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10天10个博物馆:网络直播带乡村孩子看世界

更新时间:2017-8-24 10:06:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

10 Museums in 10 Days? A Chinese Start-Up (Virtually) Gives Children a Tour
10天10个博物馆:网络直播带乡村孩子看世界

HONG KONG — Last weekend: the Uffizi Gallery in Florence and the Musée d’Orsay in Paris. By Wednesday: the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, the Museum of Modern Artin New York and the German Historical Museum in Berlin.

香港——周末:佛罗伦萨的乌菲兹美术馆和巴黎的奥赛博物馆。周三:华盛顿的国家航空航天博物馆、纽约的现代艺术博物馆和柏林的德国历史博物馆。

And that’s just the half of it.

这只是行程的一半。

Children from more than 180,000 Chinese households are on a virtual tour this week of 10 famous museums. The two-hour daily broadcasts combine slick animations, clips from Chinese presenters’ recent trips to the museums and live-streamed commentary from Chinese academics in a Shanghai studio.

本周,来自逾18万个中国家庭的孩子虚拟参观了10个著名博物馆。这些每场约两小时的网上直播将制作娴熟的动画与中文主持人最近去博物馆录制的剪辑和上海工作室里中国学者的实时评论结合起来。

The families each paid Aha School, an education start-up based in Shanghai that produced the shows, the equivalent of $2.85 to watch, and the company is donating the broadcast feed to 174 rural classrooms as a public service.

每个家庭向制作这个节目的上海教育初创公司芝麻学社支付19.9元人民币的门票,公司也正在把直播产品作为公共服务捐献给174个农村教室。

“The children here don’t have access to any museums, let alone famous ones,” Ma Xiaoyan, a teacher at the Akeli Center School in a rural corner of the southwestern province of Sichuan, said by telephone. “For many of them, even going to the closest town is difficult because their families don’t have money for travel.”

“这里的孩子们没有什么博物馆可去,更别提著名博物馆了,”阿科里乡中心校老师马晓燕(音)说,该校位于中国西南四川省偏远农村的一角。“对许多这些孩子来说,就连去最近的镇子也很困难,因为他们家里拿不出路费。”

Education experts say the project — “100,000 Kids Touring the World’s Top 10 Museums” — highlights how live-streaming, a technology that is already widely popular on Chinese social media platforms, could help improve long-distance education in China.

教育专家说,这个名为“十万少年漫游世界十大博物馆”的项目突显了网上直播技术可能会帮助中国改善远程教育的能力,网上直播已在中国社交媒体平台上非常流行。

But educational projects that serve rural areas, however beneficial, also call attention to systemic inequalities in China’s education system, the experts said.

但是,这些专家表示,为农村地区服务的教育项目,不管它们有多少好处,都免不了让人们关注中国教育体制中系统性不平等的问题。

“It’s definitely a great model,” Lingxin Hao, a sociology professor at Johns Hopkins University who studies rural education in China, said of the virtual museum project. “But all the N.G.O.s and charities cannot solve the problems because the problems have to be changed by policy makers in the central government. They have to face the problems and redistribute resources.”

“这的确是一个很好的模式,”研究中国农村教育的约翰霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University)社会学教授郝令昕在提到虚拟博物馆项目时说。“但是,所有这些非政府组织和慈善机构都不能解决问题,因为这需要由中央政府的决策者们来改变。他们必须正视问题,必须重新分配资源。”

The Chinese government has invested heavily in rural education over the past decade, and the physical results are clear in many areas, said Wang Dan, an associate professor of education at the University of Hong Kong. For example, she said, many schools have received new libraries or other infrastructure upgrades, along with internet connections, digital projectors and electronic whiteboards.

香港大学教育学系副教授王丹说,中国政府在过去十年里对农村教育已有很大投入,在许多地区,这些投入的物质效果也很明显。她说,比如,许多学校都得到了新图书馆或其他基础设施方面的升级,还连接了互联网,有了数字投影仪和电子白板。

But many rural teachers have also moved to urban areas, she added, and government incentives to entice teachers to move to remote areas often are not generous enough.

但是,许多农村教师也在流向城市地区,她补充说,而且政府鼓励教师去边远地区的奖励往往不够慷慨。

To compensate, experts say, educators in Chinese cities have been experimenting with programs in which lessons are beamed into rural classrooms.

专家说,为了补偿农村教育的不足,中国城市的教育工作者们一直在尝试向农村的教室进行教学直播的项目。

The Communist Youth League, for example, recently set up a free account on WeChat, a messaging service, that live-streams lessons in Chinese, English and mathematics to primary- and secondary-school pupils.

比如,共青团最近建了一个微信账户,用它免费向中小学学生直播语文、英文和数学课程。

Educational live-streaming is growing in China as the medium expands beyond purely social uses, according to an April report by Daxue Consulting, a market-research firm based in Beijing and Shanghai. Daxue cited its own analysis of the Chinese live-stream platform YY, in which 32 of 1,051 live-stream feeds on a day in March were related to education.

据在北京和上海有办事处的市场研究公司DX咨询今年4月发布的一份报告,随着中国的网上直播向纯社交以外的领域扩展,教育方面的直播正变得越来越多。DX咨询在报告中引用了自己对中国网上直播平台YY的分析,今年3月,该平台上的1051个网上直播中,有32个与教育有关。

“Although the ratio of education and technology live streaming is quite small, it’s a change from the beginning stages that only featured beautiful girls,” the report said.

“虽然涉及教育和技术的网上直播比例仍相对较小,但与最初只有漂亮女孩的阶段相比,这是一种变化,”报告说。

A few urban schools in China have also begun sharing their lessons with rural schools through internet feeds, Professor Wang said.

王丹说,中国已有几所城市学校开始通过互联网与农村的学校共享授课。

But such initiatives often fall flat in rural classrooms, she said, in part because students there have such vastly different backgrounds and learning styles.

但她说,这种做法在农村的教室里往往效果不佳,部分原因是,农村学生的家庭背景和学习风格有很大差别。

“I don’t think this is the way to solve rural education problems, because teaching is very contextualized,” she said. “What works in Beijing may not work in a rural school.”

“我不觉得这是解决农村教育问题的方法,因为教学方法与环境有密切关系,”她说。“在北京有效的方法,在农村的学校可能行不通。”

Professor Hao said that the migration of rural families to urban areas had prompted broad “institutional segregation” in China. Children of rural migrants are often prevented from enrolling in urban schools, for example, because they lack an urban hukou, a crucial household registration document.

郝令昕说,农村家庭向城市地区的迁徙,已给中国带来了普遍的“制度性分异”。比如,农民工的孩子往往不能在城市的学校注册入学,因为他们没有注册所需的关键文件——城市户口。

She said the only way to end the segregation would be to pass laws that guarantee equal opportunity in education for all citizens.

她说,结束这种分异的唯一办法是用立法来保障所有公民在接受教育上机会平等。

For now, though, a proliferation of projects like “100,000 Kids Touring the World’s Top 10 Museums” could at least highlight the rural-urban divide.

但就目前而言,像“十万少年漫游世界十大博物馆”这类项目的涌现,可以至少把城乡差距突出地表现出来。

Pan Lisheng, the director of the virtual museums project for Aha School and a former television journalist, said the problem was perhaps not that electronic lesson feeds were bad in principle, but rather that few educators in China had figured out how to make them interesting.

芝麻学社虚拟博物馆项目主任、曾担任过电视记者的潘丽生(音)说,问题可能并不是电子课程直播本身很糟糕,而是中国几乎还没有教育工作者想出了如何让这种授课方式有趣的办法。

China’s rural areas already have internet access, she said, adding, “The key problem is what to get from the internet.”

她说,中国农村已经接入互联网,并说,“关键问题是能从互联网上得到什么。”

For the museum project, she said, she recruited a team of nearly 50 people to design graphics, travel to the 10 museums, comment on artworks and science exhibitions, and stitch all the material into a two-hour daily broadcast that would interest a child from any background. It is being distributed through CCtalk, a Chinese app that specializes in educational live-streaming.

她说,为了这个博物馆项目,她招募了一个近50人团队来做图片设计,前往10个博物馆,对展品的艺术性和科学性进行评论,并将这些材料编辑成让来自任何家庭背景的孩子都感兴趣的每场两小时的视频。视频正在通过专门从事教育直播的中文应用程序CCtalk发行。

“Every child is a unique flower,” Ms. Pan said.

“每个孩子都是一朵独一无二的花儿,”潘丽生说。

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