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“反法”、“绿帽”:美国极端政治术语一览

更新时间:2017-8-16 20:46:26 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Alt-Right, Alt-Left, Antifa: A Glossary of Extremist Language
“反法”、“绿帽”:美国极端政治术语一览

President Trump angrily denounced the so-called alt-left at a news conference on Tuesday, claiming that the group attacked followers of the so-called alt-right at a white supremacist rally that exploded into deadly violence in Charlottesville, Va., on Saturday.

特朗普总统于周二在新闻发布会上愤怒谴责所谓的另类左翼(alt-left),声称该团体于周六在弗吉尼亚州夏洛茨维尔(Charlottesville)的一场白人至上主义集会上袭击了所谓另类右翼(alt-right)群体的成员。那场集会最终发展成为暴力事件,导致有人丧生。

“What about the ‘alt-left’ that came charging at the, as you say, the ‘alt-right’? Do they have any semblance of guilt?” he asked. There was “blame on both sides,” he said. “I have no doubt about it.”

“那‘另类左翼’算怎么回事,他们冲击你们所说的‘另类右翼’,可他们表现出内疚的样子来了吗?”他问。“双方都有责任,”他说。“我毫不怀疑这一点。”

Both phrases are part of a broad lexicon of far-right terminology that has become important to understanding American politics during the Trump administration. Many of these terms have their roots in movements that are racist, anti-Semitic and sexist.

这两个词都属于极右翼创造的大量术语,在特朗普任内,这些词成了理解美国政治的重要一环。其中许多术语的根源来自于种族主义、反犹太主义和性别歧视运动。

Here is a brief guide to the meaning of those expressions and others used by white supremacists and far-right extremists.

下面简要介绍白人至上主义者和极右极端主义者的若干用语。

Alt-Right

另类右翼(Alt-Right)

The “alt-right” is a racist, far-right movement based on an ideology of white nationalism and anti-Semitism. Many news organizations do not use the term, preferring terms like “white nationalism” and “far-right.”

“另类右翼”是一场种族主义极右翼运动,基于白人民族主义和反犹太主义意识形态。许多新闻机构不使用这个词,更愿意使用“白人民族主义”和“极右”等词语。

The movement’s self-professed goal is the creation of a white state and the destruction of “leftism,” which it calls “an ideology of death.” Richard Spencer, a leader in the movement, has described the movement as “identity politics for white people.”

这个运动自诩的目标是创造一个白人的国家,摧毁“左派”,并将左派称为“死亡的意识形态”。另类右翼的领导人之一理查德·斯潘塞(Richard Spencer)形容该运动为“白人的身份政治。”

It is also anti-immigrant, anti-feminist and opposed to homosexuality and gay and transgender rights. It is highly decentralized but has a wide online presence, where its ideology is spread via racist or sexist memes with a satirical edge.

另类右翼也反对移民,反对女权主义,反对同性恋和跨性别者权利。它是高度分散的,但在网络上广泛存在,通过带有讽刺色彩的种族主义或性别歧视米姆(memes)在网络上传播其意识形态。

It believes that higher education is “only appropriate for a cognitive elite” and that most citizens should be educated in trade schools or apprenticeships.

它认为,高等教育“只适合认知方面的精英”,大多数公民应该在技校或学徒工作中接受教育。

Alt-Left

另类左翼(Alt-Left)

Researchers who study extremist groups in the United States say there is no such thing as the “alt-left.” Mark Pitcavage, an analyst at the Anti-Defamation League, said the word was made up to create a false equivalence between the far-right and “anything vaguely left-seeming that they didn’t like.”

研究美国极端主义团体的学者说,根本没有“另类左翼”这种东西。反诽谤联盟(Anti-Defamation League)的分析师马克·皮特卡瓦奇(Mark Pitcavage)说,这个词之所以被造出来,是为了创造一个和极右翼相当的虚假术语,用来描述“任何他们不喜欢,看上去又隐约好像是左翼的东西”。

Some centrist liberals have taken to using this term.

一些中间派自由主义者已经开始使用这个术语。

“It did not arise organically, and it refers to no actual group or movement or network,” Mr. Pitcavage said in an email. “It’s just a made-up epithet, similar to certain people calling any news they don’t like ‘fake news.’”

“它并不是自然而然地发生,也不指代任何实际的团体、运动或网络,”皮特卡瓦奇在电子邮件中说。“这只是一个编造出来的表述,类似于某些人把任何他们不喜欢的新闻都称为‘假新闻’。”

On Tuesday, Mr. Trump said the “alt-left” was partly to blame for the Charlottesville violence, during which a counterprotester, Heather Heyer, was killed.

周二,特朗普说,“另类左翼”也要为夏洛茨维尔的暴力事件负一部分责任,抗议的反对者希瑟·海耶尔(Heather Heyer)在暴力冲突中丧生。

Alt-Light

另类温和派(Alt-Light)

The “alt-light” comprises members of the far-right who once fell under the “alt-right” umbrella but have since split from the group because, by and large, racism and anti-Semitism are not central to its far-right nationalist views, according to Ryan Lenz, the editor of Hatewatch, a publication of the Southern Poverty Law Center. Members of the alt-right mocked these dissidents as “the alt-light.”

南方贫穷法律中心(Southern Poverty Law Center)出版物《仇恨观察》(Hatewatch)的编辑瑞安·伦茨(Ryan Lenz)说,“另类温和派”包括曾经聚集在“另类右翼”大旗下的极右翼成员,但他们从这个集团中分裂出来,多少是因为种族主义与反犹太主义并不是他们极右民族主义观点的核心。另类右翼人士嘲笑这些异见者是“另类温和派”。

“The alt-light is the alt-right without the racist overtones but it is hard to differentiate it sometimes because you’re looking at people who sometimes dance between both camps,” he said.

“另类温和派是没有种族主义色彩的另类右翼,但是二者有时候很难区分,因为你能看到一些人有时会在两个阵营之间摇摆,”他说。

The two groups often feud online over “the Jewish Question,” or whether Jews profit by secretly manipulating the government and the media.

这两个群体经常在网上就“犹太人问题”,或犹太人是否通过秘密操纵政府与媒体而获利展开争论。

Antifa

反法(Antifa)

“Antifa” is a contraction of the word “anti-fascist.” It was coined in Germany in the 1960s and 1970s by a network of groups that spread across Europe to confront right-wing extremists, according to Mr. Pitcavage. A similar movement emerged in the 1980s in the United States and has grown as the “alt-right” has risen to prominence.

“反法”是“反法西斯”(anti-fascist)一词的缩写。根据皮特卡瓦奇的说法,它是六七十年代在德国产生的,由欧洲各地一系列反对右翼极端主义者的团体所创造。美国在1980年代出现了类似的运动,随着“另类右翼”的崛起,“反法”运动也开始发展。

For some so-called antifa members, the goal is to physically confront white supremacists. “If they can get at them, to assault them and engage in street fighting,” Mr. Pitcavage said. Mr. Lenz, at the Southern Poverty Law Center, called the group “an old left-wing extremist movement.”

对于一些所谓的“反法”成员来说,他们的目标是与白人至上主义者展开身体对抗。皮特卡瓦奇说:“如果他们能遇到白人至上主义者,就要攻击这些人,和他们当街打斗。”南方贫困法律中心的伦茨说这个群体是“老派左翼极端主义运动”。

Members of the “alt-right” broadly portray protesters who oppose them as “antifa,” or the “alt-left,” and say they bear some responsibility for any violence that ensues — a claim made by Mr. Trump on Tuesday.

“另类右翼”的成员把反对他们的抗议者大体描述为“反法”或“另类左翼”,并说这些人对抗议中随之而来的暴力负有一些责任——周二,特朗普的主张也是这样的。

But analysts said comparing antifa and neo-Nazi or white supremacist protesters is a false equivalence.

但分析人士认为,将“反法”和新纳粹或白人至上主义示威者相提并论是错误的。

Cuck

绿帽(Cuck)

“Cuck” is an insult used by the “alt-right” to attack the masculinity of an opponent, originally other conservatives, whom the movement deemed insufficiently committed to racism and anti-Semitism.

“绿帽”是“另类右翼”用来攻击对手缺乏男性气质的侮辱词语,最早是用来攻击并不完全致力于种族主义和反犹太主义的其他保守派。

It is short for “cuckold,” a word dating back to the Middle Ages that means a man who knows his wife is sleeping with other men and does not object. Mr. Lenz said the use of the word by the “alt-right” often has racial overtones.

它是“戴绿帽者”(cuckold)的缩写,这个词可以追溯到中世纪,用来形容知道自己的妻子正和其他男人睡觉也不表示反对的丈夫。伦茨说,“另类右翼”使用这个词的时候,通常带有种族主义色彩。

S.J.W.

SJW

S.J.W. is short for “social justice warrior” and is used by the right as an epithet for someone who advocates liberal causes like feminism, racial justice or gay and transgender rights. It is also sometimes used to imply that a person’s online advocacy of a cause is insincere or done for appearances. It became widely used during “GamerGate,” a controversy that began in 2014 over sexism in video game subcultures.

SJW是“社会正义战士”(social justice warrior)的缩写,被右翼用来描述那些倡导女权主义、种族正义或同性恋及跨性别权利等自由主义事业的人。这个词有时也用来暗示某人在网上宣传一项事业时并不真诚,或者只是为了装样子。它在“游戏玩家门”(GamerGate)中被广泛使用,那是自2014年开始的一场争议,讨论电子游戏亚文化中的性别歧视问题。

Mr. Lenz, whose organization has specific criteria for which groups it classifies as Nazi organizations, said the right uses the phrase “to rhetorically address the fact that the left sometimes calls anyone who disagrees with it Nazis.” He said the alt-right created the term so its followers had a similar blanket term to deride the left.

对于哪些群体可以被纳入纳粹组织的范畴,伦茨所在的机构有非常具体的标准,他说,右翼使用“SJW”这个词是要“夸张地表明左翼有时会把任何不赞同自己观点的人称为纳粹这一事实”。他说,另类右翼造出这个词,好让自己的追随者有一个和“纳粹”类似的大帽子,可以拿来嘲笑左派。

Blood and Soil

鲜血与土地(Blood and Soil)

Video taken at the white supremacist rally in Charlottesville on Saturday showed marchers chanting “blood and soil.” The phrase is a 19th-century German nationalist term that connotes a mystical bond between the blood of an ethnic group and the soil of their country.

周六在夏洛茨维尔的白人至上主义者集会上拍下的视频显示,游行者高喊着“鲜血与土地”。这是19世纪德国民族主义的用语,意味着民族血统与国家领土之间的神秘纽带。

It was used as a Nazi slogan in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s and since then “has been transported to neo-Nazi groups and other white supremacists around the world,” Mr. Pitcavage said. It is one of several Nazi symbols that has been adopted as a slogan by some members of the “alt-right.”

皮特卡瓦奇说,在二十世纪三四十年代,它在德国被用作纳粹口号,此后“流传到新纳粹集团和世界各地其他白人至上主义者当中”。它和其他几个纳粹的象征一起,被“另类右翼”的一些成员当做口号。

Globalism

全球主义(Globalism)

Globalism is sometimes used as a synonym for globalization, the network of economic interconnection that became the dominant international system after the Cold War. The word has become more commonly used since Mr. Trump railed against globalism frequently on the campaign trail.

全球主义有时被用作全球化(globalization)的同义词,也就是经济的相互联系网络成为冷战后主导的国际体系。自从特朗普在竞选活动中频频反对全球主义以来,这个词已经被滥用。

For the far-right, globalism has long had distinct xenophobic, anti-immigrant and anti-Semitic overtones. It refers to a conspiratorial worldview: a cabal that likes open borders, diversity and weak nation states, and that dislikes white people, Christianity and the traditional culture of their own country.

对于极右翼来说,全球主义显然早已不同于仇外心理、反移民和反犹太主义的基调。它指的是一个阴谋论的世界观:一个阴谋小集团,喜欢开放边境、多元化,淡化民族国家概念,并且不喜欢白人、基督教和自己国家的传统文化。

White Genocide

白人种族灭绝(White Genocide)

White genocide is a white nationalist belief that white people, as a race, are endangered and face extinction as a result of nonwhite immigration and marriage between the races, a process being manipulated by Jews, according to Mr. Lenz. It is the underlying concept behind far-right, anti-immigration arguments, especially those aimed at immigrants who are not white Christians.

根据伦茨的说法,白人种族灭绝是指:一些白人民族主义者相信,非白人移民以及白人和其他种族通婚,威胁到了白种人的生存,令其濒临灭绝,而且这个过程受到犹太人的操纵。这是极右翼反移民论的基本观念,特别针对那些不是白人基督徒的移民。

The concept was popularized by Bob Whitaker, a former economics professor and Reagan appointee to the Office of Personnel Management, who wrote a 221 word “mantra” on the subject that ended with the rallying cry: “Anti-racist is code word for anti-white.”

这个概念由前经济学教授、里根任命的人事管理办公室人员鲍勃·惠特克(Bob Whitaker)推向大众,他就这一问题写下一篇221词的“箴言”,最后一句话高声疾呼“反种族主义是反白人的代名词。”

Mr. Pitcavage says the concept of white genocide is often communicated online through a white supremacist saying that is called the Fourteen Words: “We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children.”

皮特卡瓦奇说,在网上,白人种族灭绝观念往往是通过一句被称为“十四词”(Fourteen Words)的白人至上主义口号传播:“我们必须确保我们的存在和白人孩子的未来”(We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children)。

The saying was created by David Lane, a white supremacist sentenced to 190 years in prison in connection with the 1984 murder of the Jewish radio host Alan Berg.

这句话最早是白人至上主义者戴维·莱恩(David Lane)说的,1984年,他因涉犹太电台主持人艾伦·伯格(Alan Berg)谋杀案被判入狱190年。

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