您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 教育 >> 正文

哈佛被诉招生歧视亚裔,偏袒其他少数族裔

更新时间:2017-8-5 10:08:06 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Affirmative Action Battle Has a New Focus: Asian-Americans
哈佛被诉招生歧视亚裔,偏袒其他少数族裔

By most standards, Austin Jia holds an enviable position. A rising sophomore at Duke, Jia attends one of the top universities in the country, setting him up for success.

按照大多数标准,奥斯汀·贾(Austin Jia)的条件都很令人羡慕。他进入了美国顶尖大学之一杜克大学(Duke),马上要升入大二,这为他的未来成功打下了基础。

But with his high GPA, nearly perfect SAT score, and activities — debate team, tennis captain and state orchestra — Jia believes he should have had a fair shot at Harvard, Princeton, Columbia and the University of Pennsylvania. Those Ivy League colleges rejected him after he applied in the fall of 2015.

但是,凭借他的GPA(成绩平均绩点)高分,几乎完美的SAT(大学入学考试)成绩,以及在各种课外活动中的表现——辩论队成员、网球队长和州级乐团团员——贾认为,他有很大的机会进入哈佛、普林斯顿、哥伦比亚和宾夕法尼亚大学。他在2015年的秋季申请过这些常春藤盟校,但是没有被录取。

It was particularly disturbing, Jia said, when classmates with lower scores than his — but who were not Asian-American, like him — were admitted to those Ivy League institutions.

贾说,特别令人不安的是,成绩比他差的同班同学——但不是他这样的亚裔美国人——却被常春藤盟校录取了。

“My gut reaction was that I was super disillusioned by how the whole system was set up,” Jia, 19, said.

“我的本能反应是,我对这整个体制非常失望,”19岁的贾说。

Students like Jia are now the subject of a lawsuit accusing Harvard of discriminating against Asian-Americans in admissions by imposing a penalty for their high achievement and giving preferences to other racial minorities.

像贾这样的学生,现在成为了一起诉讼的中心。诉讼书指控哈佛大学在录取学生时歧视亚裔美国人,对他们的优秀成绩施加惩罚,偏袒其他少数族裔。

The case, which is clearly aimed for the Supreme Court, puts Asian-Americans front and center in the latest stage of the affirmative action debate. The issue is whether there has been discrimination against Asian-Americans in the name of creating a diverse student body.

这个案子明显是要打到最高法院,它把亚裔美国人摆在了平权行动辩论最新阶段的重要位置。问题在于,是否存在这种现象——以打造多元化学生群体的名义,对亚裔美国人进行歧视。

The Justice Department, which has signaled that it is looking to investigate “intentional race-based discrimination in college and university admissions,” may well focus on Harvard.

司法部已经释放出信号,将对“高校录取工作中基于国际种族的歧视”展开调查,重点可能会放在哈佛大学。

The Harvard case asserts that the university’s admissions process amounts to an illegal quota system, in which roughly the same percentage of African-Americans, Hispanics, whites and Asian-Americans have been admitted year after year, despite fluctuations in application rates and qualifications.

哈佛这个案子的诉讼书称,该校的录取过程相当于一个不合法的配额制度,每年录取非裔美国人、西语裔美国人、白人和亚裔美国人比例大致相当,尽管申请率和生源质量有变化。

“It falls afoul of our most basic civil rights principles, and those principles are that your race and your ethnicity should not be something to be used to harm you in life nor help you in life,” said Edward Blum, the president of Students for Fair Admissions, the organization that is suing Harvard.

“这违背了我们最基本的民权原则,这些原则就是,你的族裔不应该被用来伤害你,也不应该被用来帮助你,”起诉哈佛的“大学生公平录取”(Students for Fair Admissions)组织总裁爱德华·布鲁姆(Edward Blum)说。

His group, a conservative-leaning nonprofit based in Virginia, has filed similar suits against the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the University of Texas at Austin, asserting that white students are at a disadvantage at those colleges because of their admissions policies.

“大学生公平录取”是位于弗吉尼亚州的一个偏保守的非营利组织,曾对北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)和德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校(University of Texas at Austin)提起过类似的诉讼,声称白人学生因录取政策而处于不利地位。

Melodie Jackson, a spokeswoman for Harvard, said that the university’s admissions policy was fair; that it looked at each applicant “as a whole person,” consistent with standards established by the Supreme Court; and that it promoted “the ability to work with people from different backgrounds, life experiences and perspectives.”

哈佛发言人麦乐迪·杰克逊(Melodie Jackson)表示,该校的录取政策是公平的;它将每个申请者“视为一个整体”,遵循了最高法院确定的标准;该校提倡“与不同背景、生活经历和观点的人合作的能力”。

Harvard’s class of 2021 is 14.6 percent African-American, 22.2 percent Asian-American, 11.6 percent Hispanic, and 2.5 percent Native American or Pacific Islander, according to data on the university’s website.

该校网站上的数据显示,哈佛大学2021届学生中有14.6%的非洲裔美国人,22.2%的亚裔美国人,11.6%的西语裔美国人,以及2.5%的美洲土著居民或太平洋岛民。

For the Harvard case, initially filed in 2014, Blum said, the federal court in Boston has allowed the plaintiffs to demand records from four highly competitive high schools with large numbers of Asian-American students: Stuyvesant High School in New York; Monta Vista High School in the Silicon Valley city of Cupertino, California; Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Alexandria, Virginia; and the Boston Latin School.

哈佛一案最初是在2014年提交的,布鲁姆表示,波士顿联邦法院允许该案原告到四所竞争激烈、拥有大量亚裔美国学生的高中提取数据。这四所高中分别是纽约斯泰弗森特高级中学(Stuyvesant High School)、加利福尼亚州硅谷库比蒂诺的蒙特维斯塔高中(Monta Vista High School)、弗吉尼亚州亚历山大的托马斯·杰斐逊科学技术高中(Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology),以及波士顿拉丁学校(Boston Latin School)。

The goal is to look at whether students with comparable qualifications have different odds of admission that could be correlated with race and how stereotypes influence the process. A Princeton study found that students who identify as Asian need to score 140 points higher on the SAT than whites to have the same chance of admission to private colleges, a difference some have called “the Asian tax.”

提取资料的目的,是要看看资格差不多的学生是否因为种族而导致在录取机会上的差异,看看刻板印象如何影响录取过程。普林斯顿大学的一项研究发现,亚裔学生的SAT成绩需要比白人高出140分,才会获得同样进入私立院校的机会,一些人称其为“亚裔税”。

The lawsuit also cites Harvard’s Asian-American enrollment at 18 percent in 2013, and notes very similar numbers ranging from 14 to 18 percent at other Ivy League colleges, like Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Princeton and Yale.

诉讼书还指出,在2013年,哈佛的亚裔美国人占学生总数的18%,而其他常春藤盟校,如布朗、哥伦比亚、康奈尔、普林斯顿和耶鲁,情况也非常相似,这个比例在14%至18%之间。

In contrast, it says, in the same year, Asian-Americans made up 34.8 percent of the student body at the University of California, Los Angeles, 32.4 percent at UC Berkeley and 42.5 percent at the California Institute of Technology. It attributes the higher numbers in the state university system to the fact that California banned racial preferences by popular referendum in 1996, though California also has a large number of Asian-Americans.

该组织说,在同一年份,亚裔美国人在加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)的学生中占了34.8%,在加州大学伯克利分校(UC Berkeley)占了32.4%,在加利福尼亚理工学院(California Institute of Technology)占了42.5%。该组织将该州大学系统中亚裔的高占比归结为加利福尼亚在1996年的全民投票中禁止种族偏好的做法,不过该州的亚裔美国人本来也多。

The data, experts say, suggests that if Harvard were forbidden to use race as a factor in admissions, the Asian-American admissions rate would rise, and the percentage of white, black and Hispanic students would fall.

专家说,数据表明,如果禁止哈佛把族裔作为录取的考量因素,该校亚裔美国学生的比例就会上升,而白人、黑人和西语裔学生的比例会下降。

Harvard argued that Blum’s group lacked standing to sue, but the court rejected the motion in June, based on signed declarations from several Asian-American applicants to Harvard who were rejected and who are members of the organization.

哈佛认为,布鲁姆的组织没有起诉的资格,但法院今年7月以几个亚裔美国人签署的声明为依据,驳回了这一动议。这几个亚裔美国人是该组织的成员,申请哈佛都没有被录取。

A year ago, the Supreme Court upheld a University of Texas admissions plan that allows race and ethnicity to be considered as one of many factors in admission. But some legal experts noted that Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr., in his dissent, said the Texas plan discriminated against Asian-Americans, and they saw that as a future theme to be pursued by opponents of affirmative action.

一年前,最高法院判决支持德克萨斯州大学的录取计划,允许它将族裔视为录取的多个因素之一。但是一些法律专家指出,大法官小塞缪尔·A·阿利托(Samuel A. Alito Jr.)在反对意见中表示,德克萨斯的录取计划是对亚裔美国人的歧视,专家们认为,平权行动的反对者未来会把这个意见当成主调。

Some Asian-American students believe Harvard’s system has enriched their educational experience. Emily Choi, who will be a junior with a history and literature concentration at Harvard this fall, said the university had been her dream school since she visited in seventh grade.

一些亚裔学生认为,哈佛的做法丰富了他们的教育经历。艾米丽·崔(Emily Choi)是哈佛大学历史和文学专业的学生,今年秋天开始读大三。她说,自从中学七年级参观过哈佛以来,该校一直是她梦寐以求的学校。

She graduated from Ardsley High School in Westchester County, New York, as editor of the newspaper, president of the Latin Club and vice president of the student council with a 4.0 GPA and 35 out of 36 on the ACT.

她毕业于纽约州韦斯特切斯特县的阿兹利高中(Ardsley High School)。在校期间,她曾担任报纸编辑、拉丁语俱乐部会长和学生会副主席,GPA4.0,ACT考试35分,满分36分。

She was not aware of concerns about discrimination against Asian-Americans until she arrived on campus and heard about the lawsuit, she said, and she was glad of the diversity she found at Harvard.

她说,在到学校听说该案前,她并不了解对亚裔美国人受歧视的担心,并且一直对自己在哈佛看到的多元化感到高兴。

“I firmly believe in affirmative action,” Choi said. “The diversity at Harvard has been key to my learning, and I think that if there weren’t so many people of different backgrounds, I wouldn’t be forced to think about things in new ways.”

“我坚定地相信平权行动,”她说。“哈佛的多元化对我的学习很关键,我觉得如果没有这么多背景各异的人,我不会被迫用新的角度考虑事情。”

Jia, who is not a party to the lawsuit against Harvard, graduated in 2016 from Millburn High School in New Jersey.

没有参与起诉哈佛的贾于2016年毕业于新泽西州的密尔本高中(Millburn High School)。

He applied to 14 colleges, including Duke, Cornell, Dartmouth, Brown, Harvard, Princeton, Columbia, Rutgers, New York University, Georgetown and the University of Pennsylvania. His SAT score was 2340 out of 2400, his GPA was 4.42 and he took 11 Advanced Placement courses.

他申请了14所学校,包括杜克、康奈尔、达特茅斯、布朗、哈佛、普林斯顿、哥伦比亚、罗格斯、纽约大学、乔治城和宾夕法尼亚大学。他的SAT成绩2340,满分2400,GPA4.42。他还修了11门大学预修课。

In addition to playing tennis, participating in the debate team and playing violin in the state orchestra, he did advocacy for an Asian-American student group.

除了打网球、参加辩论队并在州管弦乐队拉小提琴外,他还替一个亚裔美国学生组织进行倡导工作。

“All I know is that my student profile and all the extracurriculars I was involved in, and the grades I achieved were, I think, sufficient to get into a couple of the schools I applied to,” he said.

“我只知道我的学生信息和参加的所有课外活动,以及我取得的分数,足以让我进入申请学校里的几所,这是我的看法,”他说。

The experience has left Jia questioning the admissions process. “I felt that the whole concept of meritocracy — which America likes to say it exercises all the time — I felt that principle was defeated a little in my mind,” he said.

这段经历促使他质疑录取程序。“我觉得整个择优概念——美国喜欢说这是自己一贯的做法——我觉得这个原则在我心中被否定了一点,”他说。

But, he added, he is coming to terms with the results. “I didn’t want to blame everything on one reason.”

但他接着说,他会接受相关结果。“我不想把一切都归咎于一个原因。”

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表