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“比我预想的更加超现实”:美国人的朝鲜体验

更新时间:2017-7-27 11:23:51 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why I Visited North Korea
“比我预想的更加超现实”:美国人的朝鲜体验

North Korea is the most reclusive country in the world, run by a repressive government accused of systemic human rights abuses. Last week, the United States barred Americans from traveling there, after the death of a college student who was detained in the country for 17 months.

朝鲜是世界上最与世隔绝的国家,由一个被控系统性侵犯人权的高压政府统治。在一名美国大学生被朝鲜拘禁17个月死亡后,上周,美国禁止该国公民去朝鲜旅游。

But a small number of tourists have gone despite the risks. We asked readers who had traveled to North Korea to tell us why they went and what they found. Here is a sampling of about 60 responses we received.

尽管存在着风险,仍有少量游客前往朝鲜。我们询问了一些曾在朝鲜旅游过的读者,让他们告诉我们去那里旅游的原因以及见闻。我们收到了约60份回答,以下是部分摘录:

‘Even more surreal than I’d expected’

‘比我预想的更加超现实’

Rebecca High, from Los Angeles visited the country in April to run in the Pyongyang Marathon. She joined more than 1,000 foreigners running in the race.

来自洛杉矶的丽贝卡·海伊(Rebecca High)4月前往朝鲜,参加了平壤马拉松。与她一道参加这个赛事的还有1000多名外国人。

When did you visit North Korea, and what prompted you to go? I’d lived in South Korea during the sinking of the Cheonan and had visited the DMZ [Korean demilitarized zone] from the south side, which sparked my curiosity. I heard about the marathon in Pyongyang and figured it would be a good way to get into the country, but also to do something productive and personally challenging.

你何时前往朝鲜,又是什么原因促使你去那里的?“天安号”沉没期间我住在韩国,当时我还从南边去探访了非军事区,这激发了我的好奇。我听说了平壤的马拉松,觉得是进入这个国家的好办法,同时又能做一些有成果和对个人有挑战的事情。

What did you see on your trip that resonated with you? North Korea was aesthetically even more surreal than I’d expected: very few cars on the road, people hand-painting propaganda billboards, people on their hands and knees working vast dirt fields, Socialist Party uniformed-citizens filling giant stadiums for mandatory sports events. I was also somewhat surprised at the conversations we were able to have with our guides. We happened to be there, without contact to the outside world, the week before Kim Il-sung’s 105th birthday celebrations, during the weekend that President Trump tweeted and the cold war escalated.

你在旅途中看到哪些东西令你心生感慨?朝鲜在视觉上比我预想的更加超现实:马路上没什么车;有人在手绘宣传广告牌;在大片的土地上,人们以双手双膝着地的方式劳作着;强制参加的体育赛事在巨型体育场上举行,观众席上满是穿着社会主义政党制服的公民。我们与导游之间的交谈也让我感到有些惊讶。在金日成诞辰105周年之前的一周,我们碰巧在那里,与外界没有接触,那个周末特朗普总统发表了一些推文,冷战升级了。

Do you think that outsiders should visit nations like North Korea? I think cracking open borders via average citizen tourism is one of the best forms of soft diplomacy.

你认为外国人应该去像朝鲜这样的国家旅游吗?我认为通过普通公民旅游敲开边界之门,是软外交的最佳形式之一。

‘I wanted to see for myself’

‘我想亲眼去看看’

Mark C. W. Robinson is an American pilot based in California. He visited North Korea for four days last month with his wife.

马克·C·W ·罗伯逊(Mark C. W. Robinson)是美国飞行员,住在加利福尼亚州。上个月他与妻子一起去朝鲜玩了四天。

What prompted you to go? My father has visited 69 countries, and I’ve had a few friends who have been to North Korea. I wanted to do something unique and decided to book a ticket via Beijing. I wanted to see for myself since we no longer know what will happen next politically.

是什么促使你去朝鲜的?我父亲去过69个国家,我有几个朋友去过朝鲜。我想做一些独特的事情,于是决定订下经由北京的机票。我想亲眼去看看,因为我们也不知道以后在政治上会发生什么事情。

What did you see on your trip that resonated with you? When we went to the DMZ, a soldier was extremely friendly. One political conversation came up, and he said he wished that both nations would talk. I was surprised to fly in a helicopter. Being a pilot myself, this was amazing to see the capital from the air. It’s huge!

你对旅途中看到的哪些东西很感慨呢?我们参观非军事区的时候,一名士兵极为友好。我们就谈到了政治,他表示希望两国进行对话。我乘坐了直升机观光,感到很惊讶。我自己就是飞行员,从空中看平壤感觉很棒。它真的好大!

Do you think that outsiders should visit nations like North Korea? I believe outsiders should visit North Korea and other unusual nations to form their own opinion and see people running their daily lives. Tourism also gives the locals in those areas an opportunity to see Westerners and all the fashion, technology and conversation it creates.

你认为外国人应该去像朝鲜这样的国家旅游吗?我相信外国人应该访问朝鲜和其他不寻常的国家,以便形成自己的看法,亲眼看看人们是怎么过日常生活的。旅游业也让这些国家的当地人有机会看到西方人以及他们带来的各种时尚、技术和交流。

‘I knew my trip was being carefully curated’

‘我知道自己的行程是精心安排的’

Kelly Whitmer, a history professor at Sewanee: The University of the South, in Tennessee, visited North Korea with her family in April.

田纳西州南方大学的历史教授凯利·惠特曼(Kelly Whitmer)今年4月份与家人一起去朝鲜旅行了一趟。

What prompted you to go? My mother-in-law, Kathryn Whitmer, who will be 80 this year, was planning a trip to participate in the Pyongyang Marathon and wanted to share the experience with a family member. She asked me if I would join her, and I agreed.

是什么促使你去朝鲜的?我婆婆凯瑟琳·惠特默(Kathryn Whitmer)今年就要满80岁了,她当时打算去参加平壤马拉松,还想和家人分享这次经历。她问我要不要和她一起去,我答应了。

What did you see on your trip that resonated with you? I knew my trip was being carefully curated, that there were many sides of Pyongyang and the country that I simply would not see, or would be prevented from seeing. Yet, I am still glad that I went. It was like stepping into another world. It was the kind of experience that changes the way you look at your own life. Apart from the experience of participating in the Pyongyang Marathon, which was amazing, the most memorable thing I saw were the underground stations with impressive, colorful mosaics and crowds of people coming and going. I will also never forget the “morning music” played in Pyongyang every day, starting just after dawn. I can still hear the melody in my head.

旅途中看到的哪些东西让你印象深刻?我知道自己的行程是精心安排的,平壤和这个国家有很多方面是我根本不会看到,或者说不让我看到的。但我还是很高兴自己去了。像是踏入了另一个世界。这种经历会改变你对自己的生活的看法。参加平壤马拉松的经历很美好,除此以外,我看到的最难忘的,是那些有着令人印象深刻的彩色马赛克,人群来了又去的地铁站。此外,我永远都不会忘记平壤每天播放的“晨乐”,天刚亮就开始了。我现在还能在脑海里听到那种旋律。

Do you think that outsiders should visit nations like North Korea? While I understand the argument against traveling there — that by going you’re supporting the regime — I still believe in the power of building and sustaining meaningful connections with people in different parts of the world through travel.

你认为外国人应该去朝鲜这样的国家旅游吗?尽管我理解不让去那里旅游的理由——去那里就是在支持朝鲜政权——但我依然相信,通过旅游与世界不同地方的人建立和保持有意义的联系所带来的力量。

‘What I saw is what the authorities wanted me to see’

‘我看到的,都是当局想让我看到的’

Simon Park visited the country twice in 2011 to teach at North Korea’s only private university, Pyongyang University of Science and Technology, or P.U.S.T., which is funded by a Christian group in the West. Two Americans who worked at the university are currently detained. Mr. Park was a missionary who volunteered to teach a course on international finance.

西蒙·帕克(Simon Park)在2011年两次前往朝鲜唯一一所私立大学平壤科技大学(Pyongyang University of Science and Technology,简称PUST)任教。这所大学是由西方一个基督教团体资助的。曾在该校工作的两名美国人目前被朝鲜拘押。西蒙·帕克是一名传教士,自愿教授一门有关国际金融的课程。

What prompted you to go? I was looking for more meaningful engagement with people than just transactional engagements, like food distribution and financial gifts. I thought P.U.S.T. was an endeavor that had a chance.

是什么原因促使你去朝鲜的?我当时正在寻找通过更有意义的方式,而不仅仅是像食品发放和金钱捐赠这样的简单活动,与人们联系。我想,PUST是一种尝试,有一定的机会。

What did you see on your trip that resonated with you? What I saw is what the authorities wanted me to see. At P.U.S.T., a sign, attributed to Kim Jong-il, was displayed on a prominent wall in the main building and read, “Plant your feet firmly in the motherland and watch the world.” This seemingly schizophrenic attitude explained many dissonant beliefs and behaviors. Young students were selected by the state for academic performance and loyalty to the regime. The authorities knew who I was. They held my passport and phone for six weeks, but were willing to allow me to teach their students. Allowing access to its people as long as the regime feels confident that it can control its citizens and the visitors seemed to be the standard for all interactions with outsiders.

旅途中看到的哪些东西让你印象深刻?我看到的,都是当局想让我看到的。在PUST,主楼里一面显著的墙上挂着一个署名是金正日(Kim Jong-il)的牌子,上面写着“坚定地立足祖国,观望世界”。这种看似矛盾的态度,解释了很多不协调的信念和行为。国家根据学习成绩和对朝鲜政权的忠诚程度挑选年轻学生。当局知道我是谁。在长达六周的时间里,他们收走了我的护照和手机,但愿意让我教他们的学生。只要当局相信自己能够控制自己的公民和外国人,就允许接触民众,这似乎是所有与外国人互动的标准。

Do you think that outsiders should visit nations like North Korea? They should visit, but with realistic expectations and free of personal agenda.

你认为外国人应该去朝鲜这样的国家旅游吗?应该去,但要怀着合理的预期,不要有个人的议程。

‘We wanted to bring our two countries closer’

‘我们想拉近两个国家的距离’

Patrick Leslie, from Texas, traveled to North Korea in June 2012 while he was studying in Seoul, South Korea. He played on a recreational basketball team that traveled to Pyongyang for a friendly match.

来自德克萨斯州的帕特里克·莱斯利(Patrick Leslie)在2012年6月在韩国首尔留学期间去过朝鲜。当时,在一个业余篮球队打球的他,随球队去平壤参加一场友谊赛。

What prompted you to go? We wanted to bring our two countries closer through basketball.

是什么原因促使你去朝鲜的?我们想通过篮球,拉近两个国家的距离。

What did you see on your trip that resonated with you? The actual basketball game we played was something that had an impact on the kids. That is something I will never forget.

旅途中看到的哪些东西让你印象深刻?我们实际参加的篮球比赛,影响到了孩子们。这是我永远都不会忘记的。

Do you think that outsiders should visit nations like North Korea? It is an amazing experience. You get to see and hear things you would never see on television.

你认为外国人应该去朝鲜这样的国家旅游吗?这是一种奇妙的经历。你会看到和听到永远不会在电视上看到的东西。

‘I found myself digging for defector stories’

‘我一直在寻找脱北者的故事’

Joseph Vo, a Canadian, visited North Korea last month while traveling throughout Asia.

加拿大人约瑟夫·沃(Joseph Vo)上月在亚洲各地旅游期间去了朝鲜。

What prompted you to go? Over the past couple of years, I had become very interested in the regime and the people that come out of it. I found myself digging for defector stories. We often hear stories about the regime, the leaders and their wacky antics. I feel that the people get lost in all of that.

是什么原因促使你去朝鲜的?过去几年里,我变得对朝鲜政权和它治下的民众非常感兴趣。我一直在寻找脱北者的故事。我们经常听说有关这个政权、它的领导人和他们疯狂滑稽的举止的故事。我觉得朝鲜民众迷失在其中了。

What did you see on your trip that resonated with you? On the bus from the airport to inner-city Pyongyang, we saw these ladies carrying buckets of water around, watering city grass. I asked one of our Korean tour guides about it. She said that these were just citizens of the city, and that they were watering the lawn because of the lack of rain. Children in school uniforms joined in every day. It was strange, because people didn’t just do it when they had time, but at the same time every day the entire city would join in, so it felt forced.

旅途中看到的哪些东西让你印象深刻?在从机场到平壤中心城区的大巴上,我们看到一些女性提着水桶,给市区的草地浇水。我问我们的一名朝鲜导游。她说,这些人只是平壤的居民,她们给草坪浇水是因为雨水少。穿着校服的孩子每天都会加入她们。这件事很奇怪,因为人们不是有时间了才这么做,而是在每一天的同一时间都会这么做,而且整座城市都会加入,所以感觉是被迫的。

Do you think that outsiders should visit nations like North Korea? Before traveling to the country I thought that a trip like this was not meant for everyone. I still feel this way. Especially with recent news, it is going to be a hard sell, but I truthfully did not feel in danger at any point on this trip.

你认为外国人应该去朝鲜这样的国家旅游吗?去朝鲜之前,我觉得像这样的旅行并不是所有人都适合。我现在依然这么觉得。尤其是在出了最近的新闻后,这不是一个很好的点子,但说实话,旅途中任何时候我都没有觉得危险。

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