreement with South Korea over what he considers its unfair protectionist policies. And on Sunday, after North Korea detonated its most powerful nuclear device yet, he essentially called the South Koreans appeasers.

上周四,特朗普不顾韩国新任总统文在寅(Moon Jae-in)推动与朝鲜举行谈判的努力,在Twitter上宣称,对待朝鲜“谈判不是解决问题的办法”。周六,特朗普以他所认为的韩国不公平的保护主义政策为由,威胁要让美国退出与韩国的五年自由贸易协议。周日,在朝鲜引爆其截至目前威力最大的核装置后,特朗普基本上称韩国为绥靖主义者。

”South Korea is finding, as I have told them, that their talk of appeasement with North Korea will not work, they only understand one thing!” Mr. Trump said on Twitter.

“正如我已经告诉他们的那样,韩国会发现,他们和朝鲜的绥靖谈判不起作用,他们只懂一件事!”特朗普在Twitter上说。

The tone of Mr. Trump’s statements stunned officials here and underscored what unlikely partners he and Mr. Moon are, at a time when their countries’ 67-year-old military alliance faces an ever-more-dangerous regime in Pyongyang.

特朗普这些言论的语气令韩国官员感到震惊,也突显了在两国长达67年的军事联盟面对平壤政权变得越来越危险之际,特朗普和文在寅不太可能成为合作伙伴。

Mr. Moon, who was elected in May promising to seek dialogue with North Korea, fired back at Mr. Trump, insisting that the crisis be resolved peacefully.

因承诺寻求与朝鲜对话而在5月当选的文在寅做出反击,坚决主张和平解决危机。

”We can never tolerate another catastrophic war on this land,” his office said in a statement Sunday evening. “We will not give up our goal of working together with allies to seek a peaceful denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.”

“我们决不容许这片土地上再爆发一场灾难性的战争,”文在寅的办公室在周日傍晚的一份声明中说。“我们不会放弃与盟友合作,寻求以和平方式实现朝鲜半岛无核化的目标。”

Mr. Moon has supported Mr. Trump’s push for tougher sanctions against North Korea, and in a call on Monday, their first since the nuclear test on Sunday, the two leaders agreed to lift the weight limit on South Korean conventional warheads, Park Soo-hyun, a spokesman for Mr. Moon, said. Removing the 500-kilogram restriction, part of a treaty with the United States aimed at preventing a regional arms race, could give the South greater power to strike the North in the event of military conflict.

文在寅的发言人朴洙贤(Park Soo-hyun)说,文在寅支持特朗普推动对朝鲜实行更严厉的制裁,并且在周一的通话中,两位领导人同意取消对韩国常规弹头的重量限制。这是朝鲜周日进行核试验后,两人首次通话。500公斤的弹头重量限制属于韩国与美国达成的一项条约的部分内容,旨在防止出现地区性的军备竞赛。取消这一限制可能会增强韩国在发生军事冲突时打击朝鲜的能力。

Mr. Moon and Mr. Trump also agreed to “push for maximum pressure and sanctions against North Korea” at the United Nations Security Council, Mr. Park said.

朴洙贤表示,文在寅和特朗普还同意在联合国安理会上“推动对朝鲜施加最强力度的压力和制裁”。

But Mr. Moon has argued that sanctions and pressure alone have failed to stop the North’s advances in nuclear and missile technology. And while Mr. Trump has threatened North Korea with “fire and fury,” Mr. Moon has said there must be a peaceful solution because South Koreans, not Americans, would bear the brunt of war.

不过,文在寅称,单是制裁和压力未能阻止朝鲜推进研发核武器和导弹技术。虽然特朗普曾用“炮火和怒火”威胁朝鲜,但文在寅表示,必须和平解决争端,因为承受战争冲击的是韩国人,而非美国人。

He called the North Korean nuclear test on Sunday “disappointing and infuriating.”

他说朝鲜周日的核试验“令人失望和愤怒”。

Lee Seong-hyon, an analyst at the Sejong Institute near Seoul, said: “Trump considers Moon naïve for insisting on dialogue with North Korea when it keeps conducting missile and nuclear tests. Trump is asking Moon, ‘Are you with us or not?’”

位于首尔附近的世宗研究院(Sejong Institute)的分析师李成贤(Seong-Hyon Lee)表示,“特朗普认为文在寅坚持与朝鲜对话的方针很幼稚,因为朝鲜在不断进行导弹和核试验。特朗普在问文在寅,‘你跟我们是一伙的吗?’”

Mr. Trump’s threat to cancel the trade agreement squeezes South Korea on its economy, which is already suffering in part because of South Korean cooperation with the United States.

特朗普撤销贸易协议的威胁在挤压韩国经济,而它本已部分因为韩美合作而受到了影响。

After North Korea tested its first intercontinental ballistic missile in July, Mr. Moon responded by authorizing an American missile-defense system that the Americans had been pushing for and that he had resisted. But authorizing the missile defense system angered China, which retaliated by cutting back on South Korean consumer products, forcing the South Korean carmaker Hyundai to temporarily shut down assembly lines in China.

今年7月朝鲜首次试射洲际弹道导弹后,文在寅批准了美国的导弹防御系统。美国此前一直要求设立该系统,而文在寅曾经有所抗拒。不过,批准导弹防御系统之举惹怒了中国,它通过削减韩国消费品进口予以报复,并导致韩国汽车制造商现代(Hyundai)被迫暂时关闭了在中国的装配线。

Mr. Trump is not the first American leader to be skeptical of a progressive South Korean president’s approach to the North. Since North Korea was first discovered to be developing nuclear weapons in the 1990s, the allies have not always been on the same page.

特朗普不是第一个质疑进步派韩国总统的朝鲜战略的美国领导人。从20世纪90年代初次发现朝鲜在开发核武器以来,这两个盟国并不总是想法一致。

Washington feared that liberal South Korean presidents’ preference for dialogue and openness were helping North Korea buy time and secure funds for its nuclear weapons program. South Korean progressives argued that dialogue with the North slowed down its nuclear program and even halted it, at least for a while.

华盛顿担心韩国自由派总统们的对话和开放倾向是在帮助朝鲜为核武器计划争取时间,寻找资金。而韩国的进步派人士认为,与朝鲜的对话减缓了它的核计划进程,有时甚至能让它至少暂停一段时间。

Mr. Moon was a close ally of President Roh Moo-hyun, a liberal who championed the so-called sunshine policy of engaging North Korea with dialogue, trade and aid shipments. Mr. Roh owed his 2002 election in part to a wave of anti-American sentiment, spurred by the deaths of two South Korean schoolgirls who were run over by an American military vehicle.

文在寅是卢武铉(Roh Moo-hyun)总统的亲密盟友,后者是一名自由派人士,曾主张所谓的“阳光政策”:与朝鲜进行对话、贸易,并对其展开物资援助。卢武铉2002年当选一个因素是两名韩国学生被美国军方车辆碾压致死所引发的反美浪潮。

”Washington still suspects that President Moon is Roh Moo-hyun 2.0,” said Kim Ji-yoon, an analyst at the Asan Institute for Policy Studies in Seoul.

“华盛顿依然怀疑文在寅是卢武铉2.0版,”首尔峨山政策研究院(Asan Institute for Policy Studies)的分析师金志胤(Kim Ji-yoon)说。

Moreover, Mr. Moon and Mr. Trump lack personal chemistry, analysts said, inhabiting opposing political spheres and coming from vastly different backgrounds.

此外,分析人士表示,文在寅和特朗普缺乏私交,他们生活在对立的政治圈中,人生背景大相径庭。

Mr. Moon was a former human rights lawyer defending labor activists and political dissidents while Mr. Trump was a former real-estate magnate.

文在寅曾是为劳工活动人士和持不同政见者辩护的人权律师,而特朗普曾是房地产大亨。

While Mr. Trump called for America First, Mr. Moon said during his campaign that he would “say no to the Americans” if necessary, in contrast to the previous, conservative government, which he portrayed as in lock step with the United States.

当特朗普主张“美国优先”的时候,文在寅在竞选期间表示,如有必要他会“对美国人说不”,这与以前的保守派政府形成了鲜明对照——他说以前的政府对美国亦步亦趋。

If Mr. Trump sees North Korea primarily as a nuclear threat, Mr. Moon, a son of Korean War refugees, tries to resolve it in a broader context of building reconciliation and eventually achieving reunification on the divided Korean Peninsula.

如果说特朗普首先把朝鲜当成一种核威胁,那么文在寅作为朝鲜战争难民的儿子,一直致力于在一种更广阔的框架内解决朝鲜问题,那就是达成和解,最终让分裂的朝鲜半岛实现统一。

During his campaign, Mr. Moon alarmed Washington by saying that he would review Seoul’s agreement on the deployment of the American missile-defense system known as Thaad. The system has infuriated China, which said the powerful American radar on its doorstep undermined its own security.

文在寅在竞选期间警告华盛顿说,他会复核首尔方面同意部署美国导弹防御系统萨德(Thaad)的决定。中国已被该系统激怒,称有强大的美国雷达在自家门口,会有损其安全。

Mr. Moon has since reversed himself, but Washington had a taste of his ability to say no when he took a swipe at Mr. Trump in a nationally televised speech last month. “No one should be allowed to decide on a military action on the Korean Peninsula without South Korean agreement,” he said.

文在寅后来改变了立场,但他上月面向全国民众做电视演讲的时候对特朗普予以反驳,让华盛顿见识了他说不的能力。“未经韩国同意,任何人都无权做出在朝鲜半岛上采取军事行动的决定,”他说。

Kim Keun-sik, a political-science professor at the University of North Korean Studies in Seoul, said: “Moon Jae-in had an uneasy start with Washington. The unease kept building up.”

首尔朝鲜研究大学(University of North Korean Studies)政治学教授金根植(Kim Keun-sik,音)说:“文在寅和华盛顿的关系一开始就令人不安。这种不安不断积聚。”

The North never showed an interest in talks, further undermining Mr. Moon’s position.

朝鲜从未展现出对谈判的兴趣,这进一步动摇了文在寅所持立场的根基。

“The latest nuclear test is a wake-up call for those in South Korea who still believe that dialogue is possible with North Korea,” said Lee Byong-chul, a senior fellow at the Institute for Peace and Cooperation in Seoul. “Kim Jong-un will never give up his nuclear weapons.”

“最新一次核试验,向韩国那些仍然相信与朝鲜对话存在可能性的人敲响了警钟,”首尔和平与合作研究所(Institute for Peace and Cooperation)高级研究员李炳哲(Lee Byong-chul)说。“金正恩永远都不会放弃核武器。”

The challenge for South Korea now is how to live with the reality of a nuclear-armed North. South Koreans fear that once North Korea acquires nuclear-tipped ICBMs, it will use them to drive a wedge between Washington and Seoul by offering to freeze its nuclear program in return for the withdrawal of American troops from the South.

韩国当前面临的挑战是,如何适应朝鲜拥核这一现实。韩国人担心,朝鲜一旦拥有搭载核弹头的洲际弹道导弹,就会利用它们损害华盛顿和首尔之间的关系——朝鲜可以提议,以冻结本国核计划换取美国从韩国撤军。

In the worst-case scenario, they say, North Korea may attack the South and use its nuclear arsenal to deter the United States from intervening.

他们说,最坏的情况是,朝鲜或许会攻击首尔,并以核武威慑美国,不让其介入。

Mr. Moon also faces domestic pressure from the right, with South Korean conservatives clamoring for tactical nuclear weapons, and accusing Mr. Moon of endangering the alliance with Washington while “begging North Korea for dialogue.”

文在寅还面临着来自国内右翼阵营的压力,韩国保守派人士吵着要部署战术核武器,还指责文在寅一边“乞求朝鲜同意开展对话”,一边把首尔与华盛顿的盟友关系置于险地。

“Moon Jae-in became president four months ago, and the 50 million South Koreans have already become hostage to the North Korean nukes,” Hong Joon-pyo, leader of the conservative opposition Korea Liberty Party, said on Monday.

“文在寅于四个月前成为总统,如今5000万韩国人已经成了朝鲜核武器的人质,”保守派反对党自由韩国党(Korea Liberty Party)领导人洪准杓(Hong Joon-pyo)周一表示。

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