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渴望回家的脱北者:不想再被当做二等公民

更新时间:2017-8-8 18:48:10 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

North Korean Defector, ‘Treated Like Dirt’ in South, Fights to Return
渴望回家的脱北者:不想再被当做二等公民

SEOUL, South Korea — Divorced and out of money, Kwon Chol Nam fled North Korea for China in 2014 by wading across a river border at night and then crawling over a barbed-wire fence. After a perilous trek that included walking through a jungle in Laos, he reached Thailand, where he was allowed to fly to South Korea to start a new life.

韩国首尔——2014年,离婚并且身无分文的权哲男(Kwon Chol Nam,音)趁着夜色趟过一条界河,然后爬过一道带刺的铁丝网,离开朝鲜前往中国。在包括徒步穿过老挝一片热带丛林在内的危险旅程结束后,他到达泰国。在那里,他获准坐飞机前往韩国开启新的生活。

After all that trouble and danger, Kwon now wants South Korea to allow him to return home to the North.

经历了所有的困难和危险后,权哲男现在希望韩国允许他回到朝鲜。

“You have to ride a horse to know whether it’s the right mount for you,” Kwon said in an interview in Seoul. “I have tried, and the South is not for me. I want to go home to the North to reunite with my ex-wife and 16-year-old son.”

“只有骑上马才知道坐骑是否合适,”权哲男在首尔接受采访时说。“我试了,韩国不适合我。我想回朝鲜,与前妻和16岁的儿子团聚。”

North Korea is one of the world’s most politically repressive countries. No matter. Kwon says he has grown disillusioned with life in the capitalist South, where he says North Korean defectors like him are treated like second-class citizens.

朝鲜是世界上政治最专制的国家之一。没关系。权哲男说他对实行资本主义的韩国的生活大失所望,称在这里,像他这样的朝鲜脱北者被当作二等公民。

“They called me names, treating me like an idiot, and didn’t pay me as much as others doing the same work, just because I was from the North,” Kwon said, his voice rising in anger.

“他们骂我,把我当傻子,做同样的工作拿的钱却比别人少,仅仅因为我来自朝鲜,”权哲男说。因为愤怒,他的声音高了起来。

To press his unusual demand, he has held news conferences, submitted petitions to the United Nations and demonstrated with signs in front of government buildings in Seoul.

为了推动自己与众不同的诉求,他举办新闻发布会、向联合国提交请愿信并在首尔的政府建筑前面举牌示威。

More than 30,000 North Koreans have fled to South Korea since a famine hit their homeland in the 1990s. Of them, 25 have mysteriously resurfaced back in the North in the past five years.

自朝鲜90年代发生饥荒以来,已有逾三万朝鲜人逃往韩国。其中25人在过去五年里神秘地在朝鲜重新现身。

South Korean officials suspect these “repeat defectors,” as those who return to the North are known, may have been lured to China and kidnapped back to the North. There, the government uses them for propaganda, arranging for them to speak out against the “living hell” they said they had experienced in the South.

韩国官方怀疑,这些“再次叛逃者”——对那些返回朝鲜的人的称呼——可能是被骗到中国,然后被绑架回朝鲜的。在朝鲜,政府利用他们进行宣传,安排他们开口谴责自称在韩国经历的“人间炼狱”。

Kwon tried to find his own way back to the North, but that effort only landed him in jail in the South for a few months. Like all defectors, he became a South Korean citizen upon arriving here, and it is illegal for any South Korean to visit the North without government permission.

权哲男曾试图想办法自己回朝鲜,但那次行动却导致他在韩国入狱几个月。和所有脱北者一样,他一抵达韩国便成了韩国公民。韩国公民不经政府允许前往朝鲜是违法的。

Now, he is openly asking the South to repatriate him, only the second defector to make such an appeal. Kim Ryen Hi, a dressmaker from the North, has been on a similar campaign since 2015.

现在,他公开请求韩国遣返他。他是第二个提出这种请求的脱北者。来自朝鲜的裁缝金莲姬(Kim Ryen-hi,音)从2015年便开始了一场类似的行动。

But on the divided Korean Peninsula, where the two countries remain technically at war and don’t even let their citizens exchange letters, going home across the sealed border is a near impossibility.

但朝鲜半岛仍处于分裂状态,韩国和朝鲜严格说来仍处于交战状态,两国甚至不允许公民通信。越过被封锁的边境回家几乎是不可能的。

For defectors like Kwon who have failed to adjust to life in the South and want to return to the North, there is no legal way to do so.

对于像权哲男这种未能适应韩国的生活,因而想回朝鲜的脱北者,没有实现愿望的合法途径。

“These cases highlight the complexity of the family separation issue that started 70 years ago — and the fact that it continues to take new forms and affect people in the Korean Peninsula in profound ways,” said Tomás Ojea Quintana, the United Nations’ special rapporteur on human rights in North Korea, who met Kwon in July.

“这些案例突显出始于70年前的家人分离问题的复杂性,以及它继续以新的形式、对朝鲜半岛上的民众产生深远影响的事实,”在7月同权哲男见过面的联合国人权特别报告员托马斯·奥赫亚·金塔纳(Tomás Ojea Quintana)说。

Kwon’s case has provided a propaganda boon to the North. “As we can learn from the tearful outcry from Kwon Chol Nam, who said he could no longer live in a hell called South Korea, there are many of our citizens forcibly held in the South and yearning to return home to the fatherland,” the North said in a statement in June. It added that his situation showed the South’s talk of humanitarianism was “a hypocrisy.”

权哲男的情况为朝鲜的宣传提供了帮助。“权哲男说,他无法再生活在一个叫韩国的地狱里,正如我们能够从他满含泪水的强烈抗议中知道的那样,我们的很多公民被强行扣留在韩国,渴望回到祖国,”朝鲜在6月的一份声明中说。声明接着表示,权哲男的情况表明,韩国的人道主义言论是“一种伪善”。

Kwon, 44, was working as an herb dealer near the border with China in 2014 when he and a woman he had met while collecting blueberries fled across the border. The woman had been in China before, and she told Kwon that he could make money in China, a lot of it.

权哲男今年44岁。2014年和摘蓝莓时认识的一名女子越过边境时,他是在中朝边境附近工作的一名草药贩子。该女子之前去过中国,对权哲男说他能在中国赚钱,赚大钱。

But once he made it there after a harrowing border crossing, nothing went as expected.

但历尽千辛万苦地越过边境到达中国后,一切都和预想的不一样。

The woman disappeared. Kwon ended up with a human trafficker who promised to get him to South Korea, for about $2,500. After an arduous journey that lasted a month, he arrived in the South in November 2014, settling in Ulsan, an industrial city in the southeast.

那名女子消失了。权哲男最后找到一个蛇头,对方承诺以大约2500美元(约合1.7万元人民币)的价格把他送到韩国。在持续了一个月的艰辛旅程结束后,他于2014年12月抵达韩国,并在东南部的工业城市蔚山安顿了下来。

But like other defectors, he struggled to make the transition from the North’s highly regimented totalitarian system to the South’s fast-paced, hypercompetitive capitalist society. (About 63 percent of defectors say they experience discrimination in the South, according to a study by the government-run Korea Institute for National Unification last year.)

但与其他脱北者一样,他难以从朝鲜极度刻板的集权主义制度过渡到韩国节奏快、竞争激烈的资本主义社会(政府开办的韩国统一研究院[Korea Institute for National Unification]去年进行的一项研究显示,大约63%的脱北者称在韩国受到歧视)。

Kwon drifted from farm to construction work. He was often ridiculed for not understanding the English words South Koreans liberally adopt in their daily conversation. Just over 5 feet tall, Kwon didn’t see a future in physically demanding jobs.

权哲男的工作不是在农场就是在建筑工地。他因为不懂韩国人在日常交谈中夹杂的大量英文单词而经常遭到嘲笑。身高刚过五英尺(约合1.52米)的他,在体力劳动中看不到未来。

The more he struggled, the more he missed his family in the North, especially his son. He saved $4,500 and, using intermediaries because no banking transfers are allowed between North and South, sent it to his ex-wife in the North, who told him that she wanted to be reunited. He also felt guilty for leaving home after he learned that his father had died while he was away. To add to his woes, the broker who smuggled him from China to Thailand sued him, accusing him of not paying all of his fee.

越是艰难,他越是想念在朝鲜的家人,尤其是儿子。他攒了4500美元,并通过中间人——因为朝鲜和韩国之间不允许进行银行转账——把钱寄给了仍在朝鲜的前妻。前妻告诉他,想和他复婚。此外,在得知父亲在他离开期间去世后,他为自己的离家内疚不已。更糟糕的是,把他从中国偷运进泰国的掮客起诉他,控告他没有付清费用。

Then in May last year, Kwon said, he finally “snapped.” When he didn’t get the pay he said he had been promised for carrying bricks, he asked police to intervene, but they sided with his South Korean boss, who denied Kwon’s accusation.

然后是去年5月,权哲男说,他终于“崩溃了”。因为没有拿到他所说的对方先前许诺的搬砖报酬,他请警方介入,但警察站在了韩国老板一方。后者否认了权哲男的指控。

On June 22 last year, a dozen police officers raided his home and arrested him on a charge of plotting to flee to North Korea, a crime punishable by up to seven years in prison. Kwon was released in September after a judge suspended his one-year prison term.

去年6月22日,十几名警察突然搜查他的住所,并以密谋逃往朝鲜的罪名将他逮捕。这一罪行最高可被判处七年监禁。在一名法官决定缓期执行他的一年监禁后,权哲男于9月获释。

He has since been out of work, and his fellow defectors shun him. He was reduced to smoking dirty cigarette butts off the ground.

自那以后,他一直失业,其他脱北者也躲着他。他甚至捡烟头抽。

“I went through difficulties in the South that I hadn’t known in the North,” he said. “I am afraid to live in the South.”

“我在韩国经历了在朝鲜所不知道的困难,”他说。“我害怕生活在韩国。”

Kwon moved to Seoul in March and stayed in homeless shelters before renting a room for $267 a month. He found help in sympathetic Christian pastors.

权哲男于3月搬来首尔,住在流浪者收容所里,后以每月267美元的价格租了一个房间。他得到了同情他的基督教牧师的帮助。

“It’s a most natural thing for a human to want to go home to his family,” the Rev. Moon Dae-gol said. “A state that denies that right is no better than a beast.”

“对人来说,想回家是非常自然的事情,”牧师文大杰(Moon Dae-gol,音)说。“拒绝提供这项权利的国家与畜生无异。”

During his protests in front of government buildings, Kwon holds a sign that says: “I am a citizen of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. I want to go home.” Some accuse him of being foolhardy. But he remains undeterred.

在政府建筑前面抗议时,权哲男举着的牌子上写着:“我是朝鲜民主主义人民共和国公民。我想回家。”一些人指责他鲁莽。但他依然不屈不挠。

He said he was not afraid of being punished in the North for fleeing, although he added that he expected to be sent for re-education for a period and that this was a price he was prepared to pay. He said he was proud of the North’s nuclear weapons. He would not accept any criticism of North Korea, and its human rights abuses, and vowed to “stay loyal to the end.”

他说他不害怕因为逃跑被朝鲜惩处,尽管他说,预计自己会被送去“再教育”一段时间,这是他准备好了要付出的代价。他说他为朝鲜的核武器感到自豪。他不会接受任何对朝鲜及其侵犯人权行为的批评,并且发誓要“坚持到底”。

It was difficult to tell whether Kwon was being sincere or just trying to endear himself to the North.

他这么说究竟是出于真心,还是仅仅想向朝鲜示好,这很难说。

But his conviction was clear when he emphasized that while South Korea was economically better off, he preferred a simpler life in his birth country.

但当他强调,虽然韩国在经济上更发达,不过他更喜欢朝鲜那种更单纯的生活时,他的看法就显而易见了。

“In the North, I may not be rich, but I would better understand people around me and wouldn’t be treated like dirt as I have been in the South,” he said.

“在朝鲜,我可能不会成为富人,但我会更好地了解我周围的人,而不是像在韩国那样被人当作污垢。”他说。

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