您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 教育 >> 正文

上司要求你做不道德的事情,怎么办?

更新时间:2017-7-19 18:23:25 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

When the Boss Wants You to Do Something Unethical
上司要求你做不道德的事情,怎么办?

Maybe you’re asked to mislead a customer. Maybe you’re told to lie to a client, or take a shortcut you know would produce an inferior product.

也许你会被要求误导顾客。也许你会被要求向客户撒谎,或者冒着做出劣质产品的风险走捷径。

When your boss puts you in a situation that compromises your ethics, none of the options seem particularly great. Go along with the unethical behavior and you become complicit. Report it to a higher-up or outside organization and you could face retaliation.

当上司要求你违背自己的道德准则时,你将处于两难境地:顺从地去做出不道德的行为,你将成为共谋者;越级或对外举报,你可能会面临报复。

But it’s certainly possible to raise your concerns without harming your job status or relationships at work. Here’s what you might consider before airing your complaints.

但是,在不威胁到你的职位或工作关系的情况下,你依然可以表达你的顾虑。在提出异议之前,或许应该考虑以下几点。

Start with your boss

从你的上司开始

First you should make sure you understand what, exactly, your boss is asking of you. Let’s rule out a misunderstanding.

首先,你应该确保理解上司究竟要求你做什么,排除误解。

Explain why the request made you uneasy. If you can, cite specific company policies that it seems to defy.

向上司解释为什么他或她的要求会使你不安。如果可能,还可以列出这一要求可能违反的公司规定。

Paul Fiorelli, the director of Cintas Institute for Business Ethics at Xavier University, suggested you use plain language like: “You’ve asked me to do this, but if I did this it would violate this policy we have. You’re not asking me to do that, are you?”

赛维尔大学辛塔斯商务道德学院院长保罗·菲欧雷利(Paul Fiorelli)建议,你可以选择使用直白的语言。比如:“你要我做这件事,但如果我这么做,会违反我们的这条规定。你不是在要求我这么做吧?”

In many cases, it’s likely the boss hadn’t considered his or her request unethical. Citing specific reasons for your objection could help them see why the request is unreasonable — or could solidify that yes, they really do want you to do something you’re not willing to do.

很多情况下,也许上司本没有意识到他或她的要求是不道德的。列出具体的反对理由,有助于他们认识到自己要求的不合情理之处;或者,你就证实了他们确实在要求你做你不情愿做的事情。

Either way, you might solve the problem if you can offer a more ethical alternative that would produce similar results.

无论如何,如果你能提出一个更合乎道德且有近似效果的备选方案,就有可能解决问题。

If it’s crystal-clear your boss is asking for unethical conduct, or if you don’t feel comfortable discussing it with your boss in the first place, the next steps depend a lot on your company.

如果事情明白无误,你的上司的确想要你做一件不道德的事,或者你感到很难和上司谈这件事,那么接下来采取什么行动,很大程度上取决于你的公司。

Escalating your complaint

向上投诉

In larger organizations, there could be someone dedicated to receiving complaints from employees like you. It could be a compliance officer, general counsel, auditor or someone in human resources. It could be the person one or two levels up from your boss.

在大公司里,可能有专人负责处理来自类似你这种情况的员工的投诉。可能是合规部门主管、法律顾问、审计员,或者人力资源部。也可能是比你的上司高一两级的主管。

Beware: Your boss probably won’t like this. (We’ll discuss the risk of retaliation later.)

当心:你的顶头上司可能会很不高兴(稍后我们将讨论被打击报复的风险)。

You might also need to ask: If I complain, will anyone care or will anything change? If you think management would want to sweep your complaint under the rug, assuming the risks of complaining internally might not be worth it.

你可能还要考虑考虑:如果我投诉了,会有人在意吗?情况会改变吗?如果你认定主管部门会将你的投诉隐而不宣,你也许就不值得承担内部投诉所招致的风险。

“Any time the firm’s senior management is financially benefiting from the misconduct, they may not want to know that it is occurring,” said Bryan Stikeleather, a professor at the University of South Carolina who has studied financial incentives for whistle-blowing.

南加州大学教授布莱恩·斯迪克莱瑟(Bryan Stikeleather)说:“任何时候只要公司高层从一个不当行为中获得经济利益,他们可能就会宁愿不闻不问。”斯迪克莱瑟在举报行为的经济动机方面有研究。

Some companies offer money to entice employees to report bad behavior, which can signal that they’re serious about correcting it. But such monetary incentives can sometimes make employees less likely to report, Mr. Stikeleather said; the rewards can decrease whistle-blowers’ sense of responsibility, making it feel less like a moral obligation.

有些公司会出资激励员工揭发不当行为,这可能意味着他们当真想改正。但斯迪克莱瑟指出,这类金钱上的奖励可能会减少员工举报的可能性,因为这些奖励会使检举揭发变得不像是一种道德义务,从而减弱举报者的责任感。

If escalating internally doesn’t work, or you’re in a small enough organization that there’s no one to hear your protest but your boss, you might have to go outside the organization to the government or media. Patricia Harned, the chief executive of the Ethics and Compliance Initiative, said most people who go this route only do so after exhausting their internal options without seeing results.

如果内部举报不可行,或者你在一个小公司,除了你的上司之外,没有人受理你的投诉,你可能就只能尝试本公司以外的渠道,和政府或媒体联系。“道德与合规行动”(Ethics and Compliance Initiative)的首席执行官帕特里夏·哈耐德(Patricia Harned)说,多数人只有在用尽内部手段无果的情况下,才会选择这条路。

Consider the risks

考虑风险

It’s easy for us to say that you should “do the right thing” and flatly refuse any unethical demands. But in reality, the decision is often more complex than that, and there are very real risks you could face.

嘴上说“做正确的事”,果断拒绝一切不合道德的要求很容易。但在现实中,做一个决定往往复杂得多,而且你可能会面临非常真实的风险。

Fifty-three percent of employees in the United States who reported misconduct in their companies said they experienced some form of retaliation, according to the 2016 National Business Ethics survey by the Ethics and Compliance Initiative. That could include receiving worse evaluations and being passed up for promotions and raises.

“道德与合规行动”发起的2016年“全国商业伦理”调查显示,美国53%曾经举报过公司不当行为的员工称他们遭受过某些形式的报复,包括收到较差的绩效考评,或失去升职加薪的机会。

At the very least, there could be social costs in whistle-blowing. Some people have found themselves uninvited from happy hours or given cold shoulders in the hallway.

退一万步说,检举揭发也是有社交成本的。有些举报者发现,公司员工喝酒聊天时不再邀请他们参加,有人在走廊上受到冷遇。

“One man’s whistle-blower is another man’s snitch,” Mr. Stikeleather said. Mary-Hunter McDonnell, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, said at least one high-stakes whistle-blower she interviewed for her research had regrets. “He said if he could relive it he wouldn’t have done it because it devastated his social life,” she said. "He was no longer invited to join the kind of charitable boards he had been invited to join, or any of the kind of corporate social networks that he had been involved in. He was basically boxed out of the social world he had created for himself as part of his job.”

“对一些人来说是检举揭发的英雄,对于另一些人来说,就是告密的小人,”斯迪克莱瑟说。宾夕法尼亚大学教授玛丽-亨特·麦克唐耐尔(Mary-Hunter McDonnell)说,在她为了学术研究而采访过的重大问题举报者中,至少有一人感到后悔。“他说,如果可以重来,他不会那么做,因为这彻底毁了他的社交生活,”麦克唐耐尔说,“他以前被邀请加入一些慈善行动委员会,后来不再被邀请了。工作中,他曾为自己创造出一个社交圈;如今,他已基本上被自己的社交圈拒之门外。”

If all else fails, leave

如果一切无济于事,离职

No one wants it to come to this, and it may not be practical advice if you need the paycheck. But if you’re in position to find another job, this might be good reason to head for the door.

没有人希望走到这一步;如果你需要钱,这一建议也并不现实。但如果你可以找到下家,这也许是离职的好理由。

You could even try one last staunch refusal as an ultimatum.

你甚至还可以试试最后一次表达坚定的拒绝,作为最后通牒。

“I think you have to just say no if it’s against your own moral values. You can’t be forced to do something,” Ms. McDonnell said. “The worst thing that could happen to you is you’ll be fired, but you can’t really stay at a job that’s going to ask you to transgress your morals anyway.”

“如果一件事不符合你的道德观,你只能说不。没有人能强迫你做某事,”麦克唐耐尔说。“最糟的结果是你被辞退。但是如果一份工作要求你践踏自己的道德准则,你也实在没办法继续干下去。”

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表