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撇开美国,欧盟与日本谈互惠贸易协议

更新时间:2017-7-6 10:09:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Challenging Trump, E.U. and Japan Push Joint Trade Deal
撇开美国,欧盟与日本谈互惠贸易协议

The European Union and Japan have signaled that they plan to announce a broad agreement on trade on Thursday, a pointed challenge to President Trump, who is scheduled to attend a meeting of world leaders in Germany the next day.

欧洲联盟和日本已发出信号表示,双方计划在周四公布一项范围广泛的贸易协议,这是针对美国总统特朗普的挑战,后者将于本周五在德国出席一个世界领导人的大会。

The timing of the announcement — on the eve of the Group of 20 summit meeting in Hamburg, Germany — was a clear reaction to the United States’ protectionist stance the last time the G-20 met. During a meeting in March of cabinet-level officials in Baden-Baden, Germany, Steven Mnuchin, the American Treasury secretary, refused to endorse a statement in favor of free trade.

这一关于贸易协定的消息公布的时间,正值德国汉堡举行20国集团首脑会议前夕,也是对上次G20上美国采取的保护主义立场的明确反应。美国财政部长史蒂文·努钦(Steven Mnuchin)今年3月在德国巴登-巴登举行的内阁级官员会议上,拒绝赞同一项支持自由贸易的声明。

By forging ahead with their own accord before the meeting with Mr. Trump and other heads of state, Europe and Japan threatened to isolate the United States in important industries like automobiles.

在即将与特朗普和其他国家元首举行会议之前,欧洲和日本迅速推进其双边协定的做法,威胁将在汽车等重要行业孤立美国。

“Ambitious free and fair trade deal in the making,” Donald Tusk, the president of the European Union, tweeted on Monday.

欧盟主席唐纳德·图斯克(Donald Tusk)周一发推文说:“正在制定充满雄心的自由和公平贸易协议。”

The European Union followed up with a statement saying that the bloc would announce at a summit meeting with Japan in Brussels on Thursday that they had reached a political agreement on a deal. That means that the sides have agreed on the broad outlines of a pact but still have to work out the details — often the most difficult part of trade agreements.

欧盟随后发表声明说,欧盟将于周四在布鲁塞尔与日本举行首脑会议时宣布,双方就一项协议达成了政治共识。这意味着双方已在大致框架上达成了一致意见,但仍需要制定具体细节——这通常是贸易协定中最困难的部分。

Among other things, the pact would eliminate a 10 percent duty that the E.U. imposes on Japanese car imports, while removing obstacles that European automakers face in Japan. That would be particularly significant for luxury carmakers like BMW, Mercedes and Toyota’s Lexus brand, said Ferdinand Dudenhöffer, a professor at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany who focuses on the auto industry.

协定的内容包括,欧盟将取消对日本汽车进口征收的10%关税,同时消除欧洲汽车制造商在日本面临的障碍。德国杜伊斯堡-埃森大学的教授费迪南德·杜登霍夫(Ferdinand Dudenhöffer)说,这对宝马、奔驰,以及丰田的雷克萨斯品牌等豪华汽车制造商来说尤其重要。

Those vehicles suffer the most from high import duties. “It could be a chance for the high-value, premium vehicles,” Mr. Dudenhöffer said. American brands like Cadillac or Lincoln “won’t have the same advantage and will be in a worse position,” he said.

豪华汽车受高额进口关税的影响最大。“这对高价值的高端汽车可能是一种机会,”杜登霍夫说。美国的凯迪拉克或林肯品牌“不会得到同样的优势,将处于更不利的地位,”他说。

The trade deal has been under negotiation for years, but talks were effectively delayed while Japan focused on a separate deal with the United States and other Pacific Rim countries, the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

有关双边贸易协定展开的谈判已经进行了多年,但在日本集中精力与美国和其他太平洋沿岸国家另行制定“跨太平洋伙伴关系”(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)协定期间,欧盟与日本的谈判实际上被耽搁。

But Mr. Trump dealt that agreement a possibly fatal blow shortly after taking office this year, when he formally abandoned it. At the same time, trade talks between the United States and Europe have stalled.

但特朗普在今年上任后不久正式宣布放弃TPP,可能给该协定带来了致命的打击。与此同时,美国和欧洲之间的贸易谈判也停了下来。

The pact to be announced on Thursday offers both Japan and the European Union an attractive alternative.

周四宣布的协议将为日本和欧盟提供一个有吸引力的其他选择。

For the European Union, “the political imperative around this agreement is intense,” said Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, the director of the European Centre for International Political Economy, a research organization in Brussels. With Britain preparing to exit the bloc, he continued, European Union leaders were under pressure to show the 27 other states in the bloc that membership still has benefits, including gains from liberalizing trade.

对欧盟来说,“这项协议的政治紧迫性非常强烈,”位于布鲁塞尔的欧洲研究机构国际政治经济欧洲中心主任霍素克•李-牧山浩石(Hosuk Lee-Makiyama)说。他接下来说,随着英国准备退出欧盟,欧盟领导人面临着压力,他们需要向其他27个成员国展示,欧盟仍可给其成员带来利益,比如贸易自由化的好处。

“With Brexit, a huge chunk of European trade is under uncertainty,” Mr. Lee-Makiyama said. “The commission is struggling for a win,” he added, referring to the European Commission, the executive arm of the bloc.

“由于英国脱欧,欧洲贸易的一大部分很不确定,”李-牧山浩石说,并表示,“委员会正在努力争取一场胜利,”他指的是欧盟的行政机构欧盟委员会。

For Shinzo Abe, the Japanese prime minister, the deal also looks like a much-needed win.

对日本首相安倍晋三来说,这项协议看起来也是一个他非常需要的胜利。

Mr. Abe won office five years ago with promises of liberalizing the Japanese economy and making the country’s industries more competitive, but critics say his efforts have fallen short. He had hoped to make the Trans-Pacific Partnership a centerpiece of his economic legacy, but that may now be out of reach.

安倍晋三五年前当选首相时,曾承诺要让日本经济自由化,让日本的工业更具竞争力,但批评者说,他为之所做的努力还很不够。他曾希望把跨太平洋伙伴关系作为自己经济遗产的核心部分,但现在看来,那可能已经无法实现了。

Accusations of influence-peddling and gaffes by members of Mr. Abe’s cabinet have added to his problems. Voters in Tokyo delivered a rebuke to his party in municipal elections on Sunday.

对安倍晋三内阁成员以权谋私和受贿的指控已经给他增添了麻烦。东京的选民在周日的地方议会选举中对他所在的政党做出公开批评。

Though key issues must still be ironed out, the two sides have reached agreement on several contentious issues, including cars and cheese.

虽然欧洲与日本贸易协议的关键问题还有待解决,但双方在汽车和奶酪等几个有争议的问题上达成了共识。

European negotiators had insisted that Japan lower import duties on a range of agricultural goods, in particular dairy products, an area that Tokyo has staunchly protected.

欧洲谈判代表曾坚持要求日本降低一系列农产品、尤其是乳制品的进口关税,东京一直在坚定地保护着国内的这些领域。

In return, the Europeans offered to lower duties on vehicles from Japan, a change that could benefit Toyota and Honda, which have claimed a smaller market share than in other markets, including the United States.

欧洲人提出降低日本汽车关税作为回报,这种变化可能对丰田和本田有利,这两家公司在欧洲的市场份额小于它们在包括美国在内的其他市场。

Together, Europe and Japan would create a trading bloc of a size to rival the North American Free Trade Agreement, now the world’s largest free trade zone.

这项协议的达成,将让欧洲和日本形成一个相当于北美自由贸易协定规模的贸易区,北美自由贸易协定目前覆盖的自由贸易区是世界上最大的。

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