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特朗普G20受孤立,欧洲对美国不再客气

更新时间:2017-7-11 10:10:34 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Feeling That Trump Will ‘Say Anything,’ Europe Is Less Restrained, Too
特朗普G20受孤立,欧洲对美国不再客气

HAMBURG, Germany — The Europeans have stopped trying to paper over their differences with President Donald Trump and the United States.

德国汉堡——欧洲人已经不再试图掩饰他们和特朗普以及美国之间的分歧了。

Traditionally respectful of U.S. leadership and mindful of the country’s crucial role in European defense and global trade, European leaders normally repress or soften their criticism of U.S. presidents. Europeans were generally not happy with President Barack Obama’s reluctance to involve the country in Libya and Syria, for example, or his tardiness to engage in what clearly became an international confrontation with Russia in Ukraine, but their criticism was quiet.

欧洲领导人历来尊重美国的领导权,顾及它在欧洲防务和全球贸易中的关键作用,通常会咽下或软化对美国总统的批评。比如,之前奥巴马总统不愿意让美国卷入利比亚和叙利亚问题,而且迟迟未能加入到在乌克兰对俄罗斯显而易见的国际对抗中,欧洲人虽然普遍对此感到不爽,但他们很少出言批评。

But at the Group of 20 summit meeting of the world’s industrialized nations, public splits with Trump were the order of the day. Those rifts have been reflected in European domestic politics, too, from Britain and France to Germany, where Chancellor Angela Merkel has said that Europe must “take our fate into our own hands” and stop “glossing over” clear differences.

但在此次全球工业化国家G20峰会上,欧洲人纷纷表现出与特朗普之间的分歧。从英国、法国到德国,这些裂痕也反映在了欧洲的内部政局中,德国总理默克尔表示,欧洲必须“把命运掌握在自己的手中”,不要再“掩饰”明显的分歧。

The new French president, Emmanuel Macron, whose election has given renewed confidence to the Europeans, said bluntly: “Our world has never been so divided. Centrifugal forces have never been so powerful. Our common goods have never been so threatened.”

法国新总统马纽埃尔·马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)的当选给欧洲人重新带来了信心,他坦率地说道:“我们的世界从未如此严重分化。离心力从未如此强烈。我们的公共利益从未遭受过这么大的威胁。”

Macron, who waved his iPhone around during the meeting as a symbol of global trade, sharply criticized those like Trump who do not support multilateral institutions but push nationalism instead.

马克龙在会议期间挥舞iPhone,将其作为全球贸易的象征,他尖锐地批评了那些不支持多边机构而是推动民族主义的人,比如特朗普。

“We need better coordination, more coordination,” Macron said. “We need those organizations that were created out of the Second World War. Otherwise, we will be moving back toward narrow-minded nationalism.”

“我们需要更好的合作,需要更多的合作,”马克龙说。“我们需要那些在第二次世界大战之后创立的组织。否则,我们将回到狭隘的民族主义道路上。”

Trump and the British vote to leave the European Union “have proved to be great unifiers for the European Union,” said Mark Leonard, director of the European Council on Foreign Relations. “There is a renewed sense of confidence in Europe after the French election,” the apparent retreat of populism, an increase in economic growth and the prospect of Merkel’s re-election in September, he said.

欧洲对外关系委员会(European Council on Foreign Relations)主任马克·伦纳德(Mark Leonard)表示,事实证明,特朗普当选和英国脱欧公投“对欧盟的统一发挥了极大作用”。他说:“在法国大选之后,公众对欧洲的信心愈发增强”,民粹主义出现明显败退,经济增长在上扬,默克尔也有望在9月获得连任。

“There is an increased willingness to be assertive toward Trump, who makes Merkel look like a figure of international importance,” Leonard said. “If the election is about who can save the international world order from Trump,” he added, then Merkel’s opposition seems unimportant and she finds an eager partner in Macron. “They egg each other on and feel more self-confident together and help keep Europe together, too.”

“对特朗普采取强硬态度的意愿越来越强,他让默克尔看起来像是一个有国际重要性的人物,”莱昂纳德说。“如果是选谁能拯救国际世界秩序、使之免于被特朗普破坏,”他接着讲到,那默克尔似乎没什么敌手,而且她找到了一个态度积极的合作伙伴马克龙。“他们相互鼓励,在一起感觉更加自信,也一起帮助维持欧洲的团结。”

Jan Techau, director of the Richard Holbrooke Forum at the American Academy in Berlin, said: “There is now a more openly confrontational language with the United States. The European public is already outspoken about Trump, but now there is a more outspoken European leadership that won’t paper over these divisions anymore.”

柏林美国研究院(American Academy)理查德·霍布鲁克论坛(Richard Holbrooke Forum)的主任扬·特肖(Jan Techau)表示,“现在,与美国对抗的公开言辞更多了。欧洲公众之前对特朗普讲话就已经不客气,现在出现了更加直言不讳的欧洲领导层,他们也不再掩饰这些分歧。”

If Europeans had previously felt constrained because of their security dependency, Techau said, there is now a feeling that “Trump has no constraints and will say anything, and now the Europeans feel they can do the same.” And, he said, “that means less respect for each other, and less mutual confidence.”

特肖表示,如果说之前因为在安全问题上依赖美国,欧洲人还会有所顾忌的话,现在的感觉则是,“特朗普不加约束,口无遮拦,欧洲人觉得自己也可以想说什么就说什么了。”他还表示,“这意味着对彼此的尊重减少,相互的信任程度也降低了。”

François Heisbourg, a French security analyst, agrees. “The reticence has gone away,” he said. “On an issue-by-issue basis, there is apparently no penalty for playing hardball with Trump without necessarily affecting security, on climate for example.”

法国安全分析师弗朗索瓦·埃斯堡(François Heisbourg)也同意这种观点。“沉默消失了,”他说。“单就一个个议题来说,对特朗普采取强硬姿态——比如在气候问题上与之对抗——似乎不会有什么不利的结果,也不一定会对安全问题产生影响。”

The strains were most visible here on climate policy and trade. Trump’s withdrawal from the Paris accord was widely condemned, with Merkel saying she deplored the move, and all the leaders aside from Trump signing up to language that called the agreement “irreversible.”

在气候政策和贸易方面,这种紧张关系最为明显。特朗普退出巴黎协议的举动招来广泛的谴责,默克尔就对此表示了强烈的不满。除特朗普外,20国集团的所有领导人达成一致,称这份协议“不可逆转”。

“Whatever leadership is,” said one senior French diplomat, who was not authorized to speak by name and insisted on anonymity, “it is not being outvoted, 19-1.”

“不管领导力意味着什么,”一名法国高级外交官说。“都不会是以多数票被击败,19比1。”因为没有被授权谈论此事,这名外交官要求匿名。

The climate debate in the meeting displayed how hard it is to isolate the richest, most powerful country in the world.

会上有关气候问题的争论显示了要孤立这个世界上最富有、最强大的国家有多么困难。

The Americans did try to persuade some countries, like Turkey and Poland, which Trump visited just before going to Hamburg, to move toward the U.S. position on climate, but they were rebuffed. Turkey’s president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, said later that his country might still be in play, depending on money. The U.S. withdrawal, he said, jeopardized compensation for developing countries to cope with compliance.

美国曾竭力劝说土耳其、波兰——特朗普在前往汉堡前刚刚访问了这两个国家——等国家在气候问题上转向美国的立场,但遭到了拒绝。土耳其总统雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)后来表示,他的国家或许还会参与其中,这取决于钱的多少。他表示,美国的退出会危及对发展中国家配合规则做出的补偿。

Prime Minister Theresa May of Britain, her authority weakened at home after a botched election gamble, also tried to balance Trump’s deep unpopularity in Britain with her need for U.S. support for the country’s exit from the European Union and for future trade deals. She was criticized for not making the climate issue one of her four priorities, and found comfort in Trump’s promise of a “very powerful” trade deal for a post-Brexit Britain that could be completed “very, very quickly.”

英国首相特丽莎‧梅(Theresa May)也竭力平衡特朗普在英国非常不受欢迎的情况,因为她需要美国对英国脱欧的支持,也需要为未来的贸易协议考虑。在一场政治赌博式大选失利之后,她在英国的权威已经不比从前。她被指责没有将气候问题当作自己的四个首要议题之一,但她在特朗普的一项承诺中找到了安慰,后者称一项支持脱欧后的英国的“十分有力”的贸易协议将会“以非常非常快的速度”完成。

May even expressed the hope that Trump might change his mind on Paris, though Merkel did not agree. And in the end, all wavering members sided with the 19, not the one.

梅甚至表达了特朗普或许会改变在巴黎协议上的想法的希望,但默克尔认为他不会。最终,所有犹豫不决的成员国都站在了19的一边,而不是1的一边。

The White House saw progress nonetheless. “The vast majority of the G-20 supports the president’s vision for universal access to affordable and reliable energy, including finding ways to burn fossil fuels more cleanly and efficiently,” said George David Banks, a special assistant to the president on international energy and environment and lead negotiator for climate change during the G-20 conference.

然而,白宫却从中看到了进步。“20国集团的大多数成员都支持总统有关全民享受廉价、可靠的能源的想法,包括找到以更清洁、更有效地方式燃烧化石燃料的办法,”总统在国际能源与环境问题上的特别助理、在20国集团峰会期间担任美国气候问题首席谈判代表的乔治·戴维·班克斯(George David Banks)说。

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