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戴安娜拯救了英国王室

更新时间:2017-9-1 10:03:36 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Diana Saved the Queen
戴安娜拯救了英国王室

LONDON — Twenty years ago, the death of Britain’s glittering, delicate, troubled global superstar, Princess Diana, shook the British monarchy and revealed a dangerous chasm between the palace and the people. In the wake of her death in a car crash in Paris on Aug. 31, 1997, the royal family was in danger of losing much loyalty and trust over its shabby treatment of “the people’s princess.” Today, though, two decades on, the monarchy is perhaps the most popular institution in British public life — a remarkable restoration that, more than anything, is the lasting legacy of Diana herself.

伦敦——二十年前,雍容、柔弱、深陷苦恼的世界巨星戴安娜王妃(Princess Diana)之死,撼动了英国王室,展露了王室和民众之间的危险分歧。1997年8月31日,戴安娜死于巴黎的一场车祸。随后,由于未能善待“人民的王妃”,王室面临失去忠诚和信任之虞。然而,二十年后的今天,王室或许是英国公共生活中最受欢迎的机构——而这种不可思议的复原,首先要算作是戴安娜本人的不朽传奇的一部分。

At first, the royal family was no more capable of dealing with Diana in death than it had been in life. While millions mourned her, and thousands gathered to light candles or lay flowers in her memory in Kensington Gardens close to her residence, the palace — preoccupied by protocol, precedent and duty — maintained a frozen silence.

一开始,王室对离世后的戴安娜的处理,和她在世时一样拙劣。当千百万民众为她哀悼,成千上万人聚在其寓所附近的肯辛顿花园(Kensington Gardens),点起蜡烛、献上鲜花,寄托哀思的时候,心思都放在礼仪、先例和责任上的王室,保持着冰一般的沉默。

The royals had been exasperated by Diana’s refusal to submit to being incarcerated in a marriage of mutual dislike; they had hoped that her divorce from Prince Charles, a year earlier, had finally rid them of this troublesome princess. They failed to grasp that with every mute hour that passed, they reinforced the powerful story that Diana had told — that they were a cold, hidebound lot.

戴安娜拒绝老老实实地被囚禁在一场相看两厌的婚姻中,王室对此一直耿耿于怀;他们希望,戴安娜和查尔斯王子(Prince Charles)一年前的离婚,能让自己远离这位惹麻烦的王妃。他们不明白,自己每沉默一小时,都会进一步巩固戴安娜此前做出的有力陈述:他们是一群冷漠、死板的人。

For a handful of deluded days after her death, they clung obstinately to their principles of remoteness and privacy behind the gates of their Scottish castle, while popular anger grew. Britain’s tabloid newspapers, eager to distract attention from the press’s own role in the fatal pursuit of Diana and her boyfriend, Dodi Fayed, attacked the royals with increasing ferocity: “Show us you care,” and “Where is our Queen?” and “Your people are suffering — speak to us, Ma’am.”

他们在她死后过了几天自欺欺人的日子,躲在苏格兰城堡的大门后,固守着自己关于距离和隐私的原则;与此同时,公众的怒气愈积愈多。英国的一些小报急于转移注意力,想让人们不再关注媒体自身在此事中的角色,也就是它们对戴安娜及其男友多迪·法耶(Dodi Fayed)的致命追逐,于是它们开始越来越凶猛地攻击王室:“向我们证明你们在乎”。还有“我们的女王在哪?”还有“你的人民在受苦——跟我们说句话,陛下。”

It took Britain’s new prime minister, Tony Blair, to perceive the ugly mood that was brewing and persuade an obtuse royal establishment that they had to address it. Only on the fifth day did the royal family return to London, fly a flag at half-mast, speak, mingle with the mourning crowds, and even, as far as was possible, emote.

英国新首相托尼·布莱尔(Tony Blair)察觉到了酝酿中的怒火,他让迟钝的皇室相信,必须采取应对措施。直到第五天,王室才重返伦敦,降半旗、发言、与哀悼的人群交流,甚至尽可能地表露情感。

When Queen Elizabeth finally addressed the nation, live on the eve of Diana’s funeral, she was patently drained, but attempted to be less formal than before. She abandoned the royal “we,” spoke of grief, anger and shock, and conceded that she had much to learn from Diana’s life, and the extraordinary reaction to her death.

在戴安娜葬礼前一天向全国人民发表直播讲话的时候,伊丽莎白女王明显筋疲力竭,但却竭力做到不像以前那么正式。她没有以尊严的复数自称,谈及悲伤、愤怒和震惊,并承认戴安娜这一生有很多值得自己学习的地方,承认戴安娜的离世引发了非同寻常的反应。

I was out in Kensington Gardens that night, recording interviews for a BBC program, and the queen’s words defused much of the sullen, febrile atmosphere. Nobody, however, expected the broadcast to mark a real change in the royal family’s behavior. The palace, after all, had won. It had survived, while the rebellious, compassionate, lonely princess was dead. Her bereft sons would be swept back into the straitjacket of royal protocol and privilege, brought up by their father as stuffily as he had been.

那晚我守在肯辛顿花园,为BBC的一档节目录制采访,女王的言辞驱散了很多愠怒、躁动的情绪。但没有哪个人认为,此次直播会是王室行为方式发生变化的标志。毕竟,王室赢了。它存续了下来,叛逆的、有同情心的、孤独的王妃却已死去。她的两个失去母亲的儿子会被带回由皇家礼仪和特权构成的束缚中去,并由他们那一如既往地刻板的父亲养育成人。

It is now clear that Diana is the ultimate victor. The most obvious sign is that Prince Charles has not escaped public blame for her sad life. In a recent poll, 51 percent of respondents wanted the crown to pass directly from Queen Elizabeth, now 91, to Prince William, 35. Only 22 percent thought his 68-year-old father should be the next king.

现在可以清楚地看到,戴安娜才是最终的赢家。最明显的证据是,她的悲剧命运让查尔斯王子一直无法逃脱公众的指责。最近的一项民调显示,51%的受访者希望现年91岁的伊丽莎白女王直接传位给35岁的威廉王子。只有22%的受访者认为下一任国王应该是王子那位68岁的父亲。

Diana’s tragedy also forced the palace to modernize its attitudes and revise its archaic codes, liberating the living princes. Charles chose an aristocratic ingénue as his bride because duty demanded it and he’d been trained to submit to that. Diana was selected for the role with the same sort of attention that might have been paid to the purchase of a race horse, scrutinized purely for external qualities — looks, breeding, virginity, youth — and with no thought for the fragile young woman beneath.

戴安娜的悲剧还迫使王室将其态度现代化,修改古老的规则,解放仍在世的王侯们。查尔斯迎娶一名贵族少女是职责使然,他受到的教育让他甘于屈从这种命运。选择戴安娜时投入的精力,或许与购买赛马时没有什么不同,审视的全是外在条件——长相、血统、贞洁、年轻——并没有思及隐藏在所有这些之下的那个脆弱的年轻女孩。

In a recent broadcast of previously unseen private tapes, Diana told her voice coach, with wry regret, that she and Charles had met just 13 times before their marriage. It is a staggering claim. No wonder that, within weeks of wedding, both felt bewildered and betrayed. The marriage was Charles’s torment, too.

在最近被公诸于众的一些此前从未曝光的录音带中,戴安娜非常懊悔地告诉自己的声音教练,她和查尔斯婚前只见过13次面。这一说法令人震惊。毫不奇怪的是,婚礼过后没几周,两人就都有了困惑和遭背叛之感。这桩婚姻对查尔斯来说同样是一种折磨。

After Diana, the royal family came to accept that modern marriages must be based on compatibility, understanding and love. Charles has his Camilla; they are evidently happy. The next generation has been set free.

在戴安娜之后,皇室开始承认,现代婚姻必须以匹配、理解和爱为基础。查尔斯有他的卡米拉(Camilla);他们显然很幸福。下一代获得了自由。

William could take all the time he needed, living with and splitting up from Catherine Middleton (often called Kate) over eight years before concluding that the person he most wanted to share his life with was her: not an aristocrat, but a commoner whose mother had been born in a council flat. Catherine went into the marriage with no illusions about the combination of stultifying duty and fishbowl celebrity her role requires.

威廉在寻找伴侣一事上毫不着急,他在八年间和凯瑟琳·米德尔顿(Catherine Middleton,常称凯特[Kate])分分合合,直到确定自己最想与之偕老的人就是她:一个平民,而非贵族,其母出生在一间统建公寓里。凯瑟琳走进婚姻时没抱任何幻想,她明白自己扮演的角色要承担一些令人厌倦的义务,会成为一个金鱼缸里的名人。

If Prince Harry decides to marry his current girlfriend, Meghan Markle, an American actor and humanitarian whose father recently declared bankruptcy, the palace’s role will be limited to making the arrangements for a suitable date, not imposing judgments.

哈里王子当前的女友梅根·马克尔(Meghan Markle)是一位美国演员和慈善人士,其父最近宣告破产。如果哈里决定与她结婚,王室所起的作用将仅限于安排合适的日期,而不是向其强加自己的判断。

But Diana’s most remarkable influence has only lately become apparent. For many years, her sons have been engaged in the usual princely activities: charities, parties, polo, serving in the armed services. They looked to be pleasant enough young men, but it was easy to assume that as rich royals, deferred and pandered to, they would be entitled and dull.

但戴安娜造成的最惊人影响直到最近浮出水面:多年来,她的两个儿子一直在做王子通常会做的事情:做慈善、参加派对、打马球、服兵役。他们看上去是足够讨喜的年轻人,但外界很容易认为,作为受到尊重和奉承的富有王族,他们会是优越感爆棚、乏味无趣的人。

Instead, the young princes have blazed into public consciousness as the shining inheritors of their mother’s grace, empathy and humanity. They have taken up a neglected cause, mental health, and together with Catherine have begun a campaign to encourage Britons to share their worries and distress. They have done so by talking with raw, disarming vulnerability and eloquence to a series of interviewers about the wrenching loss of their mother, their stoic if damaging attempts to ignore their own sorrow, and their realization that people everywhere are struggling with sadness: from the wounded soldiers with whom Harry served in Afghanistan to the injured people whom William airlifted in the ambulance service to the young mothers Catherine meets. Compellingly, they treat those they encounter with evident respect.

但两位年轻的王子继承了母亲的优雅、同理心和仁慈,熠熠生辉地出现在公众视野中。他们投身于促进精神健康这项被忽视的事业,还和凯瑟琳一道开创了一个宣传活动,鼓励英国人分享自身的焦虑和压力。为此,他们毫不设防地袒露自己的痛处和脆弱,以生动的言辞向一系列采访者谈及丧母之痛,谈及自己为忽略内心悲伤而做出的坚韧但却有害的努力,谈及他们意识到人间处处可见在悲伤中挣扎的人:从哈里在阿富汗服役时遇到的伤兵,到威廉在参与救护工作时空运的伤者,再到凯瑟琳见到的年轻母亲。令人动容的是,他们会带着显而易见的尊重对待遇到的那些人。

By doing so, the princes have consciously broken with the conventional palace wisdom that, as the Victorian political essayist Walter Bagehot wrote in 1867, “we must not let in daylight upon magic.” The fear was always that the mystique of the monarchy would shrivel and die if human frailties were revealed. The princes, learning from the poignant example of their mother’s private travails, have thrown open the curtains.

通过这样做,两位王子有意识地违背了王室的传统智慧——即维多利亚时代政论文作者沃尔特·白芝浩(Walter Bagehot)1867年所写的,“莫将魔术大白于天下。”一直以来的担心是,如果展露人的脆弱,王室的神秘感会减退和消亡。而两位王子从母亲的个人悲剧中汲取了惨痛的教训,伸手拉开了窗帘。

The effect has been galvanizing, especially among the young. People who never cared much about the monarchy have been deeply impressed by the princes’ thoughtfulness, humor, openness and concern for others. Polls put their approval rating at close to 80 percent, far ahead of their father’s. Diana’s sons combine the best of their parents: their mother’s acute sensibility and their father’s dutiful sense.

行动起到了激励效果,尤其是在年轻人中间。王子的体贴、幽默、开放和对他人的关心,给以前不太关注王室的人留下了好印象。民调显示,他们的支持率接近80%,远远高于他们的父亲。戴安娜的儿子结合了父母的优点:母亲的敏感,以及父亲的责任感。

Their impact is all the greater because William and Harry have shone just as British politics slumped into disarray. Twenty years ago, it was a charismatic prime minister who effortlessly connected with the public mood, while the royal family looked incompetent and out of touch. Today, it is the politicians and the prime minister who are terrifyingly confused and inarticulate about the state of the nation, and it is the hereditary princes, with their honesty, their ethic of service, Harry’s impish ease and William’s gravitas, who are the public figures offering some hope for the future.

威廉和哈里的影响更大,因为他们是在英国政治陷入混乱之际大放异彩。二十年前,不懈地与公众沟通感情的是一位有魅力的首相,而王室看起来既无能又高高在上。现今,政客和首相无法认清、阐明这个国家的状态,而作为公众人物的世袭王子凭借他们的真诚和尽责,还有哈里的轻松顽皮和威廉的庄重自持,让人们对未来多了一些希望。

When the queen dies, Charles will inherit the throne. A much-misunderstood man who means well, he will not inherit the public’s great affection for his mother. But that will not now be any threat to the monarchy’s survival because his sons’ popularity will carry him forward. Diana’s last gift to the family that both made her and helped to destroy her has been to refashion it for the modern age.

女王离世时,查尔斯将会继承大统。作为一个怀着好心但深受误解的人,他无法继承民众对他母亲的深切感情。但眼下,这并不会对王室的存续构成任何威胁,因为他可以借助两个儿子的人气前行。对于这个成就了她但对她的毁灭也负有责任的王室,戴安娜留下的最后一件礼物,是让其得到重塑,以适应现在这个时代。

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