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提高移民门槛,特朗普参考澳大利亚模式

更新时间:2017-8-4 10:27:54 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Trump Looks to Australia in Overhauling Immigration System
提高移民门槛,特朗普参考澳大利亚模式

As President Trump embraces a proposal to sharply cut immigration to the United States, supporters of the plan point to the example of Australia and its “merit-based” system for approving new immigrants.

就在特朗普总统对一项大幅降低向美国移民人数的方案表示支持的时候,该方案的支持者把澳大利亚及其批准新移民的“择优”制度树为榜样。

The plan Mr. Trump supports seeks to reduce immigration by curbing the ability of American citizens and legal residents to bring family members into the country. As Mr. Trump told Congress earlier this year, “It is a basic principle that those seeking to enter a country ought to be able to support themselves financially.”

这项得到特朗普支持的方案,旨在通过限制美国公民和合法居民把家庭成员带入美国的能力来减少移民人数。正如特朗普今年早些时候对国会所说的,“这是一项基本原则,那些寻求进入一个国家的人,应该有养活自己的财务能力。”

That approach — making sure new immigrants are not a burden on the country’s safety net and are able to prosper financially — is at the core of Australia’s immigration laws.

确保新移民不成为国家保障体系的负担、并且有能力在经济上进一步发展的做法,是澳大利亚移民法的核心。

Australia takes in more immigrants relative to its population than the United States. The country has two distinct systems: a points-based system, which favors people based on their English proficiency and the skills they have to fill needed jobs, and an employer-nomination system, which allows businesses to sponsor people for jobs.

与美国相比,澳大利亚接纳的移民人数相对其人口来说较多。澳大利亚有两个不同的移民体系:一个是基于分数的体系,根据移民者的英语水平、以及他们填补所需职位的技能打分,高分者优先;另一个是雇主提名制,该体系允许企业为雇员移民提供担保。

A White House official said on Wednesday that it had looked at both the Australian and Canadian immigration systems and “added things that made sense for America.”

周三,一名白宫官员表示,美国已经考察了澳大利亚和加拿大的移民体系,并“增补了对美国有意义的内容”。

“One of the things I think is the most compelling about the Australian system is the efforts to make sure that immigrants are financially self-sufficient,” Stephen Miller, a senior White House aide, said in discussing the plan with reporters Wednesday.

“我认为,澳大利亚的移民体系最有说服力的一个方面是确保移民在经济上有自立能力,”白宫高级助理史蒂芬·米勒(Stephen Miller)周三与记者讨论美国的方案时说。

Under the plan proposed by Republican senators, applicants for legal residency in the United States would be judged on the basis of education, language and job abilities, favoring those who can speak English. They would be able to financially support themselves and have skills that contribute to the economy. Currently, most legal immigrants are admitted to the United States based on family ties to those already in the country.

这项由共和党参议员提出的方案,将对申请美国合法居留权的人按照受教育程度、语言和工作能力进行评估,会说英语者可得高分。申请者还应该能够在经济上自立,并拥有对经济做出贡献的技能。目前,大多数进入美国的合法移民靠的是与已在美国的家庭成员的关系。

“We are establishing a new entry system that’s points-based,” Mr. Miller said in explaining the Trump administration’s approach. “Can they support themselves and their families financially? Do they have a skill that will add to the U.S. economy? Are they being paid a high wage?”

“我们正在建立一个基于分数的新移民体系,”米勒在解释特朗普政府的做法时说。“他们有支持自己和家人的财力吗?他们有为美国经济提供增长的能力吗?他们能挣到高薪吗?”

Under the Australian system, applicants get the most points — up to 60 — for having skills in needed areas, and fewer points — up to 20 — for fluency in English. They are also awarded points for their age group, with the 25-to-32 age range being most desirable, and older people being less so. Applicants get up to 20 points for having a doctorate from an Australian educational institution or its equivalent.

在澳大利亚的移民体系中,申请人在所需领域拥有技能可让他们得到分数的最高(高达60分)。在其他方面,比如英语的流利程度上最多可得20分。他们也被根据年龄层次打分,年龄在25岁到32岁之间的人最受欢迎,年龄大的人则不太受欢迎。有澳大利亚教育机构授予的博士学位或有同等学历的申请者最高可获得20分。

While the program seeks to attract immigrants to fill occupations in areas where needed skills are in short supply, some experts believe the approach has been largely ineffective.

虽然该体系的目的是吸引移民来填补所需技能人才不足的领域,但有些专家认为,这个做法在很大程度上并没有多大效果。

“Australia has this image internationally that our points-tested skill program is delivering a high quality, skilled work force,” said Bob Birrell, president of the Australian Population Research Institute. “I think that’s a myth. Our points-selected skilled migration program is full of holes.”

“澳大利亚在国际上给人的印象是,我们根据技能打分的移民体系正在为国家提供高素质、高技能的劳动力,”澳大利亚人口研究所所长鲍勃·波瑞尔(Bob Birrell)说。“我认为那是一个神话。我们靠分数选择技术移民的项目充满了漏洞。”

Rather than favor people from overseas who have significant work experience and skills considered important in Australia, the points system has been watered down to favor foreigners who have recently graduated from Australian universities, Mr. Birrell said.

波瑞尔说,这个基于分数的项目并没有从海外吸引到具有澳大利亚认为重要的工作经验和技能的人,而是被成为了偏向最近毕业于澳大利亚大学的外国人的项目。

“There’s no assessment as to whether the skills that the applicant possesses are actually in demand here,” Mr. Birrell continued.

“没有对申请人拥有的技能是否属于这里实际所需的相关评估,”波瑞尔继续说道。

The program has also been criticized as overly complex in its skills criteria and as inherently favoring white applicants because of its language and educational requirements.

还有人批评澳大利亚的方案过于复杂,并且因为其对语言和受教育程度的要求,具有偏爱白种人申请者的内在问题。

In promoting its approach Wednesday, the Trump administration also cited Canada, which similarly uses a points-based immigration system. Canada’s approach, however, does not merely favor immigrants based on their skills but also uses a system that promotes a multicultural society.

特朗普政府周三在宣传自己的方案时还提到了加拿大,加拿大也有类似的基于分数的移民体系。但是,加拿大的做法并不仅仅是根据移民所拥有的技能来确定他们的受欢迎程度,还包括一个促进社会文化多元化的部分。

Like the United States, Australia has been very welcoming of immigrants, with roughly 27 percent of its population foreign-born, coming from more than 200 countries. It formalized the points-based system in 1989 and has updated it several times, most recently in 2011.

像美国一样,澳大利亚一直非常欢迎移民,其人口的大约有27%在外国出生,这些人来自200多个国家。澳大利亚在1989年正式建立其基于分数的移民体系,并对体系进行了多次更新,最近一次是在2011年。

Khanh Hoang, a lecturer at the College of Law at Australian National University, wrote last year in The Conversation that Australia’s points-based system failed to capture the nuances needed for hiring the best and most desirable employees for key jobs.

澳大利亚国立大学法学院讲师黄康(Khanh Hoang)去年在《对话》(The Conversation)中写道,澳大利亚基于分数的体系没有考虑到为关键职位雇佣最佳和最急需人才上应该考虑的细微问题。

“Some suggest a points test is a crude measure that does not account for ‘soft’ attributes desired by employers such as communications skills, the ability to learn on the job, or resilience,” he wrote, adding that the system may not be nimble enough to adjust to the country’s employment needs.

“有些人指出,打分测试是一种很粗粝的做法,无法把雇主渴望的‘软’能力,比如交流能力、在实际工作中学习的能力,或韧性考虑进来,”他写道,并补充说,该体系可能不够灵活,无法适应国家的人才需求。

“This raises questions as to the government’s ability to accurately project shortages in the labor market, leading to underemployment or over-employment in some areas,” he wrote.

“这就对政府是否有准确预测劳动力市场短缺的能力提出了质疑,目前有些行业就业不足,而有行业则人员过剩,”他写道。

In April, Australia’s prime minister, Malcolm Turnbull, proposed raising more barriers to citizenship, with an “Australian values” test and a four-year wait for applicants.

今年4月,澳大利亚总理马尔科姆·特恩布尔(Malcolm Turnbull)建议设立更多的入籍障碍,包括一个“澳大利亚价值观”考试,以及申请人需要等待四年的要求。

The proposal came as he faced domestic pressure on the immigration front, with Pauline Hanson, a senator who has called for a ban on Muslim immigration, tapping into the frustrations of voters who believe they are competing with immigrants for jobs or government resources.

提出该提案时,特恩布尔正在移民问题上面临国内压力,参议员波林·汉森(Pauline Hanson)利用选民的不满呼吁禁止穆斯林移民,有些选民认为,他们需要在就业和获得政府资源方面与移民竞争。

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