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别怕得罪老板,上班时间打个盹吧

更新时间:2017-8-8 10:59:56 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Take Naps at Work. Apologize to No One.
别怕得罪老板,上班时间打个盹吧

In the past two weeks I’ve taken three naps at work, a total of an hour or so of shut-eye while on the clock. And I have no shame or uncertainty about doing it. I couldn’t feel better about it, and my productivity reflects it, too.

过去两周,我在工作时间小睡了三次,在公司支付薪金的时间里闭眼休息了总共大约一个小时。我没有为此感到羞愧,也没有犹豫我应不应该这样做。我对此感觉好极了,我的工作效率也反映了这一点。

Sleeping on the job is one of those workplace taboos — like leaving your desk for lunch or taking an afternoon walk — that we’re taught to look down on. If someone naps at 2 p.m. while the rest of us furiously write memos and respond to emails, surely it must mean they’re slacking off. Or so the assumption goes.

工作时间睡觉是职场禁忌之一,就像离开你的办公桌去吃午饭或者下午散个步,都是我们被教育要鄙视的行为。如果当我们其他人都在疯狂地写备忘录和回复邮件,某个人在下午2点小睡一会,当然这肯定意味着这个人相比起来没有那么努力工作。或者大家会认为这个人是这样的。

Naps at work can make you more productive. Maybe don’t be this obvious about it, though.
在工作中小睡可能会提高你的效率。但别表现得太明显。

Restfulness and recharging can take a back seat to the perception and appearance of productivity. It’s easier to stay on a virtual hamster wheel of activity by immediately responding to every email than it is to measure aggregate productivity over a greater period of time. But a growing field of occupational and psychological research is building the case for restfulness in pursuit of greater productivity.

与给人高效的感受和表象相比,休息一下,给身体充电会显得不那么重要。保持仓鼠转轮般的机械劳动,马上回复每一封邮件比较容易,衡量一段较长时间里的合计生产率比较难。但是,越来越多的职业和心理研究正在为休息正名,认为这是为了追求更高生产率的做法。

“Companies are suffering from tremendous productivity problems because people are stressed out” and not recovering from the workday, said Josh Bersin, Principal and Founder of Bersin by Deloitte. “They’re beginning to realize that this is their problem, and they can’t just say to people, ‘Here’s a work-life balance course, go teach yourself how to manage your inbox,’ ” Mr. Bersin said. “It’s way more complicated than that.”

“很多公司因为职工过度工作紧张,没有从工作日中恢复过来,面临严重生产率问题的困扰,”德勤贝辛(Bersin by Deloitte)的总监和创始人乔希·贝辛(Josh Bersin)说。“这些公司开始意识到这是他们的问题,他们不能告诉职工,‘这是平衡你的工作和生活的课程,自学一下该怎么管理你的收件箱吧。’”贝辛说,“事情其实复杂得多。”

To be sure, the ability to nap at work is far from widespread, experts said. Few among us have the luxury of being able to step away for a half-hour snoozefest. But lunch hours and coffee breaks can be great times to duck out, and your increased productivity and alertness will be all the evidence you need to make your case to inquiring bosses.

专家们说,诚然,在工作时间小睡并不是打工族普遍能够做到的。几乎没有谁享有中断工作半小时甜美小睡一下的奢侈。但是午餐和咖啡休息可以是很好的逃走一下的时间。如果老板盘问,你完全有理由自辩:工作效率提高,注意力更集中,这都是你的有利证据。

In an ideal world, we’d all solve this problem by unplugging early and getting a good night’s sleep. Here’s our guide on how to do just that. But the next best thing is stealing away for a quick power nap when you’re dragging after lunch.

在一个理想的世界里,我们都可以通过早一点结束一天的工作、安享一夜好眠来解决这个问题。这有一份指南,教你如何做到这一点。但是退而求其次,当你吃完午饭感到疲劳的时候,你可以溜走一会儿,去做片刻恢复能量的小睡。

(The Japanese even have a word for strategically sleeping on the job: “inemuri,” roughly translated to “sleeping while present.” Now is a good moment to pause and email this story to your boss.)

(日本人甚至有一个专门的词,用来形容在工作中经过运筹的小睡:“居眠”,大致翻译过来就是“在工作岗位上睡觉”。现在你就不妨暂停一下,把这篇文章发给你的老板。)

In a study published in Nature Neuroscience, researchers tested subjects on their perceptual performance four times throughout the day. Performance deteriorated with each test, but subjects who took a 30-minute nap between tests stopped the deterioration in performance, and those who took a 60-minute nap even reversed it.

在一篇发表在《自然神经科学》(Nature Neuroscience)的研究里,研究员们在一天中四次测试研究对象的感知表现。他们的感知能力随着每一个测试的进行而逐渐衰弱,但是在两个测试之间进行30分钟小睡的研究对象的感知能力会停止恶化,而那些打盹60分钟的人的感知能力甚至变得更好。

“Naps had the same magnitude of benefits as full nights of sleep if they had a specific quality of nap,” said Sara Mednick, a co-author of the study and associate professor of psychology at the University of California, Riverside.

“如果能达到一定的睡眠质量,那么小睡可以有和整夜的睡眠一样大的好处,”这个研究的合著者以及加州大学河滨分校的心理学副教授萨拉·梅德尼克(Sara Mednick)说。

Dr. Mednick, a sleep researcher and the author of “Take a Nap! Change Your Life,” said daytime napping can have many of the benefits of overnight sleep, and different types of naps offer specific benefits.

梅德尼克是睡眠研究专家和《打个盹!改变你的人生》(Take a Nap! Change Your Life)的作者。她认为,白天的小睡可以收到很多晚上睡眠的好处,而且不同类型的小睡各有特定的益处。

For example, Dr. Mednick said a 20- to 60-minute nap might help with memorization and learning specific bits of information. It’s just long enough to enter stage-two sleep, or non-rapid eye movement (R.E.M.) sleep.

比如,梅德尼克说,一次20到60分钟的小睡可能帮助记忆和学习一些特定的信息。这种小睡的长度刚好足以让你进入二级睡眠阶段,也就是“非快速动眼睡眠”。

After 60 minutes, you start getting into R.E.M. sleep, most often associated with that deep, dreaming state we all enjoy at night. R.E.M. sleep can improve creativity, perceptual processing and highly associative thinking, which allows you to make connections between disparate ideas, Dr. Mednick said. Beyond that, your best bet is a 90-minute nap, which will give you a full sleep cycle.

60分钟之后,你开始进入“快速动眼睡眠”阶段(REM睡眠)。多数情况下,这种睡眠阶段和我们夜晚享受的那种深度、有梦的睡眠状态有关联。梅德尼克说,REM睡眠可以提高创造性,感知的处理和高度联想式思考,它们让你能够把不相干的想法联系起来。如果有更长的时间,你最好的选择是90分钟的小睡,它可以给你一个完整的睡觉周期。

Any nap, however, can help with alertness and perception and cut through the general fog that creeps in during the day, experts said.

但是专家表示,任何一种小睡都有助于提高注意力和感知力,打破一天中渐渐袭来的朦胧困意。

So how did we even arrive at this point where aptitude is inextricably tied to working long, concentrated hours? Blame technology, but think broader than smartphones and laptops; the real issue is that tech has enabled us to be available at all times.

我们的聪明才智被牢牢地捆绑在长时间、精神高度集中的工作上面,我们是怎么走到这一步的?这得怪科技,但不只是智能手机和手提电脑;真正的问题是,科技让我们随时可以被联系到。

“We went through a period where people were in denial and business leaders were ignoring it,” Mr. Bersin said. “They were assuming that if we give people more tools, more emails, more Slack, more chatter, and we’ll just assume they can figure out how to deal with it all. And I think they’ve woken up to the fact that this is a big problem, and it is affecting productivity, engagement, health, safety, wellness and all sorts of things.”

“有那么一个阶段,人们都不承认这一点,商业领袖忽略了这个问题,”贝辛说。“他们设想如果我们给人们更多的工具、更多的邮件、更多Slack(一个社交工具——译注)、更多聊天工具,我们就认为他们会想出办法来处理所有这些工作。我认为他们已经醒悟,意识到这是一个大问题,它在影响效率、参与度、身体健康、安全、全面健康和所有各种各样的方面。”

It isn’t just office workers who can benefit from an afternoon siesta. A 2015 study published in Current Biology looked at the sleeping habits of three hunter-gatherer preindustrial societies in Tanzania, Namibia and Bolivia.

不仅仅是办公室的工作人员可以受益于一个下午的小睡。一个发表在《当代生物学》(Current Biology)的2015年的研究调查了三个未经历工业化的狩猎采集社会的睡眠习惯,分别在坦桑尼亚、纳米比亚和玻利维亚。

“They’re active in the morning, then they get in the shade under the trees and have a sort of quiet time, but they’re not generally napping,” said Jerome Siegel, professor of psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences, and director of the U.C.L.A. Center for Sleep Research, a co-author of the study. “Then they do some work and go to sleep, and they sleep through the night.”

“他们上午活跃,然后他们会在树荫下休息一段时间,但是他们一般并不午睡,”加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校睡眠研究中心的主任、精神病学和生物行为科学的教授杰罗姆·西格尔(Jerome Siegel)说。他也是这个研究的合著者。“然后他们继续劳动,之后开始睡觉。他们整个晚上都用来睡眠。”

Still, Mr. Siegel said the only genuine way to solve daytime sleepiness and fatigue starts the night before with a solid night’s sleep. The real Holy Grail of restfulness is a regular sleep schedule with ideally seven or eight hours of sleep each night, which experts say is optimal.

不过,西格尔也认为,解决白天困乏的唯一真正办法是前一天晚上一整晚踏实的睡眠。要想得到良好的休息,真正的解决方案是有规律的睡眠,最好每晚七到八个小时。专家说这是最理想的。

“Daytime napping certainly does increase alertness,” Mr. Siegel said. “But it’s not as simple as going to the gas station and filling the tank.”

“白天的小睡当然使人精神振作,”西格尔说。“但是这不像去加油站把油箱加满那么简单。”

He also advises avoiding caffeine late in the day and waking around the same time every morning, even if you can’t get to sleep at the same time every night. This helps acclimate your body to your regular wake-up time, regardless of how much sleep you got the night before.

他还建议,白天太晚的时候避免摄入咖啡因,每天早上大概同样的时间起床,即使你不能在每晚的同一时间入睡。这有助于你的身体适应你有规律的醒来时间,不管你前一晚睡了多久。

So if you’ve made it this far and you’re interested in giving workday naps a try (or just starting to nod off), here’s a quick guide to the perfect nap:

说到这儿,如果你有兴趣尝试一下工作日午睡(或者只是开始打个盹),以下是帮助你实现完美小睡的一个快速指南:

• Find a quiet, unoccupied space where you won’t be disturbed.

• 找一个安静、没有被占据的、你也不会被打扰的地方。

• Try to make your area as dim as possible (or invest in a sleep mask you can keep in the office). Earplugs might help, too.

• 让周围环境尽可能昏暗(或者买一个睡眠眼罩放在办公室)。耳塞也会有帮助。

• Aim for around 20 minutes. Any longer than that and you’re likely to wake up with sleep inertia, which will leave you even groggier than before.

• 把目标设定为小睡20分钟左右。如果睡得再长,就可能醒来之后无精打采,结果比睡之前更加疲乏。

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