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更新时间:2017-8-30 10:46:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

A Pacifist Japan Starts to Embrace the Military

GOTEMBA, Japan — The Japanese soldiers jumped out of the jeeps, unloaded the antitank missiles and dropped to the ground. Within minutes, they aimed and fired, striking hypothetical targets nearly a half-mile away.


The audience of more than 26,000, crammed into bleachers and picnicking on camouflage-patterned mats on the ground, clapped appreciatively, murmuring “Sugoi!” — or “Wow!”— during live-fire drills conducted by Japan’s military here in the foothills of Mount Fuji.


Pacifism has been a sacred tenet of Japan’s national identity since the end of World War II, when the United States pushed to insert a clause renouncing war into the country’s postwar Constitution. But there are signs that the public’s devotion to pacifism — and its attitude toward the Japanese military, known as the Self-Defense Forces — have begun to evolve, in part at the urging of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.


Mr. Abe’s slow, steady efforts to remove pacifist constraints on the military may have gotten help Tuesday, when North Korea fired a ballistic missile that sailed over Japan’s northern island, Hokkaido, prompting the government to issue television and cellphone alerts warning residents in its path to take cover. It was the first time North Korea had flown a missile over Japanese territory without the pretext of launching a satellite. The missile landed harmlessly in the Pacific Ocean, but Mr. Abe called it an “unprecedented, grave and serious threat.”


“We have been living in peace for such a long time that we believe this peace is going to last forever,” said Ichiro Miyazoe, 74, walking in the Ikebukuro neighborhood of Tokyo after the latest test from Pyongyang on Tuesday. “Japan has had a weak attitude, like a losing dog. We must have a stronger military.”

平壤在周二进行了最近这次试验后,74岁的宮添一郎(Ichiro Miyazoe)正在东京的池袋区散步,他说,“我们一直生活在和平时期,时间如此之长,以至于我们觉得和平会永远持续下去。日本一直态度软弱,像一只丧家之犬。我们必须有更强大的军队。”

Although the Japanese public has long been ambivalent about Mr. Abe’s agenda — polls show that about half or more disagree with his efforts to revise the pacifist clause of the Constitution — its fascination with the military has been growing.


Applications for tickets to attend the Fuji drills were oversubscribed by a factor of nearly six to one this year. According to polls by the prime minister’s cabinet office, the number of those who say they are interested in the Self-Defense Forces has risen to 71 percent in 2015, up from about 55 percent in the late 1980s.


Manga comics and anime television shows like “Gate,” which feature the Self-Defense Forces fighting against supernatural creatures, have grown popular, while online matchmaking sites offering dates with soldiers have become trendy.


Of course, such activities do not necessarily translate into a desire for a more assertive national defense policy. The most important function of the Self-Defense Forces is disaster relief, and support for the forces soared in the wake of the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami, when troops rescued victims and restored disaster-ravaged zones.


But at events like the Fuji live-fire drills, some members of the public are starting to consider the possibility that their military could be called upon to perform more than live exercises or disaster relief.


“Once the U.S. or South Korea engages in a war, Japan will also have to take part,” said Masaaki Ishihara, 60, a manager at a construction company in Yokohama who attended the Sunday drills with his wife, 9-year-old son and a friend. “Japan will be forced to get involved.”

横滨一家建筑公司的经理、60岁的石原正明(Masaaki Ishihara)说,“一旦美国或韩国与他国交战,日本也将不得不参与进去,日本将被迫参与进去。”他带着妻子、九岁的儿子和一个朋友一起观看了周日的演习。

Despite the festival-like atmosphere, with people eating flavored shaved ice and snapping up T-shirts, model tanks and military-themed cookies at souvenir stands, Mr. Ishihara’s wife, Takako, 49, said the exercises felt “like a real battle.”


“I got scared watching it,” Ms. Ishihara said. “Will peace really continue?”


With the rising threats in the region, Mr. Abe has repeatedly called for a constitutional revision to allow Japan to expand its military capabilities. Japan is protected by its alliance with the United States, but Mr. Abe and his supporters believe the country needs to do more on its own.


Two years ago, Mr. Abe pushed through security laws that permit Japan’s troops to participate in overseas combat missions. The Japanese government has also proposed defense spending increases for six years running, and the Defense Ministry recently announced it would request funds to purchase an American missile defense system, known as Aegis Ashore, that can intercept missiles midflight above the earth’s atmosphere.

两年前,在安倍晋三的推动下,日本通过了允许自卫队参加海外作战任务的安保法。日本政府还连续六年提出增加国防开支的预算案,防卫厅最近宣布将提出资金要求,以从美国购买名为“陆上宙斯盾”(Aegis Ashore)的弹道导弹防御系统,该系统可在地球大气层以上拦截飞行中的导弹。

Even as it has grown anxious about the threats, the Japanese public, as citizens of the only country to have experienced the horrors of nuclear war, has remained steadfastly committed to its war-renouncing charter. Before the security laws were passed in 2015, thousands of protesters took to the streets of Tokyo to oppose them.


Protesters also regularly show up at American bases in Okinawa to object to the U.S. military presence. There are currently about 54,000 U.S. troops in Japan.


Analysts said the public has yet to reckon with just how far they are willing to go in the name of national security.


“I think that ordinary people tacitly want to avoid thinking about a potential contradiction between the notion of the pacifist clause of the Constitution and the reality of changes in Japanese defense policies,” said Jiro Yamaguchi, a professor of political science at Hosei University.

“我觉得,普通百姓中有一种默契,人们避免考虑宪法中的和平主义条款与日本防务政策变化这个现实之间的潜在矛盾,”法政大学(Hosei University)政治学教授山口二郎(Jiro Yamaguchi)说。

Shinobu Mori, 52, who drove 120 miles with her daughter to attend the annual rite of military Kabuki theater near Mount Fuji, said she enjoyed the display but hoped the firepower would never actually be used. “I grew up in a peaceful era,” she said. “So I would like to pass that on to the next generation.”

52岁的森忍(Shinobu Mori)和女儿一起开车,从200公里以外来到富士山,观看这里一年一度的戏剧般的军事演习,森忍说她喜欢看演习,但希望这些炮火永远不会真正派上用场。“我是在和平时代长大的,”她说。“所以我想让下一代也享受和平。”

Tuesday’s missile launch generated a sense of mild panic, with some private train lines halting service for about 20 minutes. An announcement at Tokyo station around 6 a.m. warned commuters that a missile from North Korea was flying over Japan and told them to take cover in a train car or waiting room.


On social media, one Twitter user described “a red pillar of fire” falling from the sky toward Hokkaido. “The only thing I can do is self-defense in this world,” he wrote. “It’s important to be ready. We cannot deny that World War III might be close.”


Japan has long interpreted its pacifist Constitution to allow it to conduct self-defense operations, and it has more than 225,000 active-duty troops and advanced armaments like naval destroyers equipped with sophisticated missile defense and fighter jets.


But over time, the government has nudged the definition of self-defense into a more assertive posture. Recently, it has quietly discussed the possibility of acquiring cruise missiles allowing it to pre-emptively strike a missile launch site if it detected signs of an imminent attack.


Some analysts say Japan’s notion of pacifism has always contained contradictions.


“It is faux pacifism, and it always has been,” said Grant Newsham, a retired U.S. Marine colonel and a research fellow at the Japan Forum for Strategic Studies. “It is predicated on the perspective that Japan faces no threats.”

“那是假和平主义,从来都是这样,”美国海军陆战队退役上校、日本战略研究会研究员格兰特·纽斯汉姆(Grant Newsham)说。“宪法中的和平主义条款是以日本不面临威胁为前提的。”

Indeed, from the moment it was inserted into the Constitution, the pacifist clause has been fluid, with the historian John Dower calling it “a miasma of ambiguity.”

的确,和平主义条款自从被写入宪法的那个时刻起就一直具有灵活性,历史学家约翰·杜瓦(John Dower)称其“笼罩在含糊之中”。

Most experts say that it would be politically difficult to change the Constitution, but that a debate needs to move from mainly political and academic circles to include the wider public.


“I don’t think it’s going to change, but the general public’s sentiment may be moving towards that direction if this threat continues to increase,” said Masako Toki, a research associate with the Nonproliferation Education Program at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies.

“我不认为宪法会发生改变,但如果威胁继续增长的话,普通民众的情绪可能会朝着这个方向转变,”在明德大学蒙特雷国际研究学院(Middlebury Institute of International Studies)防扩散教育项目从事研究的土岐雅子(Masako Toki)说。

Liberals continue to oppose a military buildup in Japan, but some analysts say younger people don’t understand the dangerous stakes of tilting toward militarism.


“I think there is a whole generation that has basically not done a good job of going beyond embracing pacifism,” to explain to younger people why it is important, said Sabine Frühstück, professor of modern Japanese cultural studies at U.C. Santa Barbara and the author of “Playing War: Children and the Paradoxes of Modern Militarism in Japan.”

“我觉得,有一整代人除了拥抱和平主义外,基本上没有做好工作,”向年轻人解释和平主义为什么重要,在加州大学圣巴巴拉分校从事现代日本文化研究的教授萨彬·弗律赫斯图克(Sabine Frühstück)说,她是《玩弄战争:日本现代军国主义悖论与儿童》(Playing War: Children and the Paradoxes of Modern Militarism in Japan)一书的作者。

“It’s one of these things that has become a black box in Japan,” Ms. Frühstück said of pacifism, “in the sense of ‘this is just what we got and how things are supposed to be.’”


Miyuki Nakayama, 23, a student leader of the Public for the Future, a group that opposes military action, said people have simply forgotten the lessons of World War II. “They don’t imagine a war might be real in the future,” Ms. Nakayama said.

反对军事行动组织“为了未来的公众”(the Public for the Future)23岁学生领袖中山美纪(Miyuki Nakayama)说,人们已经忘记了第二次世界大战的教训。“他们不会想象未来的战争可能是真的,”中山美纪说。