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兄弟会虐死案背后(二):致命的仪式

更新时间:2017-8-12 10:43:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

What a Fraternity Hazing Death Revealed About the Painful Search for an Asian-American Identity
兄弟会虐死案背后(二):致命的仪式

“Asian-­American’’ is a mostly meaningless term. Nobody grows up speaking Asian-­American, nobody sits down to Asian-­American food with their Asian-­American parents and nobody goes on pilgrimages back to their motherland of Asian-­America. Michael Deng and his fraternity brothers were from Chinese families and grew up in Queens, and they have nothing in common with me — someone who was born in Korea and grew up in Boston and North Carolina. We share stereotypes, mostly — tiger moms, music lessons and the unexamined march toward success, however it’s defined. My Korean upbringing, I’ve found, has more in common with that of the children of Jewish and West African immigrants than that of the Chinese and Japanese in the United States — with whom I share only the anxiety that if one of us is put up against the wall, the other will most likely be standing next to him.

“亚裔美国人”是一个大体上没什么意义的说法。没有谁是说亚裔美国语长大的,没有谁和自己的亚裔美国家长一起吃亚裔美国食物,也没有谁回到自己的祖国亚裔美国去朝圣。邓俊贤以及他在兄弟会的朋友出身于华裔家庭,成长于皇后区,与我毫无共同之处——我在韩国出生,在波士顿和北卡罗来纳州长大成人。但我们基本承受着一些共同的刻板印象——虎妈,音乐课,不经审视的通往成功之路——不管它们被如何定义。我发现,自己作为韩裔的成长经历,与美国的犹太及西非移民的子女,而非中国和日本移民的子女更为相像。我和后者唯一的共同点是心怀同样的焦虑:我们中如果有一个被按在墙上,接着极有可能轮到另一个人。

Discrimination is what really binds Asian-­Americans together. The early scholars of Asian-­American studies came out of the ‘‘Third World Liberation Front’’ of the late ’60s, which pushed against the Eurocentric bent of the academy. When Asian-­American-­studies programs began spreading in California in the early ’70s, their curriculums grew out of personal narratives of oppression, solidarity forged through the exhumation of common hardships. ‘‘Roots: An Asian-­American Reader,’’ one of the first textbooks offered to Asian-­American-­studies students at U.C.L.A., was published in 1971; the roots of the title referred not to some collective Asian heritage but, the editors wrote, to the ‘‘ ‘roots’ of the issues facing Asians in America.’’

歧视真的是把亚裔美国人联系起来的东西。早期的一些致力于亚裔美国人研究的学者,出自第三世界解放运动阵线(The Third World Liberation Front),那是一个与大学校园内主要着眼于欧洲裔美国人问题的倾向相对抗的组织。当亚裔美国研究项目于1970年代初开始在加州开枝散叶的时候,其课程源自关于压迫的个人叙事,以及通过发掘共通的艰辛而形成的团结一致。1971年出版的《根源:美国亚裔读本》(Roots: An Asian-American Reader),是最早一批被提供给加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)亚裔美国学生的教科书之一;其编辑曾写道,英文书名中的“Roots”,并不是指某种共同的亚洲血统,而是指“美国亚裔所面临的问题的‘根源’”。

The project of defining Asian-­American identity was largely limited to Ivy League and West Coast universities until 1982, when Vincent Chin, who worked at an automotive engineering firm in Detroit, was beaten to death by assailants who blamed Japanese competition for the downturn in the American auto market. When Chin’s killers were sentenced to probation and fined $3,000, protesters marched in cities across the country, giving rise to a new Pan-­Asian unity forged by the realization that if Chin, the son of Chinese immigrants, could be killed because of Japanese auto imports, the concept of an ‘‘Asian-­American’’ identity had consequences.

给亚裔美国人身份下定义的项目原本主要以常春藤盟校(Ivy League)以及一些西海岸大学为限,直到1982年。那一年,在底特律一家汽车工程公司工作的陈果仁(Vincent Chin),被一群暴徒殴打致死——那些人把美国汽车市场的滑坡归咎于来自日本人的竞争。当行凶者仅被处以缓刑及3000美元罚金的时候,抗议者纷纷涌上美国诸多城市的街头,进而催生出泛亚裔的团结。把人们团结起来的是这样一种意识:如果进口自日本的汽车可以让身为中国移民之子的陈果仁被杀,那么“亚裔美国人”身份的概念就有其影响。

‘‘His death was this great moment of realization,’’ Christine Choy, a Korean-­American filmmaker and former member of the Black Panther Party, told me. ‘‘It galvanized a lot of people who said they can’t stand by anymore and let things go without any sort of legal or political representation.’’

“他的死亡是一个重大的觉醒时刻,”韩裔美国电影导演、前黑豹党(Black Panther Party)成员崔明慧(Christine Choy)对我说。“这件事刺激了很多人,他们表示无法再忍受下去,不能就这么放任自流,必须有某些立法或政治要求。”

Chin’s death came at the beginning of a huge demographic shift on college campuses. The children of the hundreds of thousands of Asian immigrants who flooded into the country after the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 had grown up. Between 1976 and 2008, the number of Asian-­Americans enrolled in four-year colleges increased sixfold. Many of these young men and women had graduated from the same magnet schools, attended the same churches, studied together in the same test-prep classes, but their sense of Asian-­ness had never been explained to them, at least not in the codified language of the multicultural academy.

陈果仁去世之时,美国大学的人口构成刚刚开始发生重大变化。在《1965年移民与国籍法》(Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965)通过之后涌入美国的上百万亚裔移民的孩子长大了。从1976年至2008年,被四年制大学录取的亚裔美国学生的人数增长到原来的六倍。这些年轻人中,有很多人毕业于相同的精英学校,去相同的教堂,在相同的补习班上学习,但从来没人跟他们解释他们的亚裔身分,至少是没用多文化学术界的规范语言解释。

They found themselves at the center of a national debate on affirmative action. In the mid-’80s, students and professors began to accuse elite colleges like Brown, Stanford and the University of California, Berkeley, of using a quota system to limit the number of Asian-­American students. As colleges responded with denials, a movement began on campuses to demand the creation of more Asian-­American-­studies programs and Asian-­American clubs, student organizations, social clubs and, eventually, fraternities. The debate remains open and tense. In 2014, a group that opposes affirmative action sued Harvard, accusing it of discriminating against Asian-­Americans in its admissions process. That suit, which is still unsettled, inspired a coalition of 64 Asian-­American groups to file a complaint against the university the following year. Both cases received renewed attention this month when the publication of a Department of Justice memorandum led to the disclosure of the agency’s plans to investigate the 2015 complaint.

他们发现自己身处关于平权法案的国家辩论的中心。在80年代中期,学生和教授开始指责布朗大学(Brown)、斯坦佛大学(Stanford)和加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)等精英大学用配额限制亚裔学生的数量。在那些大学否认这些指责之后,校园里掀起了一场运动,要求设立更多亚裔美国研究课程,以及亚裔美国俱乐部、学生组织和社交俱乐部,最后,还有兄弟会。这场争论仍在继续,而且依然激烈。2014年,反对平权法案的一个组织起诉了哈佛大学,指控它在招生过程中歧视亚裔美国学生。这起诉讼至今没有结果,它启发一个由64个亚裔美国组织组成的联盟在次年对哈佛提起诉讼。本月,司法部公布了一份备忘录,表明该机构计划调查2015年的那起诉讼,这两起诉讼也因此重新引起了人们的关注。

‘‘Who Killed Vincent Chin?’’ a 1989 documentary directed by Choy and Renee Tajima-­Peña, was shown in Asian-­American-­studies classes across the country. Over the next decade, a rhetoric took hold that argued for a collective identity rooted in both the death of Vincent Chin and the debates over affirmative action, but it still felt strange to those who had grown up Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Filipino. Whether expressed through scholarship or private, daily conversation, this vocabulary was imprecise and cloistered within the academy. By the early ’90s, when the Los Angeles riots thrust Asian-­Americans onto the national stage, the brio of ‘‘Roots’’ had mostly been supplanted by a shy, scholarly neurosis that sought to figure out why Asian — particularly Korean — businesses had been targeted by rioters, but lacked the platform or the confidence to ask.

崔明慧和雷妮·田岛-佩尼亚(Renee Tajima-Peña)于1989年执导的纪录片《谁杀死了陈果仁》(Who Killed Vincent Chin?)在美国各地的亚裔美国研究课堂上播放。在之后的十年里,一种集体身分逐渐形成,它植根于陈果仁的死以及对平权法案的争论,但是对那些以华裔、韩裔、日裔和菲律宾裔身分长大的人来说,这个集体身分依然显得陌生。不管是在学术研究中还是在私下的日常谈话中,这个词都不准确,而且只局限在学术界。到了90年代初,洛杉矶的骚乱将亚裔美国人推上了全国的舞台,关于“根源”的热烈讨论已经基本上被一种畏缩的、学术性的恐惧症所取代,它试图弄清为什么亚裔的店铺——尤其是韩裔的店铺——会成为暴徒打击的对象,但它没有提问的平台,也缺乏提问的信心。

The modern Asian-­American fraternity was born out of the protests of the ’80s and the growing alienation that Asian-­Americans felt on campus. Of the 18 Asian-­American fraternities and sororities recognized by the National Asian Pacific Islander Desi American Panhellenic Association, 16 were founded between 1990 and 2000. Their mission statements promise the ‘‘making of successful leaders,’’ as well as a commitment to service and ‘‘community awareness.’’ The messages from the fraternities and sororities are remarkably similar — unity to achieve unexpected success, brotherhood and sisterhood devoted to establishing a professional network of high-­functioning alumni. Initiations tend to promote a vague vision of Pan-­Asian identity that reflects the history of Asian-­American scholarship and activism, but whose urgency has been hollowed out by years of apathy.

现代亚裔美国兄弟会诞生于80年代的抗议,以及亚裔美国学生在校园里日益感受到的孤立。获得全国亚太及印度美国大学校友会协会(National Asian Pacific Islander Desi American Panhellenic Association)认可的18个亚裔美国兄弟会和女生联谊会中有16个是在1990年至2000年创立的。它们的宗旨声明承诺“塑造成功的领导者”,服务社会,以及唤醒“社区意识”。这些兄弟会和女生联谊会的讯息惊人地相似——团结起来,取得意想不到的成功,用兄弟姐妹情谊建立专业高效的校友网络。入会仪式往往是宣传模糊的泛亚洲身分,这个身份反映出亚裔美国学术研究与活动的历史,但是由于多年的冷漠,它的迫切性已经慢慢消失。

In 1994, the same year Michael Deng’s parents immigrated from China, 11 students at Binghamton University founded the first chapter of Pi Delta Psi. By 2000, the fraternity had chapters at 11 colleges in four states. In those early days, the brothers pieced together a mission from bits of what they had been learning in Asian-­American-­studies classes. Each fraternity chapter’s ‘‘educator’’ developed a curriculum for pledges. Some weeks were devoted to more predictable topics like ethnic foods or the origin of Asian flags, but the focus was overwhelmingly on instances of racism experienced by Asian-­Americans. Over the last two decades, the curriculum has been updated modestly, depending on the chapter. There is, for example, a ‘‘function’’ — the fraternity’s term for an educational activity — in which pledges research and write reports on the murder of Vincent Chin. Another function centers on the Los Angeles riots and their catastrophic impact on Korean small-­business owners. Around the time of Deng’s death, there were plans to introduce a function highlighting the death of Danny Chen, a young man from Manhattan’s Chinatown who committed suicide after a military hazing incident. ‘‘It was kind of like taking a half-course credit,’’ Lex Ngoto, a Pi Delta Psi alumnus from New York University who now works in banking, told me. ‘‘We would even meet in classrooms and get assignments and reports. Then we’d get tested by the brothers, and if we missed a question, we’d have to do push-ups.’’ He continued: ‘‘I ended up appreciating it. I hung out with Asian kids in high school, but we weren’t really aware, if that makes sense. Learning about what happened to us — you know, Asian people in America — it awakened me to a lot of things.’’

1994年,也就是邓俊贤的父母从中国移民到美国的那一年,宾厄姆顿大学(Binghamton University)的11名学生成立了派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会(Pi Delta Psi)的第一个分会。到2000年,该兄弟会已在四个州的11所大学设有分部。最初,兄弟们用自己在亚裔美国研究课程中学到的零星知识拼凑出一个宗旨。每个兄弟会分会的“教导员”都为宣誓入会者设计了一个课程。有几周会用于研究一些可以想见的话题,比如民族食物或亚洲国旗的起源,但重点主要是在亚裔美国人经历的种族歧视案例上。在过去20年里,每个分会的课程都略有改变。比如,在一个“环节”(这是兄弟会对教育活动的称呼)当中,入会者要研究陈果仁被害案,并撰写报告。另一个环节的重点是洛杉矶骚乱以及它对韩裔小生意人的灾难性影响。大约就是在邓俊贤被害那个时期,兄弟会还计划推出一个关注陈宇晖(Danny Chen)之死的环节,陈宇晖是一个来自曼哈顿中国城的年轻人,在军中遭受捉弄后自杀身亡。“有点像获得期中学分,”纽约大学(New York University)的派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会校友莱克斯·恩戈托(Lex Ngoto)对我说,他现在在银行业工作。“我们甚至会在教室里开会,领取作业和报告。然后兄弟们会给我们做测试,如果我们有问题答不上来,就得做俯卧撑。”他还说:“最后,我很感激它。我高中时就跟亚裔孩子一起玩,但我们并没有真正觉悟到其中的意义。了解我们——我是指亚裔美国人——的遭遇之后,我看清了很多东西。”

This was a common refrain among many of the Pi Delta Psi alumni I spoke to: kinship through a common history of suffering, consciousness through education. They also told of pledge functions that sound much more like typical, if sometimes even laughably innocuous, hazing. While always dressed in black sweats or military fatigues, they took part in trust falls, scavenger hunts and the ‘‘divide and conquer’’ function, in which pledges were dropped off in different locations without their cellphones and instructed to find one another at a predetermined meet-up spot. Before ‘‘crossing’’ into brotherhood, the pledges were subjected to ‘‘hell week,’’ deprived of sleep and made to carry book bags typically filled with bricks, concrete blocks or bowling balls.

我采访的很多派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会的校友都表达了类似的感触:通过了解共同的苦难史而产生亲情,通过教育获得觉醒。他们也提到了那些宣誓环节,听上去更像典型的戏弄新生活动,有时甚至只是可笑而无害的。他们总是穿着黑色汗衫或军装,进行信任背摔、寻宝搜索等活动,还有一个环节叫“分开与征服”——在这个环节里,几名入会者被送到不同地点,不许带手机,然后根据指示,在一个预定的会面地点找到彼此。在正式成为兄弟会成员之前,入会者要经历“地狱般的一周”,不能睡觉,还要背着通常装满砖块、混凝土块或保龄球的书包。

Not all Pi Delta Psi pledges experienced a profound racial awakening. A former member of the University at Buffalo’s chapter told me that he was more ambivalent about the fraternity’s cultural curriculum. ‘‘The fraternity says they are about raising awareness of Asian-­Americans, but it’s all [expletive],’’ he says. ‘‘It’s really just about partying and feeling like you belong to something.’’ All the Pi Delta Psi alumni I spoke to said push-ups were one of the most common forms of physical punishment. The University at Buffalo brother recalled being blindfolded for hours during his initiation ceremony and shoved into the dirt. Everyone recalls being roughed up in a ritual called the Glass Ceiling.

不是所有派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会的入会者都经历了深刻的种族觉醒。纽约州立大学布法罗分校分会的一名前成员告诉我,他对这个兄弟会的文化课程怀有矛盾的感觉。“这个兄弟会声称他们想提高亚裔美国人的觉悟,但那全是瞎扯,”他说。“实际上就是玩乐,然后感觉你好像属于什么组织。”我采访过的派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会校友都表示,俯卧撑是最常见的一种体罚。布法罗分校分会的那名成员回忆,在他的入会仪式上,他被蒙上眼睛数小时,还被推进垃圾堆。所有人都回忆曾在一个被称为“玻璃天花板”的仪式中遭到殴打。

 On the wet December morning in 2013 when he planned to break through the Glass Ceiling, Michael Deng wore a black hoodie, black sweatpants and combat boots. In his backpack, he carried a bottle of water and a notebook in which he had written out some of his thoughts on the oppression of the Asian peoples in America.

2013年12月一个阴冷的上午,邓俊贤准备打破“玻璃天花板”,他穿着黑色帽衫、黑色运动裤和军靴。他的背包里有一瓶水和一个笔记本,上面写着他对亚裔美国人遭受压迫的一些想法。

The night before, Deng drove with some classmates from New York City to a house on Candlewood Drive in Tunkhannock Township, a tiny community in the Poconos. The place, which had been rented for the weekend, was big and plain in the sprawling style found in towns where acreage is no object. A line of spindly young trees marked the border of a grassy, flat backyard where Deng and his fellow pledges would be initiated into Pi Delta Psi.

之前一晚,邓俊贤和几名同学从纽约市开车来到波科诺斯市唐克汉诺克镇,这里是一个小小的社区,他们进了坎德尔伍德大道上的一栋房子,这里整个周末都被租了下来。它宽敞朴素,这种空旷的风格在不缺土地的小镇很常见。平坦的后院里长满了草,四周种着一排单薄的小树,邓俊贤和另外几位入会者将在这里举行加入派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会的仪式。

As older brothers from Baruch and St. John’s University in Queens arrived throughout the night, Deng and the pledges served food, dealt cards and performed some of the fraternity’s initiation rituals, including the ‘‘Bataan Death March,’’ in which, in some Pan-­Asian effort to understand the hardships inflicted upon Filipino P.O.W.s by the Imperial Japanese Army, they dragged themselves across the ground on their elbows.

纽约市立大学巴鲁克学院(Baruch)和皇后区圣约翰大学(St. John’s University)年长的兄弟们在半夜陆续到来,邓俊贤和其他入会者给他们上菜,发牌,并且开始举行兄弟会的一些入会仪式,包括匍匐穿过庭院的“巴丹死亡行军”——这是一种亚裔团结活动,用来让入会者体验日本皇军对菲律宾战俘的折磨。

Sometime after midnight, the brothers gathered for the Glass Ceiling, one of the fraternity’s most hallowed rituals. Also known as the Gauntlet, or just the ‘‘G,’’ the ceremony varies from chapter to chapter, but it typically plays out in three stages: First, a pledge is blindfolded and separated from his assigned ‘‘Big,’’ an older fraternity brother, by a line of brothers whose arms are linked together. For the most part, this line signifies the barrier between glumly accepting America’s vision of emasculated, toadying Asian men and the great promise of success and masculine fulfillment. As his Big calls out his name, a pledge, or ‘‘Little,’’ crosses his arms across his chest and walks toward his Big’s voice. He soon runs into the line of brothers, who call him ‘‘chink,’’ ‘‘gook’’ and whatever other racial slurs they can muster. The verbal abuse lasts for 10 minutes or more. In the second stage, the pledge is instructed to push through the wall of brothers, who in turn shove him back toward his starting spot. The third stage isn’t much different from the second: The pledge is still wandering blindfolded toward his Big’s calls, but instead of being pushed, he is knocked to the ground or, in some chapters, even tackled. Once the pledge educator determines that the pledge has had enough, he calls for a halt and may ask, Why did you not ask your brothers for help?

在午夜过后的某个时间,兄弟们聚集起来举行玻璃天花板仪式,它是该兄弟会最重要的一个仪式,也被称为严酷考验(Gauntlet),简称“G”,每个分会的形式略有不同,但大致包括三个阶段:第一个阶段,入会者被蒙上眼睛,同指派给他的“大哥”(一个年长的兄弟会成员)分开,他们中间隔着一排胳膊挽在一起的兄弟。这道人墙主要是象征着被迫接受亚洲男人软弱、爱拍马屁的美国偏见与实现辉煌成功和男子气概之间的那道障碍。大哥呼喊入会者(也就是“小弟”)的名字,入会者把胳膊抱在胸前,向着大哥的声音走去。他很快会撞到兄弟们的人墙上,他们会说他是“中国佬”、“东方佬”以及他们能想到的任何种族歧视蔑称。咒骂大约持续十多分钟。在第二个阶段,入会者被指示冲过兄弟们组成的人墙,而他们会轮流把他推回起点。第三个阶段跟第二个阶段没有很大差别:宣誓者依然被蒙着眼睛,向着大哥的声音走,但这次,他不是被推回去,而是被打倒在地,在有些分会,甚至会对入会者擒抱摔打。一旦入会教导员认为入会者受的苦已经够了,就会叫停,然后可能会问他,你为什么不叫兄弟们帮忙呢?

I did not know to ask, the pledge responds.

我不知道要去求助,入会者这样回答。

Ask your brothers for their help, the pledge educator instructs.

向你的兄弟们求助吧,入会教导员指示。

The pledge asks for help. His brothers form a line behind him and, in solemn unison, guide him to his Big.

入会者要求帮助。他的兄弟们在他身后站成一条线,以整齐划一的动作庄严地指导他到他的“老大”那里去。

While all this is happening, the pledge is supposed to be thinking about his parents and the sacrifices they made as immigrants, the humiliations they faced and the oppressive invisibility of Asian lives in America. The pushing, the tackling and the racial abuse are meant to be the physical expression of their struggle. That final walk, in which the pledge is shepherded to his Big by all of the fraternity’s members, is intended to teach him that solidarity with his fellow Asians is his only hope of making it in a white world.

这一切发生的时候,入会者应当想念他的父母、思考他们身为移民所作出的牺牲,他们曾面对的羞辱,以及亚裔在美国生活所面对的隐形压迫。那些推搡、摔打和种族主义的辱骂意在从肉体层面体现他们的斗争。在最后一段路上,所有的兄弟会成员将入会者引向他的“老大”,这是为了教导他,与亚裔同胞团结一致是他在白人世界中取得成功的唯一希望。

Officially, the national fraternity does not allow the sort of tackling that took place during Deng’s initiation. A lawyer representing Pi Delta Psi refers to it as ‘‘a direct violation of the fraternity’s policies.’’ But every former member I spoke to, from several different colleges, told me that the Glass Ceiling is deeply ingrained in the fraternity’s culture. ‘‘In reality,’’ Daniel Li told the court, referring to the ritual’s rendition at Baruch — he was the president of Pi Delta Psi there at the time of Deng’s death — the national Pi Delta Psi leaders ‘‘knew what was going on.’’

正式来说,邓俊贤入会时遭受的这种摔打是不被全国兄弟会允许的。派-德尔塔-普赛的律师称其为“直接违反兄弟会的政策”。但是,来自几个不同学院的前成员都告诉我,“玻璃天花板”在这个兄弟会的文化中可谓根深蒂固。邓俊贤去世时,丹尼尔·李担任巴鲁克学院的派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会会长,他对法庭讲述他们在该校如何实施这个仪式,他说,“在现实中,”派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会的全国领导人“知道发生着什么”。

Deng was the last of his pledge class to go through the Glass Ceiling. He made it through the first two stages, but in the middle of the third he got up unsteadily after one tackle. Then, according to testimony later given by Li, the pledge assistant Kenny Kwan, starting 10 to 15 feet away, ran at full speed into Deng and slammed him to the ground. Deng did not get up.

邓俊贤在最后一堂入会课上接受了玻璃天花板的考验。他通过了前两个阶段,但在第三个阶段中期,他在遭到一次摔打攻击之后踉踉跄跄地站起来。然后,根据丹尼尔·李的证词,入会助理肯尼·关从10到15英尺之外全速冲向邓俊贤,把他撞倒在地。这一次他没能站起来。

Li, 21 at the time, would later tell prosecutors that Deng was making ‘‘groaning sounds.’’ According to Li, Sheldon Wong, who was 21 and the pledge educator, picked Deng up and, with others’ help, carried him inside the rental house. Charles Lai, who was 23 and Deng’s Big, told detectives that Deng’s body felt ‘‘straight like a board.’’ Fraternity members stripped off his clothes, cold and wet with frost, and laid him down by the fireplace and covered him with a blanket. At 5:05 a.m., the police timeline indicates, one brother called his girlfriend, a nurse, to ask what she thought could be causing Deng to be so unresponsive. Eight minutes later, another brother Googled ‘‘conscious’’ and ‘‘unconscious.’’ At 5:55, a fraternity brother named Revel Deng texted a friend four times to ask about his grandfather’s fatal fall down the stairs. During this period, none of the three dozen brothers in the Poconos called 911. Nobody summoned an ambulance because, according to a statement given to detectives, someone had looked up how much it would cost and determined that the price would be too high.

丹尼尔·李当时21岁,后来他告诉检察机关,邓俊贤倒下后发出了“呻吟声”。据丹尼尔·李的证词,当时21岁的入会教导员谢尔顿·王扶起邓俊贤,在其他人帮助下把他带进租来的房间。邓俊贤的“老大”,当时23岁的查尔斯·黎告诉探员,邓俊贤的身体“直挺挺的,像木板一样”。兄弟会的成员们脱下他那被霜雪浸透的潮湿冰凉的衣服把他放在壁炉边,给他盖上毯子。根据警方的时间表,凌晨5点05分,一名兄弟打电话给当护士的女朋友,问她是什么情况可能导致邓俊贤完全没有任何反应。八分钟后,另一名兄弟用谷歌搜索了“清醒”和“不清醒”。凌晨5点55分,一个名叫雷维尔·邓(Revel Deng)的兄弟会成员四次发短信给朋友,询问关于他祖父从楼梯上跌倒后去世的情形。在此期间,身在波科诺斯的30多名兄弟会成员中没有一个人呼叫救急号码。根据一份对探员做出的口供,之所以没有人叫救护车,是因为有人查询费用之后,觉得价钱太高。

Around 6 a.m., Wong, Lai and a third brother drove Michael Deng to the emergency room of Geisinger Wyoming Valley hospital. Shortly after they arrived, at 6:42, Deng’s mother received a call from the hospital telling her that her son was in a coma and asking if he had any medical allergies. The hospital also contacted the local police.

凌晨6点左右,谢尔顿·王、查尔斯·黎和另一名兄弟将邓俊贤带到盖辛格怀俄明谷医院急诊室。不久后,邓俊贤的母亲于上午6:42接到医院电话,通知她她的儿子正处于昏迷状态,问他是否有药物过敏。医院也联系了当地警方。

As Lai waited for an update on his Little’s condition, he started sending texts, the police later discovered, to the national president of Pi Delta Psi, Andy Meng, the brother of Grace Meng, a congresswoman who represents the heavily Asian Sixth District in Queens. At 7:25 a.m., Lai texted Revel Deng: ‘‘Put everything away.’’ Lai told a detective at the hospital that he had been in contact with a brother at the national fraternity; texts on Lai’s phone showed that Andy Meng encouraged the hiding of fraternity items.

查尔斯·黎在医院等待“小弟”的消息期间开始发送短信,警察后来发现了他发给派-德尔塔-普赛兄弟会的全国会长孟昭安(Andy Meng)的消息,孟昭安的姐姐孟昭文(Grace Meng)是代表皇后区第六选区的国会议员,该选区主要由亚裔构成。上午7:25,查尔斯·黎给雷维尔·邓发短信:“把所有东西都收起来”。在医院里,查尔斯·黎告诉一个探员,他和一个全国兄弟会的兄弟联系过;他电话中的短信表明,孟昭安鼓励他们隐藏兄弟会的物品。

Andy Meng’s lawyer, Michael A. Ventrella, says Meng is cooperating with police. ‘‘He was not at the scene,’’ according to Ventrella, ‘‘and only found out about it after the incident. Under his watch, the fraternity had previously handed out strict guidelines prohibiting the actions that took place.’’ (Revel Deng, Lai and Lam refused to comment for this article.)

孟昭安的律师迈克尔·A·文特雷拉(Michael A. Ventrella)表示,孟昭安一直与警方合作。“他当时不在现场,”文特雷拉说,“是事后才了解相关情况的。在他的管理之下,兄弟会之前已经发布了严格的准则,禁止发生这种行为。”(雷维尔·邓、查尔斯·黎和雷蒙德·林拒绝为本文置评。)

Michael Deng died the next morning with his mother by his bedside. A forensic pathologist later determined that he had died from multiple traumatic injuries to the head and that the delay in treatment had ‘‘significantly contributed’’ to his death.

第二天早上,邓俊贤在母亲陪伴之下去世。后来一名法医病理学家确定他死于头部多次创伤性损伤,而且治疗的延误对他的死亡“产生重大影响”。

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