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美国赴朝旅行禁令影响人道主义行动

更新时间:2017-9-2 9:56:27 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

U.S. Humanitarian Groups Say North Korea Travel Ban Hurts More Than Helps
美国赴朝旅行禁令影响人道主义行动

SEOUL, South Korea — A group of American and Canadian humanitarian workers who were traveling in North Korea recently had to make a tough decision: leave the country immediately and hope to return to their lifesaving work in the future, or stay in the North and face possible problems trying to go home later.

韩国首尔——一群在朝鲜的美国和加拿大的人道主义工作者最近不得不作出一个艰难的决定:要么马上离开,抱着将来能回来继续其挽救生命的工作的希望;要么待在朝鲜,但要面临以后试图回国时会遇到麻烦的可能。

This time, however, the uncertainty of their situation was not because of the North Korean government, but rather because of the Trump administration’s intention to bar Americans from traveling to the already isolated country. Under the order, announced in July, Americans must leave the North by Friday.

不过,他们这次的处境的不确定性并不是朝鲜政府造成的,而是因为特朗普政府禁止美国人前往这个已经很孤立的国家旅行的计划。根据7月份宣布的命令,美国人必须在本周五之前离开朝鲜。

“I didn’t want any of the staff or any of the colleagues to potentially face issues when they were getting out,” said Kim Taehoon, founder of DoDaum, a humanitarian group based in the United States that has organized an H.I.V.-diagnosis and treatment program in North Korea for the past several years. “Because of the uncertainty of the travel ban, we don’t know if we will be able to do on-the-ground work anymore,” Mr. Kim said.

“我不想让任何工作人员或同事在他们要离开该国时遇到问题,”金泰勋(Kim Taehoon,音)说,他是总部设在美国的人道主义机构DoDaum的创始人。过去几年来,该机构一直在朝鲜组织一个艾滋病诊断和治疗项目。金泰勋说,“因为旅行禁令带来的不确定性,我们不知道我们还能不能继续在当地工作。”

Washington announced the ban in response to the death of Otto F. Warmbier, 22, an American college student who had been serving a 15-year sentence of hard labor in North Korea after being convicted of trying to steal a political poster. Mr. Warmbier died in June shortly after the North released him in a coma. The travel restrictions also reflected the United States’ growing impatience with North Korea over its missile tests and pursuit of nuclear weapons.

作为对22岁的奥托·F·瓦姆比尔(Otto F. Warmbier)死亡的回应,华盛顿宣布了这项禁令,这名美国大学生曾在朝鲜服刑,他因试图偷走一份政治海报被判有罪,并被判处15年劳动教养。今年6月,朝鲜将处于昏迷状态的瓦姆比尔释放后不久,他便去世了。旅行禁令也反映出在导弹试验和发展核武器问题上,美国对朝鲜已经越来越不耐烦。

By imposing the travel restriction, Washington hopes to discourage people from visiting North Korea, whose brutal government has detained American visitors for offenses like leaving a Bible behind in a hotel room. But at the same time, the sweeping ban threatens the work of hundreds of humanitarian workers in the North — Americans and those who collaborate with them — and the lives of North Koreans who badly need help.

通过对旅行加以限制,华盛顿希望阻止人们前往朝鲜,那里的残暴政府已多次拘留美国游客,罪名包括把圣经留在旅馆房间里。但与此同时,这项大范围的禁令也威胁着数以百计的人道主义工作者——美国人及其合作者——在朝鲜的工作,以及那些急需帮助的朝鲜人的生活。

“One way or another, this program must go on. Otherwise, lives are lost,” said Stephen W. Linton, an American who oversees the Eugene Bell Foundation, a nonprofit group that has treated 250,000 tuberculosis patients in North Korea since 1997, including those with multidrug-resistant strains of the disease that are costlier to treat and more difficult to cure.

“不论如何,这个项目必须继续下去。否则,有人会死,”负责尤金·贝尔基金会(Eugene Bell Foundation)的美国人史蒂芬·W·林顿(Stephen W. Linton)说,这家非盈利组织自1997年以来已为朝鲜的25万名结核病患者进行过治疗,其中包括那些携带对多种药物有耐药性的菌株的患者,他们的疾病治疗起来费用更高,也更难治愈。

Every six months, Mr. Linton leads a delegation of about 12 volunteer health care specialists, half of them American, on a three-week trip to North Korea. During the visits, which take place in May and November, they examine new patients and discharge from care those who have completed an 18-month treatment program. The treatment must follow a strict schedule to be effective, hence the delegation’s fixed schedule for trips.

林顿每六个月带领一个由约12名医疗专家组成的志愿者团前往朝鲜进行为期三周的旅行,志愿者中有一半是美国人。旅行的时间分别是5月和11月,其间,他们为新患者做检查,并允许那些已经完成了18个月疗程的患者结束治疗。治疗必须遵循严格的时间表才有效,因此代表团的行程有固定的日期。

Now, Mr. Linton is fretting over whether his team can visit in November.

现在,林顿为他的团队11月份是否还能去朝鲜而焦虑不安。

Under the ban, American passports are invalid for travel “to, through and in North Korea,” according to the State Department. The department says that “in extremely limited circumstances,” it can consider a special validation visa for humanitarian workers, Red Cross officials, journalists and others traveling for “the national interest.” They must apply for it each time they want to visit North Korea.

据美国国务院颁布的禁令,美国护照在“前往、途经朝鲜,以及在朝鲜境内旅行时”无效。国务院说,“在极其有限的情况下”,可以考虑为人道主义工作者、红十字会官员、记者,以及其他因“国家利益”需要前往的人提供专用的有效签证。这些人必须在每次访问朝鲜之前申请这种签证。

Before the ban, an estimated 1,000 Americans had been traveling to North Korea on organized tours each year. Hundreds of humanitarian workers operated there at any given time, with most allowed to stay for only a limited duration. As the travel restriction loomed, major humanitarian groups, like World Vision or the American Friends Service Committee, said they had no resident or visiting workers in the North.

在禁令发布之前,估计每年有1000名美国人跟团前往朝鲜旅行。任何时候都有数以百计的人道主义工作人员在那里活动,其中大多数人只能在有限的时间内逗留。随着旅行禁令的日期临近,像世界宣明会(World Vision)和美国公谊服务委员会(American Friends Service Committee,简称AFSC)等大型人道主义团体表示,他们没有常驻朝鲜或出差去那里的工作人员。

It is unknown how many Americans are still in the North in ignorance or defiance of the ban. Also unclear is how effectively the United States will enforce it. “U.S. citizens are not required to register their presence with the U.S. government,” said William Cocks, a spokesman for the State Department’s Bureau of Consular Affairs.

目前还不清楚有多少仍然滞留在朝鲜的美国人不知道或准备反抗这个禁令,也不清楚美国执行该禁令的力度。美国国务院领事司(Bureau of Consular Affairs)发言人威廉·科克斯(William Cocks)说,“美国公民不需要向美国政府登记在朝鲜的情况。”

North Korea has called the ban “childish” and has said it will keep its doors “wide open to any U.S. citizen who would like to visit our country out of good will.”

朝鲜称这个禁令很“幼稚”,并表示将继续“对怀着良好意愿访问我们国家的美国公民敞开大门”。

Mr. Kim, the DoDaum founder, said a 15-member delegation from his group had been cleared by the North Korean authorities to visit in mid-September to deliver H.I.V. medication and help treat patients, but the trip had to be canceled. Mr. Kim is a Canadian citizen, but key members of the delegation are Americans affected by the ban.

DoDaum的创始人金泰勋说,该组织一个15人的代表团已经获得朝鲜当局的入境许可,在9月中旬前往那里,提供艾滋病药物,帮助治疗患者,但这趟行程现在只能取消了。金泰勋是加拿大公民,但代表团的关键成员是受到禁令限制的美国人。

As a way around the restriction, DoDaum is joining with the Pyongyang University of Science and Technology to create an online medical education program so that volunteer professors can offer lessons remotely, Mr. Kim said.

金泰勋说,为了避开这个限制,DoDaum正在和平壤科技大学开展合作制定一个在线医学教育计划,让义工教授提供远程教学。

The university, a private school in the North Korean capital that is financed by evangelical Christians, has relied on dozens of volunteer teachers, mostly Korean-Americans. Now, it must find non-American replacements if no exemptions are offered.

平壤科技大学是一所落座在朝鲜首都的私立学校,由福音派基督徒资助成立,其数十名义工教师以韩裔美国人为主。现在,该校必须找到非美国人来替代这些教师,除非获得豁免许可。

”I think this travel ban is being seen by North Korean officials as an explicitly inflammatory measure,” Mr. Kim said. “When we informed them of the need to pull out, there was a sense of understanding but at the same time, there was a sense of disappointment on both sides really.”

“我觉得,朝鲜官员把这个旅行禁令看成了一种公然的煽动性举措。”金泰勋说:“当我们通知他们需要撤离的时候,他们表现得很理解,但是同时双方都真的感觉有点失望。”

Supporters of the restriction say it will limit the chances of North Korea taking American hostages as diplomatic bargaining chips. In the past, it often released American detainees only after visits by prominent Americans like former President Bill Clinton.

支持禁令的人说,这么做可以减少朝鲜把美国人质当成外交谈判筹码的机会。在过去,通常只有美国前总统比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)这样的知名美国人访问朝鲜之后,他们才会释放被羁押的美国人。

It is still holding three American citizens, two who were volunteers at the Pyongyang university, on vague charges of committing “hostile acts.”

目前朝鲜仍然以含糊不清的“敌对行为”指控羁押着三名美国公民,其中两名是平壤大学的志愿者。

The ban, by squeezing the flow of tourist cash, also helps international efforts to undermine North Korea’s ability to finance its nuclear and missile programs.

这个禁令也会压缩朝鲜的旅游业现金流,为国际社会遏制朝鲜为核计划和导弹计划筹集资金提供帮助。

But critics of the ban say it will further restrict people-to-people interactions between the United States and North Korea. Among the hardest hit will be Korean-Americans who have been visiting North Korea to trace their family roots or for reunions with long-lost relatives.

但批评这个禁令的人说,这将进一步限制美国与朝鲜之间的人员交流。其中以韩裔美国人遭受的打击最大,他们经常前往朝鲜,追寻自己的家族历史,或是与长期失去联系的亲人团聚。

“Restricting humanitarian access puts lives in immediate jeopardy and increases the likelihood of humanitarian disaster,” said Daniel Jasper, advocacy coordinator for the American Friends Service Committee, a Quaker organization that has provided humanitarian relief in North Korea for decades. “Our long history in the region leads us to believe that the travel restrictions will greatly reduce the likelihood for peaceful relations on the Korean Peninsula.”

“对人道主义援助进行限制会随时让一些人遭受生命威胁,增加发生人道主义灾难的可能性。”美国公谊委员会(American Friends Service Committee)的维权协调员丹尼尔·贾斯珀(Daniel Jasper)说,“从我们在该地区的长期经验来看,我们认为,旅行禁令将大大降低朝鲜半岛关系实现和平关系的可能性。”美国公谊服务委员会是一个贵格会(Quaker)组织,在朝鲜提供人道主义援助已经有几十年的历史。

American humanitarian workers said that the travel ban endangered the trust with the North Koreans that they had spent years building. To the North Korean authorities, who are hard-wired to consider Washington a mortal enemy, the fact that these American workers volunteered to visit despite their government’s warnings had been part of their credibility.

美国人道主义工作人员说,他们花了多年时间才获得了朝鲜人的信任,而旅行禁令破坏了这种信任。朝鲜当局坚定地认为华盛顿是个死敌,事实上,这些美国人不顾本国政府的警告,自愿前往朝鲜去当义工,正是他们赢得信任的原因之一。

“Getting permission from the government to go puts an X mark on your back because the North Koreans will never believe that you are there just for humanitarian purposes if the government gave you permission to go,” Mr. Linton said. “In fact, this travel ban, the way it’s set up, puts N.G.O.s in much greater danger by requiring official government permission to travel to North Korea.

“如果政府允许你去朝鲜,就相当于在你的背上打了一个X标志,因为朝鲜人永远不会相信你只是出于人道主义目的去那里的。”林顿说,“事实上,这种旅行禁令以及它的设置方式会让非政府组织(NGO)在申请前往朝鲜的政府许可时面临更大的危险。”

“There is no one I know in North Korea who would believe that there isn’t some connection between the N.G.O. and the government that made that permission possible,” he added.

“在我认识的朝鲜人中,没有人会相信NGO和给他们放行的政府之间没有某种联系。”他说。

For Mr. Linton, helping Koreans has been a family mission for more than a century.

对于林顿来说,帮助朝鲜人是一个多世纪以来的家族使命。

His grandfather’s father-in-law, Eugene Bell, arrived in Korea in 1895 as an American missionary to engage in medical and evangelical activities. Mr. Linton’s grandfather, William Linton, also a missionary, served in Korea for half a century. In 1995, Mr. Linton established the Eugene Bell Foundation to help tuberculosis patients in North Korea.

他的祖父的岳父尤金·贝尔(Eugene Bell)是美国传教士,曾于1895年抵达朝鲜,参加医疗和福音活动。林顿的祖父威廉·林顿(William Linton)也是传教士,在朝鲜工作了半个世纪。1995年,林顿成立了尤金·贝尔基金会,为朝鲜的结核病患者提供帮助。

The members of Mr. Linton’s North Korean mission show that same dedication, including an 83-year-old Catholic priest who has been visiting the North despite a heart condition.

林顿朝鲜传教团的成员们也表现出了同样的献身精神,其中有一名83岁的天主教教士,尽管心脏有问题,却多次前往朝鲜。

They are determined to return, even if that means signing a waiver forsaking their right to consular service — a move they hope will make it easier for them to receive permission from the United States government to travel to the North.

他们决心回到朝鲜,即使这意味着要签署不再享受美国领事服务的弃权书——他们希望做出这个决定后,可以更容易地获得美国政府的许可,前往朝鲜。

“We are not going to hold the U.S. government responsible for trying to get us out if we get into trouble,” Mr. Linton said. “We are doing this as mature adults who have made a decision that this program is worth the risks involved.”

“如果我们陷入麻烦,是不会让美国政府负责帮我们脱身的。”林顿说。“我们是成熟的成年人,做出了这个项目是值得冒风险的判断。”

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