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“一场缓慢的死亡”,也门陷入全球最严重人道危机

更新时间:2017-8-25 9:55:40 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

‘It’s a Slow Death’: The World’s Worst Humanitarian Crisis
“一场缓慢的死亡”,也门陷入全球最严重人道危机

SANAA, Yemen — After 2 1/2 years of war, little is functioning in Yemen.

经历了两年半的战争后,也门还在运行的社会功能所剩无几。

Repeated bombings have crippled bridges, hospitals and factories. Many doctors and civil servants have gone unpaid for more than a year. Malnutrition and poor sanitation have made the Middle Eastern country vulnerable to diseases that most of the world has confined to the history books.

持续的爆炸毁坏了桥梁、医院和工厂。许多医生和公务员已经超过一年拿不到薪水。营养不良和糟糕的卫生条件让这个中东国家面对世界大多数地方只会在历史书籍里发现的疾病束手无策。

In just three months, cholera has killed nearly 2,000 people and infected more than half a million, one of the world’s largest outbreaks in the past 50 years.

仅仅三个月内,霍乱已导致近2000人丧生,超过50万人受感染,这是过去50年来全球最严重的疾病大爆发之一。

“It’s a slow death,” said Yakoub al-Jayefi, a Yemeni soldier who has not collected a salary in eight months, and whose 6-year-old daughter, Shaima, was being treated for malnutrition at a clinic in the Yemeni capital, Sanaa.

“这是一场缓慢的死亡,”也门士兵雅各布·阿-杰菲(Yakoub al-Jayefi)说。他已经8个月没有领到工资,而他6岁的女儿莎依玛正在首都萨那的一家诊所接受营养不良治疗。

Since the family’s savings ran out, they had lived mostly off milk and yogurt from neighbors. But that wasn’t enough to keep his daughter healthy, and her skin went pale as she grew thin.

由于家庭存款耗尽,他们主要以邻居给的牛奶和酸奶为食。但那不足以维持他女儿的健康,她日渐消瘦,面色苍白。

Like more than half of Yemenis, the family did not have immediate access to a working medical center, so Jayefi borrowed money from friends and relatives to take his daughter to the capital.

和超过半数的也门人一样,他们一家无法立即获得来自医疗中心的帮助,因此杰菲从朋友和亲戚那里借钱送女儿到首都治病。

“We’re just waiting for doom or for a breakthrough from heaven,” he said.

“我们只是在等待死亡,或者从天而降的转折,”他说。

How did a country in a region with such great wealth, and under the close watch of the United States and Saudi Arabia, fall so swiftly into crisis?

一个位于富饶区域,处在美国和沙特阿拉伯密切关注之下的国家,是如何迅速跌入危机的?

Yemen has long been the Arab world’s poorest country and suffered from frequent local armed conflicts. The most recent trouble started in 2014, when the Houthis, rebels from the north, allied with parts of the Yemeni military and stormed the capital, forcing the internationally recognized government into exile.

长期以来,也门是阿拉伯世界里最贫穷的国家,频繁遭受地方武装冲突。最近的灾难从2014年开始,北部叛军胡塞武装(Houthis)和也门部分军队结盟袭击了首都,迫使国际公认的政府流亡海外。

In March 2015, Saudi Arabia and a coalition of Arab nations launched a military campaign aimed at pushing back the Houthis and restoring the government.

2015年3月,沙特和阿拉伯国家联盟启动了对抗胡塞武装、恢复也门政府的军事项目。

The campaign has so far failed to do so, and the country remains split between Houthi-controlled territory in the west and land controlled by the government and its Arab backers in the south and east.

该项目到目前为止没有取得成功,也门仍处于胡塞武装控制西部领土、政府以及阿拉伯支持者掌控南部和东部的分裂状态。

Many coalition airstrikes have killed and wounded civilians, including strikes on Wednesday around the capital. The bombings have also heavily damaged Yemen’s infrastructure, including a crucial seaport and important bridges as well as hospitals, sewage facilities and civilian factories.

许多联盟的空袭造成平民丧生和受伤,包括周三在首都附近的袭击。爆炸同样严重破坏了也门的基础设施,包括一个重要的海港、数座桥梁,以及医院、污水处理设施和民用工厂。

Services that Yemenis have depended on are gone, and the destruction has undermined the country’s already weak economy. It has also made it harder for humanitarian organizations to bring in and distribute aid.

也门人依赖的服务消失了,这些破坏进一步侵蚀了该国薄弱的经济,也让人道主义机构更难把救助资源带进该国并进行分配。

The Saudi-led coalition has also kept Sanaa’s international airport closed to civilian air traffic for more than a year, meaning that merchants cannot fly goods in, and sick and wounded Yemenis cannot fly abroad for treatment. Many of them have died.

沙特领导的联盟关闭了萨那国际机场的民用交通,意味着商家不能把货物用飞机载入国内,生病和受伤的也门人也无法飞到国外接受治疗。这项举措已实施超过一年,很多伤病人士已经死亡。

Neither of Yemen’s two competing administrations has paid regular salaries to many civil servants in over a year, impoverishing their families as there is little other work to be found. Among those affected are professionals whose work is essential to dealing with the crisis, like doctors, nurses and sewage system technicians, leading to the near collapse of their sectors.

近一年多以来,也门两个对立的势力都没有给众多公务员支付常规工资。由于很难找到别的工作,这些人的家庭陷入贫困。受影响的还包括那些对解决这场危机至关重要的专业人士,如医生、护士和污水处理系统技术人员,他们的行业几乎瘫痪。

Damage from the war has turned Yemen into a fertile environment for cholera, a bacterial infection spread by water contaminated with feces. As garbage has piled up and sewage systems have failed, more Yemenis are relying on easily polluted wells for drinking water. Heavy rains since April accelerated the wells’ contamination.

战争的摧残让霍乱肆行,这是一种通过被排泄物污染的水传播的细菌感染。随着垃圾堆积如山、污水处理系统失效,更多的也门人依靠容易被污染的水井获取饮用水。自4月开始的暴雨加重了水井的受污情况。

In developed countries, cholera is not life-threatening and can be easily treated, with antibiotics if severe. But in Yemen, rampant malnutrition has made many people, particularly children, especially vulnerable to the disease.

在发达国家,霍乱并不致命,能被简单治疗,严重的情况可以用抗生素治愈。但在也门,普遍的营养不良导致很多人,尤其是儿童非常容易被它感染。

“With the malnutrition we have among children, if they get diarrhea, they are not going to get better,” said Meritxell Relano, the United Nations Children’s Fund representative in Yemen.

“由于这里的儿童营养不良,如果他们有腹泻,就不会康复,”联合国儿童基金会也门代表梅莉赤尔·雷兰诺(Meritxell Relano)说。

The United Nations has called the situation the world’s largest humanitarian crisis, with more than 10 million people who require immediate assistance. And the situation could become even worse. The United Nations says that Yemen needs $2.3 billion in humanitarian aid this year, but that only 41 percent of that amount has been received.

联合国将也门的情况称为全球最严重的人道主义危机,超过一千万人需要立刻救援。情况还可能进一步恶化。该机构称,也门今年需要23亿美元的人道主义救援,但目前只收到了其中的41%。

Peter Salama, the executive director of the World Health Organization’s health emergencies program, warned that as the state fails, “the manifestation of that now is cholera, but there could be in the future other epidemics that Yemen could be at the center of.”

世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)突发卫生事件项目执行主管彼得·萨拉马(Peter Salama)警告说,当政府不能履行职责的时候,“当下的表现是霍乱,但也门未来可能还会成为其他流行病发作的中心。”

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