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印尼猎鲸部落坚持他们的古老生活方式

更新时间:2017-8-5 10:03:56 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

A Whaling Way of Life Under Threat
印尼猎鲸部落坚持他们的古老生活方式

LAMALERA, Indonesia — The pilot whales glided through the crystalline waters in neat formation, blue-gray backs glinting in the sun, on their migration through Indonesia’s Savu Sea. Suddenly a small motorboat revved its engine and charged at them, and a man on board launched a harpoon at one of the largest.

印度尼西亚拉马莱拉——领航鲸们以整齐的队形在清澈的海水中游弋,蓝灰色的脊背在阳光下闪闪发亮,它们正在印度尼西亚的萨武海上迁徙。突然,一艘小摩托艇发动引擎,向它们冲了过来,船上一个男人向其中最大的一头鲸射出鱼叉。

There was a splash of blood — and then a slow death, as the harpooned whale bobbed in the water, unable to free itself. The sailors plunged more harpoons into it, and about 30 minutes later a crew member slipped into the water and finished off the struggling creature with a knife to the spine.

鲜血四处溅开——然后是缓慢的死亡,被鱼叉刺中的鲸鱼浮上水面,无法挣脱。水手们向它射出更多的鱼叉,大约30分钟后,一名船员跃入水中,用一把刀刺向它的脊椎,结束了它的挣扎。

Fishermen from the small whaling village of Lamalera, on a sunbaked island in remote eastern Indonesia, have been hunting whales for centuries. They still do, now with permission from the Indonesian government, as long as it is for their own consumption and not for commercial sale. They may also hunt dolphins and mantas for their own use.

这些渔民来自以捕鲸为生的村庄拉马莱拉,那是印度尼西亚东部一座阳光充裕的偏远小岛,他们在这里捕鲸已经有几百年的历史。至今仍在继续,并且得到了印尼政府的许可,前提是只能用于自己的生活所需,不能进行商业销售。他们还会以自用为目的从事海豚和蝠鲼的捕杀。

But as the government cuts down on illegal fishing in the Savu Sea, trying to conserve a critical migratory route for whale and dolphin species, conservationists are calling for a strict regulation of Lamaleran hunting practices, too.

但是随着政府打击萨武海上的非法捕鱼,试图保护一条鲸鱼和海豚的重要迁徙路线,自然资源保护人士正在呼吁对拉马莱拉的捕鱼活动也进行严格管制。

“This is not basic needs. This is really beyond that,” said Glaudy Perdanahardja, an official with the Nature Conservancy, which is based in the United States but has an office in Indonesia that focuses on the Savu Sea. He suggested that islanders were no longer hunting merely for subsistence, but also for commercial purposes.

“这不是基本所需。绝对已经超出了,”大自然保护协会(Nature Conservancy)官员格劳迪·珀达那哈德加(Glaudy Perdanahardja)说,这家机构总部位于美国,但在印度尼西亚有一个办事处,重点关注萨武海。他认为岛民捕鲸的目的已经不再是单纯的求生,而是有商业目的。

Although the group acknowledges the importance of whaling to the community, it worries that the introduction of motorboats to Lamalera more than a decade ago has led to the killing of more marine life. Nowadays, Lamalerans use motorboats to hunt dolphins, mantas and pilot whales, rather than traditional sailboats. While they still use sailboats to harpoon sperm whales, they sometimes use motorboats to tow the sailboats to the whales to speed up the chase.

虽然该组织承认捕鲸对这里的人们很重要,但它担心,十多年前摩托艇引入拉马莱拉已导致更多海洋生物被捕杀。如今,拉马莱拉人用摩托艇而非传统的帆船追捕海豚、蝠鲼和领航鲸。虽然他们仍乘帆船用鱼叉捕猎抹香鲸,但他们有时用摩托艇拖着渔船靠近鲸鱼,以加快捕猎速度。

“Now they can go farther and catch things they could not originally catch,” said Yusuf Fajariyanto of the conservancy, who visited Lamalera in 2015 to observe the hunting practices.

“现在他们可以去往更远处的海洋,捕捉原来捕不到的东西,”大自然保护协会(Nature Conservancy)的优素福·法亚里安托(Yusuf Fajariyanto)说。他曾于2015年前往拉马莱拉观察那里的捕猎行为。

But Lamalerans bristle at efforts by outsiders to regulate their fishing practices. “The sea is our mother,” said Aloisius Gnneser Tapoona, 63, a grizzled harpooner who said he had killed around 80 sperm whales in four decades of hunting. “Those who would restrict our access to the sea are those who would kill our mother.”

但是,拉马莱拉人为外界监管他们的捕鱼行为感到愤怒。“大海是我们的母亲,”63岁的阿洛伊修斯·格尼瑟·塔普纳(Aloisius Gnneser Tapoona)说。他头发斑白,是一名鱼叉手,他说自己在40年的捕猎生涯中杀死了约80头抹香鲸。“限制我们进入大海,就是杀死我们的母亲。”

“Villagers of Lamalera are born from the whale,” continued Tapoona, whose house is decorated with trophies from the whales he has harpooned. Their bones are displayed in a sculpture garden at the front of his yard. “I always tell my child: ‘Your bones are from the whale. Your blood is from the whale. Your flesh is from the whale.'”

“拉马莱拉的村民们是从鲸鱼中诞生的,”塔普纳接着说道。他的房子里装饰着他叉死的鲸鱼身上的战利品。他院子前面的一个雕塑花园里展示着鲸鱼的骨头。“我总是对我的孩子说:‘你的骨头来自鲸鱼。你的血肉来自鲸鱼。’”

Tapoona estimated that Lamalerans catch around 20 sperm whales a year along with uncountable numbers of smaller pilot whales, dolphins and mantas. The village’s hard and rocky soil makes growing crops impossible, so villagers have no choice but to take full advantage of what the sea provides, he said.

据塔普纳估计,拉马莱拉人每年捕获约20头抹香鲸,以及数不清的小领航鲸、海豚和蝠鲼。他说,该村庄的土壤坚硬多石,无法种植农作物,所以村民们别无选择,只能充分地靠海吃海。

Still, there are signs that Lamalera’s fishermen are trafficking in wildlife parts, which villagers say is related to changing economic times.

不过,有迹象表明,拉马莱拉的渔民们在走私野生动物器官,他们说,那与不断变化的经济形势有关。

Over the last decade, cash has become an inescapable part of village life, as the barter economy fades. A local credit union opened in town a few years ago, offering loans for villagers to pay for modern needs like motor oil and their children’s education.

在过去十年里,现金已成为村民生活中不可缺少的一部分,物物交换在慢慢消失。几年前,镇上开了一家本地信用社,为村民提供贷款,以支付机油和孩子的教育费等现代需要。

Over cigarettes and tuak, a foamy alcoholic drink made from palm fruit, fishermen confessed that loans had become a problem. A few bad catches, they said, and they could fall behind on their payments and slide deeper into debt.

渔民们抽着烟,喝着一种用棕榈果做成的起泡酒精饮料,他们承认,贷款成了一个问题。他们表示,如果有几次捕到的猎物少,就可能无法及时还款,造成更沉重的债务负担。

In July, Indonesia’s police announced that they had intercepted a shipment of whale bones being trafficked between Lamalera and Poland. In November last year, Gregorius Dengekae Krova, 61, a Lamalera fisherman, was arrested by Indonesia’s wildlife police after collecting manta fins for a presumed sale.

今年7月,印尼警方宣布,他们拦截了一批从拉马莱拉走私到波兰的鲸骨。去年11月,61岁的拉马莱拉渔民格里戈柳斯·登戈卡伊·克罗瓦(Gregorius Dengekae Krova)被印尼西亚野生动物警察拘留,因为据信他为一项交易收集蝠鲼鱼鳍。

He was released after Lamalera elders raced to the police station, a day’s journey away, to demand his return, arguing that he did not know any better.

拉马莱拉的长辈们火速花费一天的时间赶到警察局,要求释放他,理由是他不了解情况,随后他被释放。

Sitting outside his ramshackle brick home, Krova said selling his catch, without regard to the species’ protected status, had allowed him, a man with a fourth-grade education, to pay for his children’s university attendance.

克罗瓦坐在自己破旧的砖房外说,出售自己捕到的鱼——不去管鱼类的受保护情况——能让他支付孩子们的大学学费。他本人是四年级教育水平。

He said he had no intention of violating the law. “What’s the harm in us selling fish?” he asked. “It wasn’t stolen and it isn’t illegal drugs.”

他说他并不想犯法。“我们卖鱼有什么错呢?”他问。“它又不是偷来的,也不是毒品。”

Leonardo Lowokrore, the village priest, said that the law was clear, but that many villagers don’t understand. He added that Japanese and Chinese buyers frequently visited Lamalera to buy delicacies like shark fins, but said he had counseled Lamalerans that selling protected species was no way to earn a living.

村里的牧师莱昂纳多·洛沃克洛尔(Leonardo Lowokrore)表示,法律很明确,但很多村民不理解。他还说,一些日本和中国买家经常来拉马莱拉购买鲨鱼鳍等珍馐,不过他说他已劝告拉马莱拉人不要把出售受保护的鱼类当做一种谋生方式。

“There are many other ways to get your kid through school,” like catching unprotected fish species, or catering to occasional international tourists, he said.

他说,“有很多其他方式能让你的孩子接受教育”,比如捕捞未受保护的鱼类,或者为偶尔前来的国际游客服务。

Brahmantya Poerwadi, a director general at Indonesia’s Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries in Jakarta, said he planned to meet with conservation groups and villagers to develop alternative methods of fishing to reduce the killing of protected species. “I honor the tribe,” he said. “But the thing is we need to do something.”

雅加达的印度尼西亚海事渔业局(Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries)局长布拉曼塔·布尔瓦迪(Brahmantya Poerwadi)表示,他打算与保护组织和渔民会面,开发其他捕鱼方式,减少对受保护鱼类的捕杀。“我尊敬那个部落,”他说,“但问题是我们需要做些什么。”

The villagers say they are fine as they are.

村民们表示,他们现在这样挺好。

Each Friday, on market day, villagers from a fertile hill region nearby descend on Lamalera to trade produce that Lamalera’s thin soil cannot support, a practice considered legal. As a small red dust kicks up in the wind, Lamaleran women try to barter whole fish and slabs of whale meat for corn, vegetables and tobacco.

在每周五的集市上,附近土地肥沃的山区村民会下山来到拉马莱拉,出售这里贫瘠的土壤无法种植的农产品,这种交易被认为是合法的。细小的红色尘土在风中飞扬,拉马莱拉的女人们用整条鱼和鲸鱼块交换玉米、蔬菜和烟草。

“Whale meat is the most delicious,” said Yustina Prami, an older Lamalera woman with a hunched back and a mouth stained red by betel juice. Although she barters her flying fish for corn, she will accept only cash for her dried sperm whale meat, a sign of its value.

“鲸鱼肉是最美味的,”年长的拉马莱拉妇女尤斯蒂娜·普拉米(Yustina Prami)说。她驼着背,有着一张被槟榔汁染红的嘴。虽然她用飞鱼交换玉米,但她只接受用现金购买她晒干的抹香鲸鱼肉,以显示它的价值。

“The whale is different from other fish,” said Aloysius Enga Beding, a middle-aged fisherman who, like many Lamalerans, believes sperm whales are a gift from the village’s ancestors. “Sharks and mantas are for whoever catches them. But whales are big. They’re for the entire community.”

“鲸鱼跟其他鱼类不同,”中年渔民阿洛伊修斯·恩加·贝丁(Aloysius Enga Beding)说。和很多拉马莱拉人一样,他认为抹香鲸是这个村庄的祖先留给他们的礼物。“鲨鱼和蝠鲼是谁捕到就属于谁。但是鲸鱼很大。它们属于整个部落。”

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