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韩国监狱能否关住三星掌门李在镕?

更新时间:2017-8-29 10:23:47 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Samsung’s Size Could Make It Tough to Keep Its Leader in Prison
韩国监狱能否关住三星掌门李在镕?

SEOUL, South Korea — This is a partial list of the businesses of Samsung, the South Korean business empire: smartphones, microchips, insurance, gas ovens, hospitals, dishwashers, cargo ships, stocks, microwave ovens, apartment buildings, vacuum cleaners, credit cards, pharmaceuticals, air-conditioners and bidets.

韩国首尔——下面列出的只是韩国商业帝国三星集团经营的一些东西:智能手机、微芯片、保险、燃气烤箱、医院、洗碗机、货船、股票、微波炉、公寓楼、吸尘器、信用卡、制药、空调,以及坐浴盆。

Samsung is South Korea’s No. 1 brand and, when all its products are added together, its single biggest export. It dominates South Korean business and social life in a way that can be difficult for outsiders to comprehend.

三星是韩国的第一大品牌,把三星所有的产品都算进来的话,该公司也是韩国最大的出口商。三星集团主导韩国商业和社会生活的程度让外界难以理解。

That dominance may make it difficult to keep its top executive in prison.

这种主导地位也许会使把公司最高领导人送进监狱的事情变得困难。

A South Korean court on Friday shocked the country by sentencing Lee Jae-yong, the third-generation de facto leader of one of the world’s largest business empires, to five years in prison after his conviction of bribery, embezzlement and other charges. Mr. Lee’s attorneys have said they will appeal, and experts predict a fierce legal battle.

韩国一家法院上周五做出震惊全国的判决,认定全球最大商业帝国之一的第三代继承人和实际领导者李在镕犯有行贿和侵占资金等罪行,并判处他五年有期徒刑。李在镕的律师已表示将要上诉,专家预测这将是一场激烈的法律较量。

Mr. Lee is not the first big business figure in South Korea to be convicted, but if he stays in prison it would represent something of a milestone. His father, Samsung’s longtime chief, was twice convicted of crimes and twice pardoned by a South Korean president. Other top business South Korean leaders have avoided conviction, negotiated light sentences or been allowed to run their corporate empires from prison.

李在镕并不是第一位被判有罪的韩国大企业家,但如果他被送进监狱的话,那会是一个某种里程碑。长期担任三星领导人的他的父亲曾两次被判有罪,但两次都被韩国总统赦免了。其他的韩国企业高层领导或避免了有罪判决、通过谈判获得轻刑,或被允许从监狱里经营他们的企业帝国。

South Korea’s government is now run by a president, Moon Jae-in, and a political party that have criticized the excesses of the country’s biggest companies. That has many in South Korea predicting that Mr. Lee, if his conviction is upheld, will serve out his prison term.

韩国政府如今是在文在寅总统的领导之下,现在的执政党曾批评该国最大企业的放肆行为。这让许多韩国人预测,如果上级法院维持对李在镕的有罪判决的话,他将会被送进监狱服刑。

But to many South Koreans, Samsung and its many corporate offshoots symbolize the country’s rise from war and poverty to become one of the original Asian economic success stories. Should Samsung stumble while Mr. Lee is in prison, public pressure could mount to free him.

但对许多韩国人来说,三星集团及其下属的众多企业,是韩国从战争和贫困中崛起、成为亚洲最早的经济成功典范之一的象征。如果三星在李在镕入监期间栽跟头的话,要求释放他的公众压力可能会增长。

“Samsung is the No. 1 brand of Korea, one we’re proud of,” said Cho Wung-ki, a 78-year-old retired businessman, whose son works at a Samsung company that provides engineering services, runs resorts and owns a fashion line.

“三星是韩国的第一大品牌,我们为这个品牌感到自豪,”78岁的退休商人赵云箕(Cho Wung-ki,音)说,他的儿子在三星集团下属的一家公司工作,该公司提供工程服务、经营度假村,还拥有一个时装系列。

“That’s why I don’t believe putting Lee Jae-yong in jail actually helps the country at all.”

“这就是为什么我不认为把李在镕关进监狱对国家有实际帮助的原因。”

Samsung is among a group of family-run companies called chaebol, “rich clan” in Korean. The 10 largest chaebols generate revenue accounting for over 80 percent of South Korea’s gross domestic product. They are among the companies that South Korea’s pre-democratic military rulers partnered with to build a global exporting powerhouse after the Korean War — a partnership that South Korean school textbooks credit with helping the country’s rise.

三星是被称为财阀的家族企业之一,“财阀”的韩文意思是“富有家族”。韩国十大财阀产生的营收额占该国国内生产总值的80%以上。韩国实现民主转型之前,这些财阀与该国的军事统治者搭档,在朝鲜战争后把韩国建成为全球的出口大国之一,韩国学校的教科书中都把国家的崛起归功于这种伙伴关系。

Those partnerships also bred corruption. Six leaders of those 10 giants have been convicted of white-collar crimes, yet many were pardoned or their sentences were commuted.

这种伙伴关系也酝酿了腐败。十大财阀中有六名领导人曾被判犯有白领罪行,但其中许多人被赦免或减刑。

“It’s high time to think hard about whether the chaebol system is the right one for Korea,” said Yoo-Kyung Park, director at APG Asset Management, the investment manager of the Dutch pension fund that holds stakes in Samsung companies. She added, “In the 21st century, you can’t have one person calling the shots. That is too dangerous.”

“财阀体系是否对韩国合适,到了该认真思考这个问题的时候了,”负责管理荷兰养老基金的荷兰汇盈资产管理公司(APG Asset Management)主管朴柳晶(Yoo-Kyung Park,音)说。她还说,“都21世纪了,不该只由一个人来发号施令。那太危险了。”

The sentence could put greater pressure on front-line Samsung executives like Kwon Oh-hyun, head of the company’s huge and profitable semiconductor business. Samsung portrays Mr. Lee, the vice chairman of Samsung Electronics and its acting leader since his father slipped into a coma three years ago, as the company’s strategic visionary, though experts say the businesses are generally run by technocrats.

判决可能给在一线工作的三星高管带来更大的压力,比如三星集团下属的、巨大且高赢利的半导体部门的负责人权五铉(Kwon Oh-hyun)。自从李在镕的父亲三年前陷入昏迷状态以来,虽然三星集团把三星电子副会长、集团代理总管李在镕描述为企业有战略眼光的领袖,但专家们认为,集团的业务通常是由技术官僚管理的。

But even behind bars, Mr. Lee could still hold effective control over the Samsung empire. Other South Korean companies have been run by powerful family members behind bars, and Mr. Lee will most likely have significant access to top Samsung executives while in prison.

但是,即使李在镕身陷囹圄,他仍能有效地控制三星帝国。有过有权势的家族成员从监狱中经营其他韩国公司的例子,李在镕在服刑期间很可能会与三星高管有很多接触。

”If they need to pursue M.&A.s and make crucial investments, they will do it,” said Lee Seung-woo, a senior analyst at Eugene Investment & Securities in Seoul, referring to mergers and acquisitions. “They would have a road map and fundamentally the course wouldn’t be altered.”

“如果他们需要进行并购和关键投资的话,他们会照样做,”首尔尤金投资与证券(Eugene Investment&Securities)的资深分析师李承宇(Lee Seung-woo,音)说。“他们会有一张路线图,从根本上来说,企业的行动方向不会改变。”

Part of that power comes from the sheer breadth of the Samsung business. Beyond its famous smartphone and television brands, it makes heavy equipment like cargo ships and even manages some of the country’s most respected hospitals. Samsung sponsors some of South Korea’s highest-achieving athletes, and many children of the elite seek employment there.

这种力量部分来自于三星业务的广泛程度。除了有名的智能手机和电视品牌外,三星还制造货船等重型设备,甚至经营韩国一些最受尊重的医院。三星是韩国一些成绩最好的运动员的赞助商,许多精英的子女想在三星工作。

Samsung was also among the first major businesses to offer name-brand apartments. Samsung built scores of apartment complexes around the country under brand names that included Raemian, which means “may the future be beautiful and comfortable.” The complexes, which became popular in a country where American-style single-family houses are unusual, offered a brand and reputation that suggested a strong resale value. They also symbolized aspirational wealth, as portrayed in a 2007 commercial in which a boy who lives in a Raemian complex wins over a classmate through its well-appointed playground.

三星也是最早提供名牌公寓的大型企业之一。三星在全国各地建设了几十处名牌住宅楼群,包括“来美安”(Raemian)品牌的,该品牌的意思是“让未来美丽安逸”。韩国很少有美国式的独家住房,更受欢迎的是住宅楼群,楼群的品牌和声誉意味着更高的转售价值。它们也象征着致富的渴望,比如,在2007年播放的一个商业广告中,一个生活在“来美安”楼群的男孩,靠小区设备齐全的儿童游戏场赢得了一位同学的支持。

Samsung’s brands in general enjoy a reputation for quality in a country that for decades struggled to cast off one for cheap manufacturing. Daniel Lee, who works as a staff member for a university in Seoul and just got married, turned to Samsung for almost every appliance in his apartment, including a TV, washing machine, dryer, vacuum cleaner, refrigerator, air-conditioner and electric bidet. He wanted to get a dishwasher from Samsung, he said, but it did not sell a size that fit in his kitchen.

三星品牌通常享有高质量的声誉,数十年来,韩国一直想摆脱廉价制造商的名声。丹尼尔·李(Daniel Lee)是首尔一所大学的工作人员,刚结婚不久,他公寓里几乎所有的家电都是三星的,包括电视机、洗衣机、烘干机、吸尘器、冰箱、空调和电熨斗。他说,他也曾想买一台三星牌的洗碗机,但三星不出售能安在他厨房里那种大小的机器。

“I’ve had good experiences with Samsung products and customer service,” said Mr. Lee, who is no relation to the Samsung-controlling family.

“我对三星产品和客户服务有很好的经历,”丹尼尔·李说,他与三星控股家族没有亲戚关系。

That combination of business success and familial power-hoarding complicates Mr. Lee’s fate. In some ways, his sentence reflects frustration from South Koreans outraged that his father, Lee Kun-hee, twice avoided prison despite his convictions.

企业成功与家族揽权的组合让李在镕的命运变得复杂。从某个角度来看,对他的判决反映了韩国人对他父亲的不满,他的父亲李健熙虽然两次被判有罪,但两次都没进监狱。

At the same time, the Lee family rivets attention in ways that would be unusual for business figures in other countries. When the younger Mr. Lee appeared at a parliamentary hearing on the bribery scandal last year, the lip balm he sporadically used on camera was among the top-searched items on Naver, the country’s most popular search engine.

与此同时,李氏家族吸引注意力的能力在其他国家的商业人士中会很少见。李在镕去年出现在议会的一个关于贿赂丑闻的听证会上时,他在摄影机前偶尔使用的唇膏成了韩国最受欢迎的搜索引擎Naver上检索最多的商品之一。

“They are treated like the royal family,” said Michael Breen, a longtime observer of South Korea and author of a book on its rise. “The country doesn’t like it, but they accept it because they believe the economy depends on the chaebol and the chaebol depend on the families.”

“他们被当作皇室来对待,”迈克尔·布瑞恩(Michael Breen)说,他对韩国有长期观察,写过一本关于韩国崛起的书。“韩国人虽然不喜欢、但他们接受这种做法,因为他们认为,韩国经济靠这些财阀,而财阀靠这些家庭。”

Kim On-soo, 30-year-old administrative staff member of a university in the South Korean city of Daejeon, said he had been taught from an early age that the more South Korean companies exported, the better it was for the country. Samsung, with its world-famous Galaxy brand of smartphones, represented an example of that success.

韩国大田市一所大学30岁的行政人员金温沭(Kim On-soo,音)说,他从小受的都是这种教育,韩国公司出口的越多,对国家的好处就越多。三星闻名世界的Galaxy牌智能手机就是这种成功的代表案例。

“Until the Galaxy was released, my American friends thought Samsung was Japanese,” he said.

“直到Galaxy发布之前,我的美国朋友都以为三星是日本公司,”他说。

Mr. Kim said the bribery trial had soured his view of Samsung, though he would still buy the brand.

金温沭说,虽然贿赂案的审判让他对三星的看法变坏了,但他仍会买三星品牌的产品。

“I sometimes wonder if we’ve all been brainwashed,” he said.

“我有时想知道,我们是不是都被洗脑了,”他说。

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