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减肥难?也许你的早餐吃得不够好

更新时间:2017-8-29 21:53:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The Case for a Breakfast Feast
减肥难?也许你的早餐吃得不够好

Many of us grab coffee and a quick bite in the morning and eat more as the day goes on, with a medium-size lunch and the largest meal of the day in the evening. But a growing body of research on weight and health suggests we may be doing it all backward.

我们很多人都是早上喝点咖啡,匆忙吃几口,之后几餐再加量,午餐不多不少,晚上则吃得最多,往往是一顿大餐。但是越来越多的体重和健康研究表明,我们恐怕完全吃反了。

A recent review of the dietary patterns of 50,000 adults who are Seventh-day Adventists over seven years provides the latest evidence suggesting that we should front-load our calories early in the day to jump-start our metabolisms and prevent obesity, starting with a robust breakfast and tapering off to a smaller lunch and light supper, or no supper at all.

近期,一项研究回顾了5万名基督复临安息日会成年教友七年来的饮食模式,为此提供了最新的证据,表明我们应该在清晨提前摄入卡路里,来促进新陈代谢和避免肥胖,以丰盛的早餐开启一天,然后逐渐减量,午餐稍少,晚餐最少,或者干脆不吃晚餐。

More research is needed, but a series of experiments in animals and some small trials in humans have pointed in the same direction, suggesting that watching the clock, and not just the calories, may play a more important role in weight control than previously acknowledged.

这一观点还需更多研究予以佐证,但一系列动物实验和少量人类试验都指向同一结论,想要控制体重,相比注意卡路里,注意进餐时间可能比我们之前认为的要更重要。

And doctors’ groups are taking note. This year, the American Heart Association endorsed the principle that the timing of meals may help reduce risk factors for heart disease, like high blood pressure and high cholesterol. The group issued a scientific statement emphasizing that skipping breakfast — which 20 to 30 percent of American adults do regularly — is linked to a higher risk of obesity and impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes, even though there is no proof of a causal relationship. The heart association’s statement also noted that occasional fasting is associated with weight loss, at least in the short term.

医生群体也注意到了这一问题。今年,美国心脏病协会(American Heart Association)支持一项原则,认为合理安排用餐时间可能有助于减少心脏病的风险因素,如高血压和高胆固醇。该协会还发表了一份科学声明,强调不吃早餐——20-30%的美国人经常如此——与肥胖症、糖代谢异常及糖尿病的高风险具有相关性,虽然暂无证据表明两者为因果关系。该声明还表示,偶尔禁食与减重呈相关性,至少短期内有效。

“I always tell people not to eat close to bedtime, and to try to eat earlier in the day,” said Marie-Pierre St-Onge, an associate professor of nutritional medicine at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons, who led the work group that issued the statement.

“我经常劝人们睡前不要进食,白天也尽量早吃饭。”哥伦比亚大学医学院营养学副教授玛丽·皮埃尔·圣安琪(Marie-Pierre St-Onge)说道。她所领导的研究小组发布了这一声明。

Perhaps not surprisingly, the latest study found that those who supplemented three meals a day with snacks tended to gain weight over time, while those who ate only one or two meals a day tended to lose weight, even compared with those who just ate three meals a day.

还有一项恐怕并不令人意外的发现,最新研究表明,日食三餐还吃零食的人更易发胖,而相较日食三餐的人,一天仅吃一餐或者两餐的人更易减重。

But the researchers also found that those who ate their largest meal early in the day were more likely to have a lower body mass index than those who ate a large lunch or dinner. Breakfast eaters tended to keep their weight down generally, compared with breakfast skippers. The lowest BMIs were recorded in the fraction of people — about 8 percent of the total sample — who finished lunch by early afternoon and did not eat again until the next morning, fasting for 18 to 19 hours.

但研究还发现,早餐吃得最丰盛的人,身体质量指数(body mass index)比午晚餐吃得丰盛的人要低。总体而言,吃早餐的人比不吃早餐的人更易减肥。而身体质量指数最低的人通常是少数,在调查群体中大约占8%,他们都在下午较早的时候就吃完午餐,而到第二天早晨都不再进食,禁食时间长达18到19小时。

The conclusions were limited, since the study was observational and involved members of a religious group who are unusually healthy, do not smoke, tend to abstain from alcohol and eat less meat than the general population (half in the study were vegetarian). But the results suggested that rethinking when and how much we eat, and including an extended fast, may have benefits.

这些研究结论有一定局限性,因为该研究主要基于观察的方式,而且调研对象是宗教群体,他们通常出奇地健康,禁烟戒酒,吃肉也比普通人少(调研对象中有一半为素食者)。尽管如此,研究结果对我们仍然有参考意义,我们也许该重新思考进食时间和进食量,包括延长禁食时间。

Fasting signals to the body to start burning stores of fat for fuel, the researchers said. “It seems our bodies are built to feast and fast,” said Dr. Hana Kahleova, one of the authors of the study, which was done by researchers at Loma Linda University School of Public Health in California and published in The Journal of Nutrition in July. “It needs some regular cycling between having food intake and fasting. This seems to be hard-wired.”

研究人员称,禁食会向身体发出信号,燃烧体内储存的脂肪来提供能量。“我们的身体似乎是为盛宴和禁食而生,”汉娜·科勒奥娃博士(Dr. Hana Kahleova)说,她是美国洛马林达大学公共健康学院相关研究的作者之一,研究结果发表在《营养学期刊》(The Journal of Nutrition)7月刊上。她说:“进食与禁食之间应该保持规律的周期循环。这似乎是一种固有模式”。

Having the largest meal in the morning appears to have advantages for weight control compared with having a large meal in the evening, she said, since the digestive process and the action of insulin, the pancreatic hormone that the body uses to process the sugars in carbohydrates and store glucose, appear to be at their peak performance early in the day. As a result, “our body can use the nutrients as a source of energy the easiest,” Kahleova said.

她还提到,早餐吃得最丰盛的人,比晚餐最丰盛的人更易控制体重。因为人体需要靠胰岛素分解碳水化合物并存储葡萄糖,而早上人的消化能力最强,同时胰岛素分泌也最旺盛。因此,“我们的身体更易吸收营养,并将其转化为能量,”科勒奥娃说。

A person eating identical meals at different times of the day might deposit more fat after an evening meal than a morning meal, she said.

她还称,如果一个人在一天中不同时间吃完全相同的食物,晚餐会比早餐储存更多的脂肪。

That’s because insulin action is more efficient in the morning, experts say. “If you give a healthy individual a big bolus of glucose in the morning, the blood glucose might stay high one or two hours before coming back to normal,” said Dr. Satchidananda Panda, a professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego. “You take that same normal healthy individual and give them the same bolus of glucose late at night, and now the pancreas is sleeping — literally — and cannot produce enough insulin, and blood glucose will stay high up to three hours.” Doctors once called this “evening diabetes,” he said.

专家认为其原因在于胰岛素作用在早晨最高效。“健康人如果早上摄入一大颗糖丸,血糖会在一两小时后恢复正常,”圣迭戈萨克生物研究学院(Salk Institute for Biological Studies)教授萨特旦安达·潘达博士(Dr. Satchidananda Panda)说:“而晚上由于胰腺在沉睡中——确实是沉睡——分泌胰岛素不足,血糖要三个小时才能降下来。医生称之为‘晚间糖尿病’。”

Intermittent fasting may have other advantages as well.

间歇进行禁食还有很多益处。

“Twenty years of work on animals shows that compared to those that have constant access to food, those on intermittent fasting diets live longer, their brains function better as they get older and the nerve cells respond to the period of going without food by increasing their ability to cope with stress,” said Mark P. Mattson, chief of the National Institute on Aging’s laboratory of neurosciences. “From an evolutionary perspective, it makes sense that animals in the wild — especially predators — would have to function optimally in a fasted state when they haven’t been able to obtain food.”

“20年动物实验表明,与持续进食的动物相比,间歇禁食的动物寿命更长,并且随着年龄增加,脑功能也更强,其神经细胞提高了抗压能力,以此来应对禁食状态,”全美抗衰老协会(National Institute on Aging)神经科学实验室主任马克·P·马特森说:“从进化论的角度看,就更容易理解,野生动物尤其是肉食动物在找不到猎物时,必须在禁食中保持最佳状态。”

Kahleova says the take-home message is like the old proverb, to eat “breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper.”

科勒奥娃博士认为关键点就如谚语中所说:“早餐吃得像皇帝,午餐吃得像王子,晚餐吃得像乞丐”。

That may be a difficult prescription to follow, since family life and social get-togethers so often revolve around sitting down to an expansive meal at the end of the day. Kahleova suggested making the evening meal smaller as often as possible.

但这实现起来恐怕很困难,无论家庭生活还是社交聚会,通常一天结束后大家才能一起坐下来吃一顿丰盛大餐。科勒奥娃博士对此建议,大家平时尽可能地少吃晚餐。

“The message is very straightforward: Make breakfast your largest meal of the day, and eat dinner as your lightest meal of the day,” she said.

“结论很简单明确:早餐应该是一天中最重要的一餐,晚餐则应该是最简单的一餐。”她说。

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